Virginia State Route 117
State Route 117 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Virginia. Known as Peters Creek Road, the highway runs 7.21 miles from U. S. Route 11 in Roanoke north to US11 in Hollins. SR117 provides a four-lane divided highway bypass of Downtown Roanoke, connecting US11 and US460 on the southwest and northwest sides of Roanoke, SR117 begins at an intersection with US11 west of Downtown Roanoke. The state highway heads north as a road with center turn lane that crosses Norfolk Southern Railways Whitethorne District. North of the crossing, SR117 becomes a divided highway with controlled access. The state highway passes through a park and crosses over the Roanoke River. North of the yard, SR117 intersects Shenandoah Avenue to the east of the Salem Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The state highway begins to parallel Peters Creek to the west of the Wilmont neighborhood and intersects Salem Turnpike before reaching its junction with US460 and US11 Alternate. SR117 continues north along Peters Creek as the passes to the west of the Washington Heights and Westview Terrace neighborhoods.
SR117 passes along the edge of Roanoke Regional Airport. A short distance east of the city limit, the highway meets the northern end of SR118. SR117 reaches its terminus at US11 in Hollins
Virginia General Assembly
The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World, established on July 30,1619. The General Assembly is a body consisting of a lower house, the Virginia House of Delegates, with 100 members, and an upper house. Combined together, the General Assembly consists of 140 elected representatives from a number of constituent districts across the commonwealth. The House of Delegates is presided over by the Speaker of the House, the House and Senate each elect a clerk and sergeant-at-arms. The Senate of Virginias clerk is known as the Clerk of the Senate, the Republican Party currently holds the majority in both the House of Delegates and the Senate. The General Assembly meets in Virginias capital of Richmond, when sitting in Richmond, the General Assembly holds sessions in the Virginia State Capitol, designed by Thomas Jefferson in 1788 and expanded in 1904. During the American Civil War, the building was used as the capitol of the Confederate States of America, the building was renovated between 2005 and 2006.
Senators and Delegates have their offices in the General Assembly Building across the street north of the Capitol. The Governor of Virginia lives across the street directly east of the Capitol in the Virginia Executive Mansion, the Virginia General Assembly is described as the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. Its existence dates from the establishment of the Virginia Governors Council, at various times it may have been referred to as the Grand Assembly of Virginia. The General Assembly met in Jamestown from 1619 until 1699, when it moved to Williamsburg, Virginia and it became the General Assembly in 1776 with the ratification of the Virginia Constitution. The government was moved to Richmond in 1780 during the administration of Governor Thomas Jefferson, the annual salary for senators is $18,000. The annual salary for delegates is $17,640, under the Constitution, a senator or delegate who moves his residence from the district for which he is elected shall thereby vacate his office.
Article II, section 6 on apportionment states, Members of the, Senate and of the House of Delegates of the General Assembly shall be elected from electoral districts established by the General Assembly. The Redistricting Coalition of Virginia proposes either an independent commission or a commission that is not polarized. Member organizations include the League of Women Voters of Virginia, AARP of Virginia, OneVirginia2021, the Virginia Chamber of Commerce, Governor Bob McDonnells Independent Bipartisan Advisory Commission on Redistricting for the Commonwealth of Virginia made its report on April 1,2011. It made two recommendations for state legislative house that showed maps of districts more compact and contiguous than those adopted by the General Assembly. In 2011, the Virginia College and University Redistricting Competition was organized by Professors Michael McDonald of George Mason University, about 150 students on sixteen teams from thirteen schools submitted plans for legislative and U. S
U.S. Route 221 in Virginia
U. S. Route 221 is a part of the U. S. Highway System that runs from Perry, Florida to Lynchburg, Virginia. US221 connects Independence and Hillsville in Southwest Virginia while running concurrently with US58, the U. S. Highway connects those communities with Roanoke via Floyd County, within which US221 is the main east–west highway. The U. S. Highway runs concurrently with US460 from Roanoke to Bedford, US221 enters Grayson County, Virginia from North Carolina concurrent with US21. Highways follow two-lane New River Parkway, which crosses the New River a short distance north of the state line, US221 and US21 enter the town of Independence as Independence Avenue, which intersects US58 in the center of town. US21 continues north on Independence Avenue toward Wytheville while US221 turns east onto Main Street, US221 and US58 exit the town as Grayson Parkway, which expands to a four-lane divided highway just west of its intersection with SR274. Highways parallel the New River for a distance before crossing the river at one of its bends.
US221 and US58 pass to the north of the community of Baywood before meeting the end of SR94. East of SR94, US221 and US58 enter the independent city of Galax, the highway is named Reserve Boulevard until just west of downtown, where the highway becomes an undivided highway named Stuart Drive and intersects SR89. US221 and US58 pass the end of New River Trail State Park before crossing Chestnut Creek. Highways become a highway before entering Carroll County, where the highway is known as Carrollton Pike. US221 and US58 pass through Woodlawn before meeting I-77 at a diamond interchange, highways enter the town of Hillsville as Stuart Drive, a three-lane road with center turn lane. US221 and US58 intersect US52 in the center of town before the highways diverge, US58 continues east along Stuart Drive toward Martinsville while US221 heads northeast on Floyd Pike, which meets the southern end of SR100 just east of the town limits. US221 continues northeast into Floyd County, through which the highway passes as Floyd Highway, the U. S.
Highway passes through Willis and Shelors Mill before becoming the Main Street of the county seat Floyd, where the highway intersects SR8. US221 crosses the Little River and passes through Copper Hill before entering Roanoke County at Adney Gap. North of the hamlet of Airpoint, US221 descends the east–west section of Bent Mountain between Poor Mountain to the west and the spine of the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east. Once the highway is at the bottom of the mountain, it follows Back Creek into the Roanoke Valley, once in the valley, US221 becomes Brambleton Avenue, a five-lane road with center turn lane. The highway passes through the suburb of Cave Spring, where the highway intersects SR419, US221 passes to the north of Virginia Western Community College before reaching Brandon Avenue, which the highway follows east a short distance before veering north onto Main Street. The U. S. Highway heads north through the Wasena neighborhood before crossing the Roanoke River, US221 veers east on Elm Avenue through the Old Southwest neighborhood to Franklin Road
Franklin County, Virginia
Franklin County is a county located in the Blue Ridge foothills of the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 56,159 and its county seat is Rocky Mount. Franklin County is part of the Roanoke, VA Metropolitan Statistical Area and is located in the Roanoke Region of Virginia, the Roanoke River forms its northeast boundary with Bedford County. The Blue Ridge Foothills had long inhabited by indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, mostly Siouan-speaking tribes lived in this area, a few colonists moved into the area before the American Revolutionary War, but most settlement happened afterward, as people moved west seeking new lands. Cultivation of tobacco had exhausted soils in the part of the state. The county was formed in 1785 from parts of Bedford and Henry counties and it was named for Benjamin Franklin. The Piedmont and backcountry areas were settled by Scots-Irish, who were the last major immigrant group from the British Isles to enter the colonies before the Revolutionary War.
There were migrants from coastal areas, including people of color. In the 20th century during Prohibition, local wits named Franklin County the Moonshine Capital of the World, as moonshine production, as of 2000, the local chamber of commerce had adopted the title as a heritage identification for the area. Moonshine is still being made in the area, historians estimate that in the 1920s,99 of every 100 Franklin County residents were in some way involved in the illegal liquor trade. The bootleggers became involved with gangsters from Chicago and other major cities, between 1930 and 1935 local still operators and their business partners sold a volume of whiskey that would have generated $5,500,000 in excise taxes at the old 1920 tax rate. A lengthy federal investigation resulted in indictments and trials for 34 suspects in 1935 for what was called the Great Moonshine Conspiracy, the writer Sherwood Anderson was among the many outsiders who came to cover the trial. At what was the longest trial in history,31 people were convicted.
Thirteen conspirators were sentenced only to probation and this period has recently received new attention by writers. T. Keister Greers history The Great Moonshine Conspiracy Trial of 1935 covered the trial, the writer Matt Bondurant had ancestors in the area, whose exploits during this period inspired his historical novel, The Wettest County in the World. The book was adapted as a film, Lawless, in 2012. In 2014 an historical novel with lots of history about the county and town came out, Moonshine Corner, Keys to Rocky Mount, ISBN9781500980115, by the widow of T. Keister Greer, since the 1980s, much residential development has occurred around Smith Mountain Lake
Bedford County, Virginia
Bedford County is a United States county located in the Piedmont region of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Its county seat is the town of Bedford, which was an independent city from 1968 until rejoining the county in 2013, Bedford County was created in 1753 from parts of Lunenburg County, and several changes in alignment were made until the present borders were established in 1786. The county was named in honor of John Russell, an English statesman, Bedford County is part of the Lynchburg, Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, Bedfords population was 68,676, the county population has nearly doubled since 1980. The Piedmont area had long inhabited by indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, mostly Siouan-speaking tribes lived in this area, Bedford County was established by European Americans on December 13,1753 from parts of Lunenburg County. Later in 1756, a portion of Albemarle County lying south of the James River was added, the county is named for John Russell, the fourth Duke of Bedford, who was a Secretary of State of Great Britain.
In 1782, Campbell County was formed from eastern Bedford County, in 1786, the portion of Bedford County south of the Staunton River was taken with part of Henry County to form Franklin County. The town of Bedford became an independent city in 1968, on September 14,2011, the Bedford City Council voted to transition into a town, ending its independent city status. The supervisors of Bedford County voted to accept the town of Bedford as part of the county when it loses city status, the town of Bedford once more became part of Bedford County on July 1,2013. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 769 square miles. The population density was 80 people per square mile, there were 26,841 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92. 18% White,6. 24% Black or African American,0. 20% Native American,0. 43% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,0. 20% from other races, and 0. 74% from two or more races. 0. 74% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,28.
2% were of American,15. 6% English,11. 0% German and 9. 6% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 20. 20% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the age distribution was,24. 00% under the age of 18,5. 80% from 18 to 24,29. 90% from 25 to 44,27. 50% from 45 to 64. The median age was 40 years, for every 100 females there were 99.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.50 males, the median income for a household in the county was $43,136, and the median income for a family was $49,303
Virginia State Route 116
State Route 116 is a primary state highway in the U. S. state of Virginia. The state highway runs 20.66 miles from SR122 at Burnt Chimney north to SR101 in Roanoke, SR116 connects northwestern Franklin County with the southeastern part of Roanoke. The state highway forms a major street through Downtown Roanoke and the north side. SR116 begins at an intersection SR122 at the hamlet of Burnt Chimney, the state highway heads northwest as Jubal Early Highway, a two-lane road that passes through northwestern Franklin County. After passing through the foothills, SR116 has a short but steep, the state highway descends from the summit has a short climb to Windy Gap, where the highway enters Roanoke County. SR116 descends to Back Creek and continues northwest as Jae Valley Road, SR116 follows Riverland Road to Piedmont Street, onto which the highway turns south for one block to Walnut Street. Immediately after passing under U. S. Route 220, SR116 turns north onto four-lane Jefferson Street to pass through the Old Southwest neighborhood, SR116 reaches the southern edge of Downtown Roanoke at Elm Avenue, which heads west as US221 and east as SR24.
SR116 and US221 continue north on Jefferson Street past the Patrick Henry Hotel to Franklin Road, after one block on Franklin Road, the highways turn north onto four-lane Williamson Road, on which they head north along the eastern side of Downtown Roanoke. SR116 and US221 are joined by US11 at Campbell Avenue, the three highways expand to a divided highway and cross over Norfolk Southerns Blue Ridge District rail line between the Roanoke Shops to the east and the O. Winston Link Museum and Hotel Roanoke to the west, the highways pass the Roanoke Civic Center before intersecting Orange Avenue in the middle of the Williamson Road neighborhood. Orange Avenue carries US460 and U. S. Route 220 Alternate through the intersection, US11 continues north on Williamson Road, US221 turns east onto Orange Avenue, and SR116 turns west onto Orange Avenue. The other three highways continue west as an undivided street that passes along the southern edge of the Washington Park neighborhood. At 20th Street, the three highways veer southwest on Salem Turnpike, west again on Melrose Avenue, the highways expand to a divided highway shortly before SR116 leaves US460 and US11 Alternate by turning north onto two-lane Lafayette Boulevard.
At the northern end of Lafayette Boulevard, the highway heads northwest on Cove Road. SR116 reaches its terminus at an oblique intersection with SR101
A suburb is a residential area or a mixed use area, either existing as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In some areas, such as Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and a few U. S. states, new suburbs are routinely annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land, the English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, which is in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs. The first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, in Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities, the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density suburbs in proximity to the city center, and the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area.
The term middle suburbs is used, Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London, suburbs include formerly separate towns and villages that have been gradually absorbed during a growth and expansion. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city. The earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements, large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town. The word suburbani was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas, as populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the city expanded.
The peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were generally inhabited by the very poorest, by the mid-19th century, the first major suburban areas were springing up around London as the city became more overcrowded and unsanitary. A major catalyst in suburban growth came from the opening of the Metropolitan Railway in the 1860s, the line joined the capitals financial heart in the City to what were to become the suburbs of Middlesex. Harrow was reached in 1880, and the line extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street. Unlike other railway companies, which were required to dispose of surplus land, in 1912, it was suggested that a specially formed company should take over from the Surplus Lands Committee and develop suburban estates near the railway. However, World War I delayed these plans and it was only in 1919, with expectation of a housing boom. The term Metro-land was coined by the Mets marketing department in 1915 when the Guide to the Extension Line became the Metro-land guide and this promoted the land served by the Met for the walker and the house-hunter
Native Americans in the United States
In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians
The Roanoke River is a river in southern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina in the United States,410 miles long. An important river throughout the history of the United States, it was the site of settlement in the Virginia Colony. An 81-mile section of its course in Virginia between the Leesville Lake and Kerr Lake is known as the Staunton River, pronounced STAN-ten. It is impounded along much of its course to form a chain of reservoirs. The river has its headwaters in the Blue Ridge Mountains in southwestern Virginia at Lafayette in Montgomery County where the North Fork, the North Fork, approximately 30 miles long, rises between two mountain ridges and flows initially southwest, loops back to the northeast. The river flows generally east-southeast across the Piedmont of southern Virginia and enters northeastern North Carolina, the river is impounded in six locations. The first is the Niagara Dam just south of the City of Roanoke in Roanoke County adjacent to the town of Vinton and it was constructed in 1906 to supply power for the Roanoke Electric Car streetcar system, and is currently owned and operated by Appalachian Power.
It is impounded twice in succession in the Piedmont of southwestern Virginia downstream from Roanoke to form the Smith Mountain Lake, farther downstream in southern along the North Carolina border, the river is impounded by the John H. Kerr Dam to form the expansive Kerr Lake, in northeastern North Carolina, three miles west of Roanoke Rapids, the river is impounded to form the Lake Gaston reservoir, and is impounded a final time to form Roanoke Rapids Lake. The Roanoke River valley was the homeland of various Native Americans, mostly Virginia Siouan, such as the Occaneechi, the name Roanoke is derived from rawrenok, an Algonquian word for wampum. The deadly spring floods earned it the name River of Death, the rivers lower course began to be settled by Virginians about the middle of the 17th century, in what was known as the Albemarle Settlements. The upper reaches of the Roanoke River were explored by fur trading parties sent by Abraham Wood in the late 17th century, but these were not settled by English until the early 18th century.
In 1883, the town of Big Lick on the river was selected as a major shops and terminal point for the new Norfolk. Big Lick was renamed Roanoke for the river that bisected it, List of North Carolina rivers List of Virginia rivers South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Roanoke River Basin Association
A monumental plaque or tablet commemorating a deceased person or persons, can be a simple form of church monument. A plaquette is a plaque, but in English, unlike many European languages. The Benin Empire, which flourished in present-day Nigeria between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries, had a rich sculptural tradition. One of the kingdom’s chief sites of production was the elaborate ceremonial court of the Oba at the palace in Benin. Among the wide range of artistic forms produced at the court were rectangular brass or bronze plaques, surviving in great numbers, they were manufactured from sheet brass or latten, very occasionally coloured with enamels, and tend to depict highly conventional figures with brief inscriptions. In England, the London blue plaques scheme, which is administered by English Heritage, has been running for over 140 years and is thought to be the oldest of its kind in the world, Plaques are attached to buildings to commemorate their association with important occupants or events. A range of other commemorative plaque schemes, which are run by local councils and charitable bodies.
These tend to use their own criteria for determining the eligibility to put up a plaque, a list of schemes currently operating in England is available on the English Heritage website. After the First World War, the families of British and British Empire service men and women killed during the conflict were presented with bronze Memorial Plaques, the plaques, of about 125 millimetres in diameter, were designed by the eminent sculptor and medallist, Edward Carter Preston. In the United States, various governments have commemorative plaque schemes usually using the name historical markers. The National Trust for Historic Preservation or the U. S. Government, through the National Register of Historic Places, state programmes, such as the California Register of Historical Resources allows designated sites to place their own markers. As the price of metal has increased plaques have been the target of metal thieves wishing to resell the metal for cash. Plaques or, more often, are given as awards instead of trophies or ribbons.
Such plaques usually bear text describing the reason for the award and, blue plaque Hartog Plate Parting stone Stolperstein
Time in the United States
The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. The clocks run by these services are synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services. The use of solar time became increasingly awkward as railways. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s, each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a problem for people travelling by train. Every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from, Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals.
Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18,1883, the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the worlds time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. It is, within about 1 second, mean time at 0°. It does not observe daylight saving time and it is one of several closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, standard time zones in the United States are currently defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260. The federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs. As of August 9,2007, the time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official, abbreviations are by common use conventions, the United States uses nine standard time zones.
The Central standard time zone, which comprises roughly the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, the Mountain standard time zone, which comprises roughly the states that include the Rocky Mountains