Presidency of Barack Obama
The presidency of Barack Obama began at noon EST on January 20, 2009, when Barack Obama was inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States, ended on January 20, 2017. Obama, a Democrat, took office following a decisive victory over Republican John McCain in the 2008 presidential election. Four years in the 2012 election, he defeated Republican Mitt Romney to win re-election, he was the first African American president, the first multiracial president, the first non-white president, the first president to have been born in Hawaii. Obama was succeeded by Republican Donald Trump. Obama's first-term actions addressed the global financial crisis and included a major stimulus package, a partial extension of the Bush tax cuts, legislation to reform health care, a major financial regulation reform bill, the end of a major US military presence in Iraq. Obama appointed Supreme Court Justices Elena Kagan and Sonia Sotomayor, the latter of whom became the first Hispanic American on the Supreme Court.
Democrats controlled both houses of Congress until Republicans won a majority in the House of Representatives in the 2010 elections. Following the elections and Congressional Republicans engaged in a protracted stand-off over government spending levels and the debt ceiling; the Obama administration's policy against terrorism downplayed Bush's counterinsurgency model, expanding air strikes and making extensive use of special forces and encouraging greater reliance on host-government militaries. The Obama administration orchestrated the military operation that resulted in the death of Osama bin Laden in 2011. In his second term, Obama took steps to combat climate change, signing a major international climate agreement and an executive order to limit carbon emissions. Obama presided over the implementation of the Affordable Care Act and other legislation passed in his first term, he negotiated rapprochements with Iran and Cuba; the number of American soldiers in Afghanistan fell during Obama's second term, though U.
S. soldiers remained in Afghanistan throughout Obama's presidency and continue to as of 2018. Republicans took control of the Senate after the 2014 elections, Obama continued to grapple with Congressional Republicans over government spending, judicial nominations, other issues. After winning election to represent the state of Illinois in the Senate in 2004, Obama announced that he would run for president in February 2007. In the 2008 Democratic primary, Obama faced former First Lady Hillary Clinton. Several other candidates, including Senator Joe Biden of Delaware and former Senator John Edwards ran for the nomination, but these candidates dropped out after the initial primaries. In June, on the day of the final primaries, Obama clinched the nomination by winning a majority of the delegates, including both pledged delegates and superdelegates. Obama and Biden, whom Obama selected as his running mate, were nominated as the Democratic ticket at the August 2008 Democratic National Convention. With Republican President George W. Bush term limited, the Republicans nominated Senator John McCain of Arizona for the presidency.
In the general election, Obama defeated McCain, taking 52.9% of the popular vote and 365 of the 538 electoral votes. In the Congressional elections, Democrats added to their majorities in both houses of Congress, Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid both remained in their posts. Republicans John Boehner and Mitch McConnell continued to serve as House Minority Leader and Senate Minority Leader, respectively; the presidential transition period began following Obama's election to the presidency in November 2008, though Obama had chosen Chris Lu to begin planning for the transition in May 2008. John Podesta, Valerie Jarrett, Pete Rouse co-chaired the Obama-Biden Transition Project. During the transition period, Obama announced nominations for his administration. In November 2008, Congressman Rahm Emanuel accepted Obama's offer to serve as White House Chief of Staff. Obama was inaugurated on January 2009, succeeding George W. Bush. Obama assumed the presidency at 12:00 pm, EST, completed the oath of office at 12:05 pm, EST.
He delivered his inaugural address following his oath. Obama's transition team was complimentary of the Bush administration's outgoing transition team with regards to national security, some elements of the Bush-Obama transition were codified into law. Following his inauguration and the Senate worked to confirm his nominees to the United States Cabinet. Three Cabinet-level officers did not require confirmation: Vice President Joe Biden, who Obama had chosen as his running mate at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel, Defense Secretary Robert Gates, who Obama chose to retain from the previous administration. An early list of suggestions came from Michael Froman an executive at Citigroup. Obama described his Cabinet choices as a "team of rivals," and Obama chose several prominent public officials for Cabinet positions, including former Democratic primary rival Hillary Clinton as Secretary of State. Obama nominated several former Clinton administration officials to the Cabinet and to other positions.
On April 28, 2009, the Senate confirmed former Kansas governor Kathleen Sebelius as Secretary of Health and Human Services, completing Obama's initial Cabinet. During Obama's presidency, four Republicans served in Obama's Cabinet: Ray Lahood as Secretary of Transportation, Robert McDonald as Secretary of Veteran's Affairs, Gates and Chuck Hagel as Secretaries of Defense. Counselor to the President Pete Rouse John Podesta Senior Advisor to the
Budget Control Act of 2011
The Budget Control Act of 2011 is a federal statute enacted by the 112th United States Congress and signed into law by US President Barack Obama on August 2, 2011. The Act brought conclusion to the 2011 US debt-ceiling crisis; the law involves the introduction of several complex mechanisms, such as creation of the Congressional Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, options for a balanced budget amendment, automatic budget sequestration. Debt ceiling: The debt ceiling was increased by $400 billion immediately; the President could request a further increase of $500 billion, subject to a congressional motion of disapproval which the President may veto, in which case a two-thirds majority in Congress would be needed to override the veto. This has been called the'McConnell mechanism' after the Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, who first suggested it as part of another scheme; the President could request a final increase of $1.2–1.5 trillion, subject to the same disapproval procedure.
The exact amount depends on the amount of cuts in the "super committee" plan if it passes Congress, whether a Balanced budget amendment has been sent to the states. Deficit reduction: Spending was reduced more than the increase in the debt limit. No tax increases or other forms of increases in revenue above current law were included in the bill; the bill directly specified $917 billion of cuts over 10 years in exchange for the initial debt limit increase of $900 billion. This is the first installment of cuts. $21 billion of this will be applied in the FY2012 budget. Additionally, the agreement established the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, sometimes called the "super committee", to produce deficit reduction legislation by November 23, 2011, that would be immune from amendments or filibuster; the goal of the legislation was to cut at least $1.5 trillion over the coming 10 years and be passed by December 23, 2011. Projected revenue from the committee's legislation could not exceed the revenue budgeting baseline produced by current law.
The committee would have 6 from each party. The agreement specified an incentive for Congress to act. If Congress failed to produce a deficit reduction bill with at least $1.2 trillion in cuts Congress could grant a $1.2 trillion increase in the debt ceiling but this would trigger across-the-board cuts, as of January 2, 2013. These cuts would apply to mandatory and discretionary spending in the years 2013 to 2021 and be in an amount equal to the difference between $1.2 trillion and the amount of deficit reduction enacted from the joint committee. There would be some exemptions: reductions would apply to Medicare providers, but not to Social Security, Medicaid and military employee pay, or veterans. Medicare benefits would be limited to a 2% reduction; as envisioned, these caps would affect security and non-security programs. Security programs would include the U. S. Department of Defense, U. S. Department of Homeland Security, U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Nuclear Security Administration, some management functions of the intelligence community and international affairs from the U.
S. State Department. However, because the Joint Select Committee did not report any legislation to Congress, the act reset these caps to defense and non-defense categories; this became one of the important elements of the fiscal cliff. Balanced Budget Amendment: Congress was required to vote on a balanced budget amendment between October 1, 2011, the end of 2011, but is not required to pass it and send it to the states in order for the debt limit increases to occur.. Other provisions: Pell Grant funding was increased, but other financial aid was cut. Graduate and professional students were no longer eligible for interest subsidized loans. Repayment incentives will be done away with after July 1, 2012. Section 106 of the Budget Control Act amends the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 to provide a two-year Senate budget, adopting in law what would be a Concurrent Resolution. Senate Budget Committee Chairman explains in this video; the bill was the final chance in a series of proposals to resolve the 2011 United States debt-ceiling crisis, which featured bitter divisions between the parties and pronounced splits within them.
Earlier ideas included the Obama-Boehner $4 trillion "Grand Bargain", the House Republican Cut and Balance Act, the McConnell-Reid "Plan B" fallback. All failed to gain enough general political or specific Congressional support to move into law, as the midnight August 2, 2011, deadline for an unprecedented U. S. sovereign default drew nearer. The solution came from White House National Economic Council Director Gene Sperling, who, on July 12, 2011, proposed a compulsory trigger that would go into effect if another agreement was not made on tax increases and/or budget cuts equal to or greater than the debt ceiling increase by a future date; the intent of the sequester was to secure the commitment of both sides to future negotiation by means of an enforcement mechanism that would be unpalatable to Republicans and Democrats alike. President Obama agreed to the plan. House Speaker John Boehner expressed reservations, but agreed. On July 26, 2011, White House Budget Director Jack Lew and White House Legislative Affairs Director Rob Nabors met with Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid to discuss the plan
Jacob Joseph "Jack" Lew is an American attorney and Democratic Party politician, the 76th United States Secretary of the Treasury, serving from 2013 to 2017. He served as the 25th White House Chief of Staff from 2012 to 2013 and served as Director of the Office of Management and Budget in both the Clinton and Obama Administrations. Born in New York City, Lew earned his A. B. from Harvard College a J. D. from Georgetown University Law Center. He began his legal career as a legislative assistant to Representative Joe Moakley, as a senior policy adviser to former House Speaker Tip O'Neill. Lew worked as an attorney in private practice before joining Boston's office of management and budget as a deputy. In 1993, he began work for the Clinton Administration as Special Assistant to the President. In 1994, Lew served as Associate Director for Legislative Affairs and Deputy Director of the Office of Management and Budget served as the agency's Director, from 1998 to 2001 again, from 2010 to 2012. Following his work in the Clinton administration, Lew became executive vice-president of operations at New York University, serving from 2001 to 2006 the COO at Citigroup, from 2006 to 2008.
During 2009 to 2010, Lew served as the first Deputy Secretary of State for Resources. On January 10, 2013, during President Barack Obama's second term, Lew was nominated to replace retiring Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner, was confirmed by the Senate February 27, 2013, sworn in on the following day, serving until the conclusion of the Obama administration, resigning with the inauguration of Donald Trump. Lew was replaced, on an interim basis, by Adam Szubin, before being succeeded as Secretary of the Treasury by Steve Mnuchin. Lew was born in the son of Ruth and Irving Lew, his family is Jewish. He attended New York City public schools, his father was a lawyer and rare book dealer. Lew attended Carleton College in Minnesota for a year, where his faculty adviser was Paul Wellstone, who represented Minnesota in the U. S. Senate, he graduated from Harvard College in 1978 and the Georgetown University Law Center in 1983. He worked as an aide to Rep. Joe Moakley from 1974 to 1975. In 1979, he was a senior policy adviser to House Speaker Tip O'Neill.
Under O'Neill he served at the House Democratic Steering and Policy Committee as Assistant Director and Executive Director, was responsible for work on domestic and economic issues including Social Security, budget, trade and energy issues. Lew practiced as an attorney for five years as a partner at Van Ness Curtis, his practice dealt with electric power generation. He has worked as Executive Director of the Center for Middle East Research, Issues Director for the Democratic National Committee's Campaign 88, Deputy Director of the Office of Program Analysis in the city of Boston's Office of Management and Budget. From February 1993 to 1994, Lew served as Special Assistant to the President under President Clinton. Lew was responsible for policy development and the drafting of the national service initiative and health care reform legislation. Lew left the White House in October 1994 to work as OMB's Executive Associate Director and Associate Director for Legislative Affairs. From August 1995 until July 1998, Lew served as Deputy Director of OMB.
There, Lew was chief operating officer responsible for day-to-day management of a staff of 500. He had crosscutting responsibilities to coordinate Clinton administration efforts on budget and appropriations matters, he served as a member of the Administration negotiating team, including regarding the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. President Clinton nominated Lew to be Director of the OMB, the United States Senate confirmed him for that job on July 31, 1998, he served in that capacity until the end of the Clinton administration in January 2001. As OMB Director, Lew had the lead responsibility for the Clinton Administration's policies on budget and appropriations issues; as a member of the Cabinet and senior member of the economic team, he advised the President on a broad range of domestic and international policies. He represented the Administration in budget negotiations with Congress and served as a member of the National Security Council. After leaving public office in the Clinton administration, Lew served as the Executive Vice President for Operations at New York University and was a Clinical Professor of Public Administration at NYU's Wagner School of Public Service.
While at NYU, Lew aided the university in ending graduate students' collective bargaining rights. The Obama administration has maintained. According to a 2004 report in NYU's student newspaper, the Washington Square News, Lew was paid $840,339 during the 2002-2003 academic year. In addition, the university forgave several hundred thousand dollars in mortgage loans it made to Lew. In June 2006, Lew was named chief operating officer of Citigroup's Alternative Investments unit, a proprietary trading group; the unit he oversaw invested in a hedge fund "that bet on the housing market to collapse." During his work at Citigroup, Lew had invested in funds in Ugland House while he worked as an investment banker at Citigroup during the 2008 financial meltdown. Lew had oversight of Citigroup subsidiaries in countries including, the Cayman Islands, Hong Kong. Lew co-chaired the Advisory Board for City Year New York, he is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the
Kristie Canegallo was the Deputy White House Chief of Staff for Implementation for U. S. President Barack Obama, her responsibilities included the execution of major projects such as health care reform and the war in Afghanistan. Canegallo served in the National Security Council from 2008 to 2012, in the Pentagon, most as a senior advisor to White House Chief of Staff Denis McDonough. A native of Springfield, she holds an MA from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies and a BA from Colgate University; as of 2018, Canegallo is the head of trust and safety at Google
David Ross Obey is a former United States Representative. Obey served in the House of Representatives for Wisconsin's 7th congressional district from 1969 to 2011; the district includes much including Wausau and Superior. He is a member of the Democratic Party, served as Chairman of the powerful House Committee on Appropriations from 1994 to 1995 and again from 2007 to 2011, he is the longest-serving member of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Wisconsin. On May 5, 2010, Obey announced that he would not seek reelection to Congress in November 2010, he left Congress in January 2011, was succeeded by Republican Sean Duffy. He began working for Gephardt Government Affairs, a lobbying firm founded by former U. S. House Majority Leader Dick Gephardt, in June 2011. Obey was born in Okmulgee, the son of Mary Jane and Orville John Obey. Soon after his birth, his family moved back to his parents' native Wisconsin, Obey was raised in Wausau, where he has lived since, he graduated from Wausau East High School and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from and did his graduate work in Soviet politics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Before serving in Congress, Obey worked as a real estate broker. Obey grew up as a Republican. However, he was so angered after seeing his teachers falsely branded as Communists by backers of Joseph McCarthy that he became a Democrat in the mid-1950s, sometime between the ages of 16 and 18, he was elected to the Wisconsin State Assembly in 1963 and served there until 1969. Obey was the longest-serving member of either house of Congress in Wisconsin's history, he was the third longest-serving member of the House, after fellow Democrats John Dingell and John Conyers, both of Michigan. In Congress, Obey chaired the commission to write the House's Code of Ethics. Among the reforms he instituted was one requiring members of the House to disclose their personal financial dealings so the public would be made aware of any potential conflicts of interest. Obey served as chairman of the House Appropriations Committee from 2007 to 2011, he chaired its Subcommittee on Labor. Obey was one of the most liberal members of the House.
Obey had risen to the position of fifth ranking House Democrat since his party retook control of Congress. His "Obey Amendment" has prohibited the export of the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor to American allies such as Japan. Obey is remembered for being the congressman who intervened when fellow Democrat Harold Ford, Jr. approached Republican Jean Schmidt on the House floor in 2005. Ford was upset because Schmidt had called Congressman John Murtha a coward for advocating a redeployment of American forces in Iraq. Obey holds a critical view of the mainstream American news media, as evidenced by his words on June 13, 2008, upon the sudden death of NBC News Washington Bureau Chief Tim Russert. Obey said of Russert: "Tim Russert's death is not just a body blow for NBC News. Dave Obey announced an end to his congressional career on May 5, 2010, with press releases being released on May 6. On June 30, 2010, Obey proposed an amendment to a supplemental war spending bill that would allocate $10 billion to prevent expected teacher layoffs from school districts nationwide.
The amendment, which passed the House on July 1, 2010, proposed siphoning off $500 million from the Race to the Top fund as well as $300 million designated for charter schools and teacher incentive pay. In response, the White House released a statement threatening a veto if the bill is passed by the Senate. On March 21, 2010, Obey swung the same gavel used to pass Medicare in 1965, but this time to pass the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Obey was elected to the House to replace eight-term incumbent Republican Melvin R. Laird, appointed Secretary of Defense under President Richard Nixon. Obey, only 30 when he was elected, became the youngest member of Congress upon taking his seat, as well as the first Democrat to represent the district, he was reelected 18 times. He only faced serious opposition twice. In 1972, during his bid for a second full term, his district was merged with the neighboring 10th District of Republican Alvin O'Konski, a 15-term incumbent. However, Obey retained 60 percent of his former territory, was handily reelected in subsequent contests.
In 1994, Obey only won reelection by seven points as the Democrats lost control of the House during the Republican Revolution. Obey was expected to run in 2010. However, Obey was facing tough poll numbers in his district, plus his age and the death of close colleague John Murtha and his frustration with the White House convinced him to bow out of the race. Upon his retirement, the seat was won by Republican Sean Duffy, who defeated Democratic State Senator Julie Lassa. Foreword to Along Wisconsin’s Ice Age Trail by Eric Sherman and Andrew Hanson III ISBN 978-0-299-22664-0 Raising Hell for Justice: The Washington Battles of a Heartland Progressive ISBN 978-0-299-22540-7 Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Profile at the Democratic Party of Wisconsin A Hard-Edged Cheesehead and the Power of the Pu
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap