Lost (TV series)
Lost is an American drama television series that aired on the American Broadcasting Company from September 22, 2004, to May 23, 2010, over six seasons, comprising a total of 121 episodes. The show contains elements of supernatural and science fiction, follows the survivors of a commercial jet airliner flying between Sydney and Los Angeles, after the plane crashes on a mysterious tropical island somewhere in the South Pacific Ocean; the story is told in a serialized manner. Episodes feature a primary storyline set on the island, augmented by flashback or flashforward sequences which provide additional insight into the involved characters. Lost was created by Jeffrey Lieber, J. J. Abrams and Damon Lindelof, who share story writing credits for the pilot episode, which Abrams directed. Throughout the show's run and Carlton Cuse served as showrunners and head writers, working together with a large number of other executive producers and writers. Due to its large ensemble cast and the cost of filming on location in Oahu, the series was one of the most expensive on television, with the pilot alone costing over $14 million.
The fictional universe and mythology of Lost are expanded upon by a number of related media, most a series of short mini-episodes called Missing Pieces, a 12-minute epilogue titled "The New Man in Charge". Lost has been ranked by critics as one of the greatest television series of all time; the first season had an estimated average of 16 million viewers per episode on ABC. During its sixth and final season, the show averaged over 11 million U. S. viewers per episode. Lost was the recipient of hundreds of industry award nominations throughout its run and won numerous of these awards, including the Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series in 2005, Best American Import at the British Academy Television Awards in 2005, the Golden Globe Award for Best Drama in 2006, a Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Ensemble in a Drama Series. Users of IMDbPro gave Lost the highest average ranking for any television series during the first ten years of the website's operation. Season 1 begins with the aftermath of a plane crash, which leaves the surviving passengers of Oceanic Airlines Flight 815 on what seems to be an uninhabited tropical island.
Jack Shephard, a doctor, becomes their leader. Their survival is threatened by a number of mysterious entities, including polar bears, an unseen creature that roams the jungle, the island's malevolent inhabitants known as "The Others", they encounter a French woman named Danielle Rousseau, shipwrecked on the island 16 years before the main story and is desperate for news of a daughter named Alex. They find a mysterious metal hatch buried in the ground. While two survivors and Boone, try to force the hatch open, four others, Jin and Sawyer attempt to leave on a raft that they have built. Meanwhile, flashbacks centered on details of the individual survivors' lives prior to the plane crash. Season 2 follows the growing conflict between the survivors and the Others and continues the theme of the clash between faith and science, while resolving old mysteries and posing new ones; the four survivors in the raft are ambushed by the Others, they take Walt, Michael's son. The survivors are forced to return to the island.
A power struggle between Jack and John Locke over control of the guns and medicine located in the hatch develops, resolved in "The Long Con" by Sawyer when he gains control of them. The hatch is revealed to be a research station built some thirty years earlier by the Dharma Initiative, a scientific research project that involved conducting experiments on the island. A man named Desmond Hume had been living in the hatch for three years, activating a computer program every 108 minutes to prevent an unknown catastrophic event from occurring. To recover his son, Michael betrays the survivors, Jack and Kate are captured. Michael is given a boat and leaves the island with his son, while John destroys the computer in the hatch, whereupon an electromagnetic event shakes the island; this causes the island to be detected by scientists working for Penelope Widmore, it is revealed that it was a similar event that caused the breakup of the plane. In Season 3, the crash survivors learn more about the Others and their long history on the mysterious island, along with the fate of the Dharma Initiative.
The leader of the Others, Benjamin Linus, is introduced as well and defections from both sides pave the way for conflict between the two. Time travel elements begin to appear in the series, as Desmond is forced to turn the fail-safe key in the hatch to stop the electromagnetic event, this sends his mind eight years to the past; when he returns to the present, he is able to see the future. Kate and Sawyer escape the Others, while Jack stays after Ben promises that Jack will be able to leave the island in a submarine if he operates on Ben, who has cancer. Jack does. Jack is left behind with Juliet, an Other, who seeks to leave the island, while John joins the Others. A helicopter carrying Naomi crashes near the island. Naomi was sent by Penelope Widmore, Desmond's ex-girlfriend. Desmond has a vision in which Charlie will drown after shutting down a signal that prevents communication with the exterior world, his vision comes true. Before drowning, Charlie writes on his hand. Meanwhile, the survivors make contact with a rescue team aboard the freighter.
In the season's finale, apparent flashbacks show a de
The Devil's Own
The Devil's Own is a 1997 American thriller film starring Harrison Ford, Brad Pitt, Rubén Blades, Natascha McElhone, Julia Stiles, Margaret Colin, Treat Williams. It was the final film directed by Alan J. Pakula and the final film photographed by Gordon Willis, written by Vincent Patrick, David Aaron Cohen, Kevin Jarre, it revolves around a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army who comes to the United States in order to obtain anti-aircraft missiles to be used to shoot down British helicopters in Northern Ireland. The plan is complicated by an Irish-American policeman, whom the IRA member has come to regard as family. In 1972, eight-year old Frankie McGuire witnesses his father being gunned down in front of him due to being an Irish republican sympathizer. By 1992, an adult Frankie and three other IRA men are caught up in a firefight in Belfast when members of the British Army try to capture him. One gunman is killed and another, Desmond, is wounded as Frankie and the last gunman, Sean Phelan, flee.
Hiding out in the countryside and his friend Martin MacDuff see a British Army helicopter circling overhead and decide they need Stinger missiles. Frankie, traveling under the alias "Rory Devaney," is picked up at Newark Airport by IRA sympathizer Judge Peter Fitzsimmons, who has arranged for "Rory" to stay with New York City Police Sergeant Tom O'Meara, his wife and their three daughters in Staten Island; the judge gives Frankie a handgun. "Rory" befriends Tom during his stay. Meanwhile, Sean has acquired a large fishing boat, repairs it with Frankie so that they can use it to sail back to Ireland with the missiles. "Rory" meets with black market arms dealer Billy Burke. Burke agrees to purchase the missiles with his own money, waiting for Frankie to pay him on delivery in six to eight weeks. Judge Fitzsimmons has his family's nanny, Megan Doherty deliver the bag of money he has raised to Frankie. During an Irish celebration of the confirmation of one of Tom's daughters, Megan phones Rory to tell him Martin has been killed and to postpone his deal with Burke.
Tom decides to retire from the police force after an incident in which his partner, Eddie Diaz and kills a thief who steals car radios. When Tom and Sheila arrive home that afternoon, they are attacked by masked intruders; as sirens are heard approaching, Tom persuades them to leave. Though his bag of cash is still hidden under the floor in his room, Frankie knows that Burke is behind this attack, confronts him. Burke reveals that he has kidnapped Sean, ordering Frankie to get him the money or his friend will die. Frankie attempts to collect the money at the O´Meara house, but Tom has found it, forcing him to reveal his true identity. Tom and Eddie arrest Frankie; the FBI and the British authorities question Tom about his association with Frankie, but he refuses to cooperate, aware that the British would kill Frankie. That night, Frankie meets Burke in a warehouse, one of Burke's thugs tosses Sean's severed head at Frankie's feet. Frankie gives them a bomb-laden bag. Frankie grabs one of their guns, kills Burke and his men.
He drives off in a van with the missiles, stopping by the Fitzsimmons house to ask Megan to tell his superiors that he is returning with the missiles. He plans to leave the next morning, he recognizes Megan from a photo that Sean had taken of Frankie and Megan dancing, which he found in Frankie's bag. He chases after her. Tom persuades Megan to tell him where Frankie is going by promising to protect Frankie from being assassinated. Tom finds Frankie, as he sails away from the pier, Tom jumps aboard; the two fire on each other, wounding each other respectively. Frankie has the upper hand, but he collapses from his wound as he hesitates to shoot Tom; as the two men embrace out of mutual respect, Frankie dies. Saddened by Frankie's death, Tom turns the boat to shore; the film's origins date back to 1992, when Pitt, not yet well-known, got a script from producer Lawrence Gordon. Ford agreed, though that meant the script had to be rewritten to create a fuller role for Ford and a more complicated relationship between the characters played by the two men.
It was Ford's suggestion to bring Pakula in as director. Principal photography started in February 1996, with the script "still in flux". Screenwriter Robert Mark Kamen was brought on board to provide rewrites to the script during filming. Pitt "threatened to quit early in the shoot, complaining that the script was incomplete and incoherent" and "denounced the movie as'the most irresponsible bit of film making – if you can call it that – that I've seen."According to Pakula, one problem was that the film's plot did not fall along conventionally simple Hollywood lines: Ford and Pitt were both playing "good guys" according to each of their own distinct moral codes. R. A. Gunman for whom violence is a reasonable solution to his people's 300 years of troubles." Pakula compared his intent with the two characters to that depicted in Red River, a 1948 western in which John Wayne's character is defied by his young protégé, played by Montgomery Clift. The Devil's Own was filmed on location and at the Chelsea Piers studios in New York City, as well as in Newark, Jersey City, Bayon
Paul Joseph Schrader is an American screenwriter, film director, film critic. Schrader wrote or co-wrote screenplays for four Martin Scorsese films: Taxi Driver, Raging Bull, The Last Temptation of Christ, Bringing Out the Dead. Schrader has directed 18 feature films, including his directing debut crime drama, Blue Collar, the crime drama Hardcore, his 1982 remake of the horror classic Cat People, the crime drama American Gigolo, the biographical drama Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters, the true life biopic Patty Hearst, the cult film Light Sleeper, the drama Affliction, the biographical film Auto Focus, the erotic dramatic thriller The Canyons, the dramatic thriller First Reformed, the latter earning him his first career Academy Award nomination. Schrader was born in Grand Rapids, the son of Joan and Charles A. Schrader, an executive. Schrader's family attended the Calvinist Christian Reformed Church. Schrader's mother was of Dutch descent, the daughter of emigrants from Friesland, while Schrader's paternal grandfather was from a German family that had come to the U.
S. through Canada. His early life was based upon the religion's strict principles and parental education, he did not see a film. In an interview he stated. In his own words, he was "very unimpressed" by it, while Wild in the Country, which he saw some time had quite some effect on him. Schrader attributes his intellectual rather than emotional approach towards movies and movie-making to his having no adolescent movie memories. Schrader earned his B. A. from Calvin College, with a minor in theology. He earned an M. A. in film studies at the UCLA Film School upon the recommendation of Pauline Kael. With Kael as his mentor, he became a film critic, writing for the Los Angeles Free Press and for Cinema magazine, his book Transcendental Style in Film: Ozu, Dreyer, which examines the similarities between Robert Bresson, Yasujirō Ozu, Carl Theodor Dreyer, was published in 1972. The endings of his films American Gigolo and Light Sleeper bear obvious resemblance to that of Bresson's 1959 film Pickpocket, his essay Notes on Film Noir from the same year has become a much-cited source in literature on film.
The September–October 2006 issue of Film Comment magazine published his essay Canon Fodder, which attempted to establish criteria for judging film masterworks. Other film-makers who made a lasting impression on Schrader are John Ford, Jean Renoir, Roberto Rossellini, Alfred Hitchcock, Sam Peckinpah. Renoir's The Rules of the Game he called the "quintessential movie" which represents "all of the cinema". Shrader is a Christian. In 1974, Schrader and his brother Leonard co-wrote The Yakuza, a film set in the Japanese crime world; the script became the subject of a bidding war selling for $325,000. The film starred Robert Mitchum. Robert Towne, best known for Chinatown received a credit for his rewrite. Although The Yakuza failed commercially, it brought Schrader to the attention of the new generation of Hollywood directors. In 1975, he wrote the script for Obsession for Brian De Palma. Schrader wrote an early draft of Steven Spielberg's Close Encounters of the Third Kind, but Spielberg disliked the script, calling it "terribly guilt-ridden," and opted for something lighter.
He wrote an early draft of Rolling Thunder, which the film's producers had reworked without his participation. He disapproved of the final film. Schrader's script about an obsessed New York City taxi driver became Martin Scorsese's film Taxi Driver, nominated for the Oscar for Best Picture and won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. Besides Taxi Driver, Scorsese drew on scripts by Schrader for the boxing tale Raging Bull, co-written with Mardik Martin, The Last Temptation of Christ, Bringing Out the Dead. Thanks to critical acclaim for Taxi Driver, Schrader was able to direct his first feature, Blue Collar, co-written with his brother Leonard. Blue Collar features Richard Pryor, Harvey Keitel, Yaphet Kotto as car factory workers attempting to escape their socio-economic rut through theft and blackmail, he has described the film as difficult to make, because of the artistic and personal tensions between him and the cast. During principal photography he suffered an on-set mental collapse which led him to reconsider his career.
John Milius acted as executive producer on the following year's Hardcore, again written by Schrader, a film with many autobiographical parallels in his depiction of the Calvinist milieu of Grand Rapids, in the character of George C. Scott, based on Schrader's father. Among Paul Schrader's films in the 1980s were American Gigolo starring Richard Gere, his Cat People a remake of the 1942 film Cat People, Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters. Inspired by Japanese writer Yukio Mishima, the film interweaves episodes from Mishima's life with dramatizations of segments from his books. Mishima was nominated for the top prize at the Cannes Film Festival. Francis Ford Coppola and George Lucas served as executive producers. Schrader directed Patty Hearst, about the kidnapping and transformation of the Hearst Corporation heiress. In 1987, he was a member of the jury at the 37th Berlin International Film Festival, his 1990s work included the travelers-in-Venice tale The Comfort of Strangers, adapted
Fargo (TV series)
Fargo is an American black comedy–crime drama anthology television series created and written by Noah Hawley. The show is inspired by the eponymous 1996 film written and directed by the Coen brothers, who are credited as executive producers on the series alongside Hawley; the series premiered on April 15, 2014, on FX, follows an anthology format, with each season set in a different era, with a different story and new characters and cast, although there is minor overlap. Each season contains numerous references to Coen brothers' films; the first season, set in 2006 and starring Billy Bob Thornton, Allison Tolman, Colin Hanks, Martin Freeman, received positive reviews from critics. It won the Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Miniseries, Outstanding Directing, Outstanding Casting, received 15 additional nominations including Outstanding Writing, another Outstanding Directing nomination, acting nominations for all four leads, it won the Golden Globe Awards for Best Miniseries or Television Film and Best Actor – Miniseries or Television Film for Thornton.
The second season, set in 1979 and starring Kirsten Dunst, Patrick Wilson, Jesse Plemons, Jean Smart, Ted Danson received positive reviews from critics. It received three Golden Globe nominations, along with several Emmy nominations including Outstanding Miniseries, acting nominations for Dunst, Plemons and Bokeem Woodbine; the third season, set in 2010 and starring Ewan McGregor, Carrie Coon, Mary Elizabeth Winstead, Goran Bogdan, David Thewlis, premiered on April 19, 2017. It was met with positive reviews from critics, received Emmy nominations including Outstanding Miniseries, acting nominations for McGregor and Thewlis, it received three Golden Globe nominations, for Outstanding Limited Series, McGregor and Thewlis for acting, with McGregor winning in his category. A fourth season is in development, to start filming in late 2019 with Chris Rock to star, it will be set in 1950 in Missouri. In 2006, Lorne Malvo passes through Bemidji and influences the community – including put-upon insurance salesman Lester Nygaard – with his malice and deception.
Meanwhile, Deputy Molly Solverson and Duluth police officer Gus Grimly team up to solve a series of murders they believe may be linked to Malvo and Nygaard. In 1979, beautician Peggy Blumquist and her husband, butcher Ed Blumquist of Luverne, cover up her hit-and-run and murder of Rye Gerhardt, son of Floyd Gerhardt, matriarch of the Gerhardt crime family in Fargo, North Dakota. Meanwhile, State Trooper Lou Solverson and his father-in-law, Sheriff Hank Larsson, investigate a triple homicide at a local diner connected to Rye. In 2010, St. Cloud probation officer Ray Stussy and his parolee girlfriend Nikki Swango dream of a better, wealthier life. To achieve this, they attempt to steal a valuable vintage stamp from Ray's more successful older brother, the self-proclaimed "Parking Lot King of Minnesota". However, their plans backfire, the couple soon has to hide their involvement in two deaths, including the stepfather of former Eden Valley police chief Gloria Burgle. Meanwhile, Emmit wishes to pay back a shady company he borrowed money from two years ago, but the mysterious company and its employees, led by V. M. Varga and Yuri Gurka, have other plans.
The fourth season will star Chris Rock, who will play the head of a crime syndicate made up of black migrants fleeing the Jim Crow South who have a contentious relationship with the Kansas City mafia. It will be set in Missouri. Production is scheduled to begin in late 2019. Billy Bob Thornton as Lorne Malvo Allison Tolman as Deputy Molly Solverson Colin Hanks as Officer Gus Grimly Martin Freeman as Lester Nygaard Kirsten Dunst as Peggy Blumquist Patrick Wilson as State Trooper Lou Solverson Jesse Plemons as Ed Blumquist Jean Smart as Floyd Gerhardt Ted Danson as Sheriff Hank Larsson Ewan McGregor as Emmit and Ray Stussy Carrie Coon as Gloria Burgle Mary Elizabeth Winstead as Nikki Swango Goran Bogdan as Yuri Gurka David Thewlis as V. M. Varga In 2012, it was announced that FX, with the Coen brothers as executive producers, was developing a new television series based on the 1996 Academy Award-winning film Fargo, it was announced that adaptation would be a 10-episode limited series. On August 2, 2013, it was announced.
On September 27, 2013, Martin Freeman signed on to star. On October 3, 2013, it was announced that Colin Hanks was cast in the role of Duluth police officer Gus Grimly. Production began in late 2013 with filming taking place around Calgary, Alberta; the series is set in the same fictional universe as the film, in which events took place in 1987 between Minneapolis and Brainerd, Minnesota. The first season features the buried ransom money from the film in a minor subplot. Additionally, a number of references are made connecting the series to the film. Following the series renewal in July 2014, creator Noah Hawley revealed that the second season would take place in 1979 and focus on Sioux Falls, South Dakota, as referenced by Lou Solverson and others in the first season; the ten episodes are set in Luverne, Fargo, North Dakota, Sioux Falls. Hawley agreed that this takes place before the events of the film, but he believes all the stories connect: "I like the idea that somewhere out there is a big, leather-bound book that's the history of true crime in the Midwest, the movie was Chapter 4, Season 1
Minecraft is a sandbox video game created by Swedish game developer Markus Persson and released by Mojang in 2011. The game allows players to build with a variety of different blocks in a 3D procedurally generated world, requiring creativity from players. Other activities in the game include exploration, resource gathering and combat. Multiple gameplay modes are available; these include survival mode in which the player must acquire resources to build the world and maintain health, creative mode where players have unlimited resources to build with and the ability to fly, adventure mode where players can play custom maps created by other players with certain restrictions, spectator mode where players can move throughout a world without being affected by gravity and collisions, or without being allowed to destroy or build anything. There is hardcore mode, similar to survival mode but the player is given only one life, the game difficulty is locked on hard. If the player dies on hardcore, the player does not respawn, the world is locked to spectator mode.
The Java Edition of the game allows players to create mods with new gameplay mechanics, items and assets. Minecraft has won numerous awards and accolades. Social media, adaptations and the MineCon convention played large roles in popularizing the game, it has been used in educational environments in the realm of computing systems, as virtual computers and hardware devices have been built in it. By late 2018, over 154 million copies had been sold across all platforms, making it the second best-selling video game of all time, behind Tetris. In September 2014, Microsoft announced a deal to buy Mojang and the Minecraft intellectual property for US$2.5 billion, with the acquisition completed two months later. A spin-off game titled Minecraft: Story Mode has been released. By mid-2018, the game had around 91 million active players monthly. Minecraft is a 3D sandbox game that has no specific goals to accomplish, allowing players a large amount of freedom in choosing how to play the game. However, there is an achievement system.
Gameplay is in the first-person perspective by default, but players have the option for third-person perspective. The game world is composed of rough 3D objects—mainly cubes and fluids, called "blocks"—representing various materials, such as dirt, ores, tree trunks and lava; the core gameplay revolves around placing these objects. These blocks are arranged in a 3D grid, while players can move around the world. Players can "mine" blocks and place them elsewhere, enabling them to build things; the game world is infinite and procedurally generated as players explore it, using a map seed, obtained from the system clock at the time of world creation. There are limits on vertical movement, but Minecraft allows an infinitely large game world to be generated on the horizontal plane. Due to technical problems when distant locations are reached, there is a barrier preventing players from traversing to locations beyond 30,000,000 blocks; the game achieves this by splitting the world data into smaller sections called "chunks" that are only created or loaded when players are nearby.
The world is divided into biomes ranging from deserts to jungles to snowfields. The in-game time system follows a day and night cycle, one full cycle lasts 20 real-time minutes. Players encounter various non-player characters known as mobs, such as animals and hostile creatures. Passive mobs can be hunted for food and crafting materials, such as cows and chickens, they spawn in the daytime, while hostile mobs spawn during nighttime or in dark places such as caves—including large spiders and zombies. Some hostile mobs such as zombies and drowned, burn under the sun if they have no headgear. Other creatures unique to Minecraft include the enderman. There are variants of mobs that spawn in different conditions, for example zombies have husk variants that spawn in deserts. Many commentators have described the game's physics system as unrealistic. Liquids continuously flow for a limited horizontal distance from source blocks, which can be removed by placing a solid block in its place or by scooping it into a bucket.
Complex systems can be built using primitive mechanical devices, electrical circuits, logic gates built with an in-game material known as redstone. Minecraft has two alternative dimensions besides the overworld: the End; the Nether is a hell-like dimension accessed via player-built portals. The player can build an optional boss mob called the Wither out of materials found in the Nether; the End is a barren land consisting of many islands. A boss dragon called the Ender Dragon dwells on the main island. Killing the dragon cues the game's ending a poem written by Irish novelist Julian Gough. Players are allowed to teleport back to their original spawn point in the overworld and continue the game indefinitely; the game consists of five game modes: survival, adventure and spectator. It has a changeable difficulty system of four levels. For example, the peaceful difficulty prevents hostile creatures from spawning, when playing on the hard difficulty players can starve to death if their h
The Tollbooth is a 2004 coming-of-age film directed by Debra Kirschner and starring Marla Sokoloff. The plot concerns a young artist struggling to forge her own identity in the big city, while her Jewish parents keep watch from just over the bridge in Brooklyn. Out of art school, Sarabeth gets a job as a waitress and begins her struggle as a New York City artist. With her angsty and cynical personality, she doesn’t have much patience for her family—a nagging mother, a father, always misquoting Kafka, one sister who just got pregnant with her sweet but dopey husband, another sister, ‘perfect’ until she announces she’s a lesbian at Rosh Hashanah dinner, her boyfriend Simon's choice to live in the suburbs with a great sound system instead of hip and unpredictable New York has given Sarabeth doubts about their future together. She uses her canvas as an escape. Though frustrated that she grew up being reminded of relatives who died in the Holocaust and how much she hates going to synagogue, she’s forced to integrate Judaism into her modern life.
When she overhears a guest at a 4th of July barbecue make an anti-Semitic comment, she realizes she doesn’t want to fit it in to this crowd, that she is proud of her heritage. Marla Sokoloff as Sarabeth Cohen Tovah Feldshuh as Ruthie Cohen Ronald Guttman as Isaac Cohen Idina Menzel as Raquel Cohen-Flaxman Rob McElhenney as Simon Stanton Jayce Bartok as Howie Flaxma Liz Stauber as Becky Cohen "The Tollbooth - A Film By Debra Kirschner"; the Tollbooth Film. April 2005. Retrieved July 3. "The Tollbooth - ComingSoon.net Film Database". Comingsoon.net. February 2006. Retrieved July 3; the Internet Movie Database The Jewish Channel Marla Sokoloff Blog
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were