Robert Reiner is an American actor and filmmaker. As an actor, Reiner first came to national prominence with the role of Michael Stivic on All in the Family, a role that earned him two Emmy Awards during the 1970s; as a director, Reiner was recognized by the Directors Guild of America with nominations for the coming of age drama film Stand by Me, the romantic comedy When Harry Met Sally... and the military courtroom drama A Few Good Men. He directed the psychological horror-thriller Misery, the romantic comedy fantasy adventure The Princess Bride, the heavy metal mockumentary This Is Spinal Tap. Reiner was born to a Jewish family in the Bronx, New York, is the son of Estelle Reiner, an actress, Carl Reiner, a renowned comedian, writer and director; as a child, Reiner lived at 48 Bonnie Meadow Road in New York. He studied at the UCLA Film School. In the late 1960s, Reiner acted in bit roles in several television shows including Batman, The Andy Griffith Show, Room 222, Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. and The Beverly Hillbillies.
He began his career writing for the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour in 1968 and 1969, with Steve Martin as his writing partner as the two youngest writers on the show. Two years Reiner became famous playing Michael Stivic, Archie Bunker's liberal son-in-law, on Norman Lear's 1970s situation comedy All in the Family, the most-watched television program in the United States for five seasons; the character's nickname, became associated with him after he had left the role and went on to build a career as a director. Reiner has stated, "I could win the Nobel Prize and they'd write'Meathead wins the Nobel Prize'." For his performance, Reiner won two Emmy Awards in addition to three other nominations and five Golden Globe nominations. After an extended absence, Reiner returned to television acting with a recurring role on New Girl. In 1972, Phil Mishkin, Gerry Isenberg created the situation comedy The Super for ABC. Starring Richard S. Castellano, the show depicted the life of the harried Italian American superintendent of a New York City apartment building and ran for 10 episodes in the summer of 1972.
Reiner and Mishkin co-wrote the premiere episode. Beginning in the 1980s, Reiner became known as a director of several successful Hollywood films that spanned many different genres; some of his earlier films include cult classics such as the rock-band mockumentary This Is Spinal Tap and the comedic fantasy film The Princess Bride, as well as his period piece coming of age tale Stand by Me. He collaborates with film editor Robert Leighton, whom he shares with fellow director-actor Christopher Guest as their go-to editor. Reiner has gone on to direct other critically and commercially successful films with his own company, Castle Rock Entertainment; these include the romantic comedy When Harry Met Sally..., critically ranked among the all-time best of its genre, the tense thriller Misery, for which Kathy Bates won the Academy Award for Best Actress, his most commercially successful work, the military courtroom drama A Few Good Men, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. Subsequent films directed by Reiner include the political romance The American President, the courtroom drama Ghosts of Mississippi, the uplifting comedy The Bucket List.
Reiner has continued to act in supporting roles in a number of movies and television shows, including Throw Momma from the Train, Sleepless in Seattle, Bullets Over Broadway, The First Wives Club, Primary Colors, EDtv, New Girl, The Wolf of Wall Street. He has parodied himself with cameos in works such as Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star and 30 Rock. Reiner has devoted considerable energy to progressive activism, his lobbying as an anti-smoking advocate, in particular, prompted his likeness to be used in a satirical role in a South Park episode titled "Butt Out". Reiner is a co-founder of the American Foundation for Equal Rights, which initiated the court challenge against California Proposition 8 which banned same-sex marriage in the state. In 1998, Reiner chaired the campaign to pass Prop 10, the California Children and Families Initiative, which created First 5 California, a program of early childhood development services, funded by a tax on tobacco products, he served as the first chairman of First 5 California, from 1999 to 2006.
Reiner came under criticism for campaigning for a ballot measure to fund state-run preschools while still chair of the First Five Commission, causing him to resign from his position on March 29, 2006. An audit was conducted, it concluded that the state commission did not violate state law and that it had clear legal authority to conduct its public advertising campaigns related to preschool. In the end, Prop 82 failed garnering only 39.1 % support. Reiner is a member of the Social Responsibility Task Force, an organization advocating moderation where social issues and the entertainment industry meet, he is active in environmental issues, he led the effort to establish California's Ahmanson Ranch as a state park and wildlife refuge rather than as a commercial real estate development. He introduced Spinal Tap at the London Live Earth concert in July 2007. Reiner was mentioned as a possible candidate to run against California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in 2006 b
Bernhard Prigan was a German serial killer who killed at least three women between the end of the 1940s and the early 1950s. He always sought his victims in the immediate vicinity of controlled-access highways and major roads, it is unknown how many of these so-called "Highway murders" he committed, he was described by the press as "The Strangler", "The Highway Killer",On November 7, 1952, Prigan was arrested in a village near Mannheim. He confessed to three murders, including the murder of 49-year-old seamstress Wilma Sulzer from Altlußheim five days earlier. A bread crust found at the crime scene near the main road to Mannheim contributed to his arrest. Based on this, authorities tracked down the bread factory's location. There, a trader described seeing a man with a headband. A patrolman, whom Prigan had asked for directions recalled talking to him. On the day of his arrest, he had killed 51-year-old housewife Margarethe Pohl in the forest with a club, he was observed by a student. Prigan caught up to him, asking him about a pump and advising not to go to the woods any more, as there were "drunk guys".
On December 19, 1953, Prigan was sentenced to three times life imprisonment after four days of trial. Unlike today, a total sentence of several life imprisonments was not yet formed
A semen analysis called "seminogram" evaluates certain characteristics of a male's semen and the sperm contained therein. It is done to help evaluate male fertility, whether for those seeking pregnancy or verifying the success of vasectomy. Depending on the measurement method, just a few characteristics may be evaluated or many characteristics may be evaluated. Collection techniques and precise measurement method may influence results. Semen analysis is a complex test that should be performed in andrology laboratories by experienced technicians with quality control and validation of test systems. A routine semen analysis should include: physical characteristics of semen, concentration and sperm motility and progression. To provide a correct result it is necessary to perform at least two, preferably three, separate seminal analyses with an interval between them of 7 days to 3 months; the techniques and criteria used to analyze semen samples are based on the'WHO manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction' published on 2010.
The most common reasons for laboratory semen analysis in humans are as part of a couple's infertility investigation and after a vasectomy to verify that the procedure was successful. It is commonly used for testing human donors for sperm donation, for animals semen analysis is used in stud farming and farm animal breeding. A man will have a semen analysis done as part of routine pre-pregnancy testing. At the laboratory level this is rare, as most healthcare providers will not test the semen and sperm unless requested or there is a strong suspicion of a pathology in one of these areas discovered during the medical history or during the physical examination; such testing is expensive and time-consuming, in the U. S. is unlikely to be covered by insurance. In other countries, such as Germany, the testing is covered by all insurances; the characteristics measured by semen analysis are only some of the factors in semen quality. One source states that 30% of men with a normal semen analysis have abnormal sperm function.
Conversely, men with poor semen analysis results may go on to father children. In NICE guidelines, mild male factor infertility is defined as when 2 or more semen analyses have 1 or more variables below the 5th percentile, confers a chance of pregnancy occurring through vaginal intercourse within 2 years similar to people with mild endometriosis. Different methods used for semen collection are masturbation, condom collection and epididymal extraction, etc; the sample should never be obtained through coitus interruptus for several reasons: Some part of ejaculation could be lost, bacterial contamination could happen and the acid vaginal pH could be detrimental for sperm motility. The optimal sexual abstinence for semen sample obtaining is from 2–7 days; the most common way to obtain a semen sample is through masturbation and the best place to obtain it is in the clinic where the analysis will take place in order to avoid temperature changes during the transport that can be lethal for some spermatozoa.
Once the sample is obtained, it must be put directly in a sterile plastic recipient and be handed in the clinic for it to be studied within the following hour. Examples of parameters measured in a semen analysis are: sperm count, morphology, fructose level and pH. Sperm count, or sperm concentration to avoid confusion with total sperm count, measures the concentration of sperm in a man's ejaculate, distinguished from total sperm count, the sperm count multiplied with volume. Over 15 million sperm per milliliter is considered normal, according to the WHO in 2010. Older definitions state 20 million. A lower sperm count is considered oligozoospermia. A vasectomy is considered successful; some define success as. Others advocate obtaining a second semen analysis to verify the counts are not increasing and others still may perform a repeat vasectomy for this situation. Chips for home use are emerging that can give an accurate estimation of sperm count after three samples taken on different days; such a chip may measure the concentration of sperm in a semen sample against a control liquid filled with polystyrene beads.
The World Health Organization has a value of 50% and this must be measured within 60 minutes of collection. WHO has a parameter of vitality, with a lower reference limit of 60% live spermatozoa. A man can have a total number of sperm far over the limit of 20 million sperm cells per milliliter, but still have bad quality because too few of them are motile. However, if the sperm count is high a low motility might not matter, because the fraction might still be more than 8 million per millilitre; the other way around, a man can have a sperm count far less than 20 million sperm cells per millilitre and still have good motility, if more than 60% of those observed sperm cells show good forward movement -, beneficial because nature favours quality over quantity. A more specified measure is motility grade, where the motility of sperm are divided into four different grades: Grade a: Sperm with progressive motility; these swim fast in a straight line. Sometimes it is denoted motility IV. Grade b:: These move forward but tend to travel in a curved o