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Marlborough, Massachusetts

Marlborough is a city in Middlesex County, United States. The population was 38,499 at the 2010 census. Marlborough became a prosperous industrial town in the 19th century and made the transition to high technology industry in the late 20th century after the construction of the Massachusetts Turnpike. Marlborough was declared a town in 1660, it was incorporated as a city in 1890 when it changed its Municipal charter from a New England town meeting system to a mayor–council government. John Howe in 1656 was a fur trader and built a house at the intersection of two Indian trails, Nashua Trail and Connecticut path, he could speak the language of the Algonquian Indians though the local tribe referred to themselves as the Pennacooks. The settlers were welcomed by the Indians because they protected them from other tribes they were at war with. In the 1650s, several families left the nearby town of Sudbury, 18 miles west of Boston, to start a new town; the village was named after the market town in Wiltshire, England.

It was first settled in 1657 by 14 men led by John Ruddock and John Howe. Rice was elected a selectman at Marlborough in 1657. Sumner Chilton Powell wrote, in Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town, "Not only did Rice become the largest individual landholder in Sudbury, but he represented his new town in the Massachusetts legislature for five years and devoted at least eleven of his last fifteen years to serving as selectman and judge of small causes." The Reverend William Brimstead was the first minister of the Puritan church and Johnathan Johnson was the first blacksmith. Marlborough was one of the seven "Praying Indian Towns" because they were converted to Christianity by the Rev. John Eliot of Roxbury. In 1674 a deed was drawn up dividing the land between the natives; this is the only record of names of the natives. The settlement was destroyed by Native Americans in 1676 during King Philip's War. In 1711 Marlborough's territory included Northborough, Southborough and Hudson.

As population and travel grew in the colonies, Marlborough became a favored rest stop on the Boston Post Road. Many travelers stopped at its inns and taverns, including George Washington, who visited the Williams Tavern soon after his inauguration in 1789. In 1836, Samuel Boyd, known as the "father of the city," and his brother Joseph, opened the first shoe manufacturing business - an act that would change the community forever. By 1890, with a population of 14,000, Marlborough had become a major shoe manufacturing center, producing boots for Union soldiers, as well as footwear for the civilian population. Marlborough became so well known for its shoes that its official seal was decorated with a factory, a shoe box, a pair of boots when it was incorporated as a city in 1890; the Civil War resulted in the creation of one of the region's most unusual monuments. Legend has it that a company from Marlborough, assigned to Harpers Ferry, appropriated the bell from the firehouse where John Brown last battled for the emancipation of the slaves.

The company left the bell in the hands of one Mrs. Elizabeth Snyder for 30 years, returning in 1892 to bring it back to Marlborough; the bell now hangs in a tower at the corner of Main Street. Around that time, Marlborough is believed to have been the first community in the country to receive a charter for a streetcar system, edging out Baltimore by a few months; the system, designed for passenger use, provided access to Milford to the south, Concord to the north. As a growing industrialized community, Marlborough began attracting skilled craftsmen from Quebec, Ireland and Greece. Shoe manufacturing continued in Marlborough long after the industry had fled many other New England communities. Rice & Hutchins, Inc. operated several factories in Marlborough from 1875 to 1929. Famous Frye boots were manufactured here through the 1970s, The Rockport Company, founded in Marlborough in 1971, maintained an outlet store in the city until 2017. In 1990, when Marlborough celebrated its centennial as a city, the festivities included the construction of a park in acknowledgment of the shoe industry, featuring statues by the sculptor David Kapenteopolous.

The construction of Interstates 495 and 290 and the Massachusetts Turnpike has enabled the growth of the high technology and specialized electronics industries. With its easy access to major highways and the pro-business, pro-development policies of the city government, the population of Marlborough has increased to over 38,000 at the time of the 2010 census. In November 2016, the administration of Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker announced a $3 million grant to the city to fund infrastructure improvements along U. S. Route 20 to aid commercial development. Marlborough is located at 42°21′3″N 71°32′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.2 square miles, of which, 21.1 square miles of it is land and 1.1 square miles of it is water. The Assabet River cuts across the northwest corner of the city. Within city limits are three large lakes, known as Lake Williams, Millham Reservoir and Fort Meadow Reservoir. Marlborough is crossed by Interstate 495, U.

S. Route 20 and Massachusetts Route 85; the eastern terminus of Interstate 290 is in Marlborough. Marlborough is located in eastern Massachusetts, bordered by six municipalities: Berlin, Sudbury, Framingham and Northborough; as of the census of 2000, there were 36,255 people, 14

Kalyan Singh Gupta

Kalyan Singh Gupta was an Indian independence activist and social worker. He is the co-founder of the Lok Kalyan Samiti, a non-governmental organization based in the National Capital Region, together with Sucheta Kripalani in 1952. Born in 1923 in the Indian state of Haryana, he completed his early college education in Punjab and Delhi during which he took part in the Indian independence movement and joined the London School of Economics to secure a master's degree studying under the tutelage of Harold Laski. Returning to India in 1951, he started his career as a journalist at the India News Chronicle. A year he founded Lok Kalyan Samiti, along with Sucheta Kripalani, he started the Central Relief Committee in 1959 for providing relief aid to the Tibetan refugees. He was honoured by the Government of India in 1969, with the award of Padma Shri, the fourth highest Indian civilian award. Kalyan Singh Gupta died on 23 January 2002 at New Delhi at the age of 79

Lamborghini Miura

The Lamborghini Miura is a sports car produced by Italian automaker Lamborghini between 1966 and 1973. The car was the first supercar with a rear mid-engined two-seat layout, although the concept was first pioneered by René Bonnet with the Matra Djet in 1964; this layout has since become the standard for high-performance supercars. When released, it was the fastest production road car; the Miura was conceived by Lamborghini's engineering team, which designed the car in its spare time against the wishes of company founder Ferruccio Lamborghini, who preferred powerful yet sedate grand touring cars over the race car-derived machines produced by local rival Ferrari. The Miura's rolling chassis was presented at the 1965 Turin Auto Show, the prototype P400 debuted at the 1966 Geneva Motor Show, it received stellar receptions from showgoers and the motoring press alike, each impressed by Marcello Gandini's sleek styling and the car's revolutionary mid-engine design. Lamborghini's flagship, the Miura received periodic updates and remained in production until 1973.

A year the extreme Countach entered the company's lineup, amid tumultuous financial times for the company. During 1965, Lamborghini's three top engineers, Gian Paolo Dallara, Paolo Stanzani and Bob Wallace put their own time into developing a prototype car known as the P400; the engineers envisioned a road car with racing pedigree, one which could win on the track and be driven on the road by enthusiasts. The three men worked on its design at night, hoping to convince company founder Ferruccio Lamborghini such a vehicle would neither be too expensive nor distract from the company's focus; when brought aboard, Lamborghini gave his engineers a free hand in the belief the P400 was a valuable marketing tool, if nothing more. The car featured a transversely-mounted mid-engine layout, a departure from previous Lamborghini cars; the V12 was unusual in that it was merged with the transmission and differential, reflecting a lack of space in the tightly-wrapped design. The rolling chassis was displayed at the Turin Salon in 1965.

Impressed showgoers placed orders for the car despite the lack of a body to go over the chassis. Bertone was placed in charge of styling the prototype, finished just days before its debut at the 1966 Geneva Motor Show. None of the engineers had found time to check. Committed to showing the car, they decided to fill the engine bay with ballast and keep the hood locked throughout the show, as they had three years earlier for the début of the 350GTV. Sales head Sgarzi was forced to turn away members of the motoring press who wanted to see the P400's power plant. Despite this setback, the car was the highlight of the show boosting stylist Marcello Gandini's reputation; the favourable reaction at Geneva meant. The name "Miura", after the famous Spanish fighting bull breeder, was chosen and featured in the company's newly created badge; the car gained the worldwide attention of automotive enthusiasts when it was chosen for the opening sequence of the original 1969 version of The Italian Job. In press interviews of the time Ferruccio Lamborghini was reticent about his precise birth date, but stressed that he was born under the star sign Taurus the bull.

The earliest model of the Miura was known as the P400. It was powered by a version of the 3.9 L Lamborghini V12 engine used in the 400GT at the time. The engine was mounted transversely and produced 350 PS. 275 P400 were produced between 1966 and 1969 – a success for Lamborghini despite its then-steep price of US$20,000. Taking a cue from the Morris Mini, Lamborghini formed the gearbox in one casting, its shared lubrication continued until the last 96 SVs, when the case was split to allow the correct oils to be used for each element. An unconfirmed claim holds the first 125 Miuras were built of 0.9 mm steel and are therefore lighter than cars. All cars had steel doors, with aluminum front and rear skinned body sections; when leaving the factory they were fitted with Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres. The Miura won the prestigious Gran Turismo Trophy at the 2008 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance, has been re-created for use in the Gran Turismo 5 video game; the P400S Miura known as the Miura S, made its introduction at the Turin Motor Show in November 1968, where the original chassis had been introduced three years earlier.

It was revised from the P400, with the addition of power windows, bright chrome trim around external windows and headlights, new overhead inline console with new rocker switches, engine intake manifolds made 2 mm larger, different camshaft profiles, notched trunk end panels. Engine changes were good for an additional 20 PS. Other revisions were limited to creature comforts, such as a locking glovebox lid, a reversed position of the cigarette lighter and windshield wiper switch, single release handles for front and rear body sections. Other interior improvements included the addition of power windows and optional air conditioning, available for US$800. About 338 P400S Miura were produced between December 1968 and March 1971. One S #4407 was owned by Frank Sinatra. Miles Davis owned one, which he crashed in October 1972 under the influence of cocaine, breaking both ankles. Eddie Van Halen can be heard revving it up during the bridge in the song Panama; the last and most famous Miura, the P400SV or Miura SV was presented in 1971.

It featured different cam timing and altered 4X3-barrel Weber carburetors. These gave

Barnton Quarry

Barnton Quarry is a disused stone quarry in Corstorphine Hill, Edinburgh, Scotland. The site was used as a military command centre, is now being converted into a museum. Stone was extracted from the quarry until 1914. During the Second World War, the Royal Air Force built a Fighter Command operations room in the quarry. In 1952, during the Cold War, this facility was expanded into a central coordination facility for radar stations throughout Scotland; the military authorities transferred ownership to the local council. The site was subsequently damaged by fire; the site is now being cleaned and restored with the goal of creating a local Cold War museum and education centre. The project is being undertaken by volunteers, with funding from the owners of Scotland's Secret Bunker, another disused bunker now run as a tourist attraction. Barnton Quarry produced stone until 1914. In 1942 was used as a RAF fighter command operations room. A bunker was built in 1952 as the SOC for correlating information from ROTOR radar stations throughout Scotland.

The bunker comprises three underground levels and a large surface building which pre-dates the underground structure. The site was re-designated as a Regional Seat of Government in the early 1960s; the bunker was kept ready to accommodate civil servants for up to 30 days. It remained operational until the early 1980s. Ownership was transferred to Lothian Regional Council in 1983; the Council sold the site in the late 1980s to a private property developer. The underground structure was damaged by fire in August 1991 and again in May 1993; the site was purchased by Owner of Scotland's Secret Bunker. Since 2011, a team of volunteers has helped with renovation efforts; the aim is to create a museum and education centre with a view to restoring the R4 bunker to the original 1952 configuration. Kelvedon Hatch Secret Nuclear Bunker Barnton Quarry Restoration Project Barnton Quarry bunker to be developed as partner to Scotland’s Secret Bunker at Anstruther. Secret Scotland Barnton Quarry at Subterranea Britannica Regional Seats of Government article at Subterranea Britannica discussing Barnton Quarry Barnton Quarry described within the Gazetteer for Scotland of the Royal Scottish Geographic Society Barnton Quarry in the Scots at War directory Barnton Quarry Nuclear Bunker at Atlas Obscura Barnton Quarry Rotor Bunker at Abandoned Scotland Barnton Quarry: Cold War Edinburgh’s Abandoned Nuclear Bunker.

In Abandoned & Urbex, by Tom Moran, 11 Aug. 2015 Barnton Quarry Bunker on Flickr Scotland's Secret Bunker, Troywood, St. Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom


Aliteracy is the state of being able to read but being uninterested in doing so. This phenomenon has been reported on as a problem occurring separately from illiteracy, more common in the developing world, while aliteracy is a problem in the developed world. In 2002, John Ramsey defined aliteracy as a loss of a reading habit since reading is slow and frustrating for the reader. In a publication analyzing the 1972 International Book Year, an estimate was given that as many as 57% of the citizens of an unnamed European nation known for their production of important books did not read books, or that 43% were book readers. Estimates for other industrialized nations' active readers ranged from 33 to 55%. Jim Trelease, author of The Read-Aloud Handbook, has stated that this trend away from the written word is more than worrisome, that it's tearing apart culture. People who have stopped reading, he says, "base their future decisions on what they used to know... If you don't read much, you don't know're dangerous."American historian Daniel Boorstin, in 1984, while serving as librarian of Congress, issued a landmark report: "Books in Our Future".

Citing recent statistics that only about half of all Americans read every year, he referred to the "twin menaces" of illiteracy and aliteracy. "In the United States today," Boorstin wrote, "aliteracy is widespread." In the United States, a 2008 study reported that 46.7% of adult Americans did not read a book not required for work or school during 2002. Another alert to this phenomenon was a 1991 editorial in Fortune magazine by Stratford P. Sherman, it refers to a study by John P. Robinson, a sociology professor at the University of Maryland, College Park, showing that the average American at that time spent only 24 minutes per day in reading. Samuel Robert Lichter, director of the Center for Media and Public Affairs, is quoted on his preference for the ease of turning on the TV instead of reading a book. Kylene Beers' 1996 study connected aliteracy with reading motivation in teens, she noted unmotivated readers complained about not connecting with the text and could not "see" or visualize what was happening in the book.

The inability to relate to the characters reduced the desire to read. Robert Putnam, in his book Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community argues that television has fragmented our society. Motorola is mentioned as making preparations to pay $5,000,000 to teach their workers reading skills, Ford Motor Company is described as, since 1982, having sent 32,000 workers to a similar program. Publisher Simon & Schuster was quoted as predicting a market of $500,000,000 per year in the sales of remedial programs to corporations. Steven Layne's book, "Igniting a Passion for Reading" discusses several proven methods that readers can do to increase the desire to read in others. One method is to to children and adults. Reading aloud allows the listener to hear the story without struggling through decoding the words and possible frustration. Another method, used in schools, is to encourage students to read every day, choosing for themselves what to read, reading for enjoyment; this is referred to as Sustained Silent Reading.

Dr. Stephen Krashen, a leading proponent of SSR, looked at 54 studies of such programs and found that in general they were successful at improving reading skills and building a reading habit. Books v. Cigarettes Functional illiteracy Literacy Postliterate society Reading Strengthening Kids' Interest in Learning and Libraries Act Transliteracy Reducing "Alliteracy" in High School Students, by Joanne Collison Book Industry Statistics Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America Publishers Weekly statistics on reading "Booksellers Lament Web Sales, Aliteracy. Essay by Howard Rheingold on literacy and participation in virtual communities "Gutenberg Blues", by John Olson, in the glade of theoric ornithic hermetica, October 29, 2008 Newsweek review of The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies Young Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future by Mark Bauerlein June 2 2008 "Twilight of the Books", an essay on the decline of reading from The New Yorker, December 24, 2007