Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place a stage. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, song and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality and immediacy of the experience; the specific place of the performance is named by the word "theatre" as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι. Modern Western theatre comes, in large measure, from the theatre of ancient Greece, from which it borrows technical terminology, classification into genres, many of its themes, stock characters, plot elements. Theatre artist Patrice Pavis defines theatricality, theatrical language, stage writing and the specificity of theatre as synonymous expressions that differentiate theatre from the other performing arts and the arts in general.
Modern theatre includes performances of musical theatre. The art forms of ballet and opera are theatre and use many conventions such as acting and staging, they were influential to the development of musical theatre. The city-state of Athens is, it was part of a broader culture of theatricality and performance in classical Greece that included festivals, religious rituals, law and gymnastics, poetry, weddings and symposia. Participation in the city-state's many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member in particular—was an important part of citizenship. Civic participation involved the evaluation of the rhetoric of orators evidenced in performances in the law-court or political assembly, both of which were understood as analogous to the theatre and came to absorb its dramatic vocabulary; the Greeks developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and theatre architecture. Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional; the theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play.
The origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle, the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus. The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10,000–20,000 people; the stage consisted of a dancing floor, dressing scene-building area. Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics and clear delivery were paramount; the actors wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, each might play several parts. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, continued to be popular until the beginning of the Hellenistic period. No tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides.
The origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE it was institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysus. As contestants in the City Dionysia's competition playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play; the performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as 534 BCE. Most Athenian tragedies dramatise events from Greek mythology, though The Persians—which stages the Persian response to news of their military defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 480 BCE—is the notable exception in the surviving drama; when Aeschylus won first prize for it at the City Dionysia in 472 BCE, he had been writing tragedies for more than 25 years, yet its tragic treatment of recent history is the earliest example of drama to survive. More than 130 years the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics. Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, "Old Comedy", "Middle Comedy", "New Comedy".
Old Comedy survives today in the form of the eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes, while Middle Comedy is lost. New Comedy is known from the substantial papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of laughable people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster. In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, the festival included the Satyr Play. Finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play found its way to Athens in its most well-known form. Satyr's themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal woodland companions engaging in drunken revelry and mischief at his side; the satyr play itself was classified as tragicomedy, erring
Johan August Strindberg was a Swedish playwright, poet and painter. A prolific writer who drew directly on his personal experience, Strindberg's career spanned four decades, during which time he wrote over sixty plays and more than thirty works of fiction, history, cultural analysis, politics. A bold experimenter and iconoclast throughout, he explored a wide range of dramatic methods and purposes, from naturalistic tragedy and history plays, to his anticipations of expressionist and surrealist dramatic techniques. From his earliest work, Strindberg developed innovative forms of dramatic action and visual composition, he is considered the "father" of modern Swedish literature and his The Red Room has been described as the first modern Swedish novel. In Sweden, Strindberg is known as an essayist, poet, as a novelist and playwright, but in other countries he is known as a playwright; the Royal Theatre rejected his first major play, Master Olof, in 1872. In his plays The Father, Miss Julie, Creditors, he created naturalistic dramas that – building on the established accomplishments of Henrik Ibsen's prose problem plays while rejecting their use of the structure of the well-made play – responded to the call-to-arms of Émile Zola's manifesto "Naturalism in the Theatre" and the example set by André Antoine's newly established Théâtre Libre.
In Miss Julie, characterisation replaces plot as the predominant dramatic element and the determining role of heredity and the environment on the "vacillating, disintegrated" characters is emphasized. Strindberg modeled his short-lived Scandinavian Experimental Theatre in Copenhagen on Antoine's theatre and he explored the theory of Naturalism in his essays "On Psychic Murder", "On Modern Drama and the Modern Theatre", a preface to Miss Julie, the last of, the best-known statement of the principles of the theatrical movement. During the 1890s he spent significant time abroad engaged in scientific experiments and studies of the occult. A series of psychotic attacks between 1894 and 1896 led to his return to Sweden. Under the influence of the ideas of Emanuel Swedenborg, he resolved after his recovery to become "the Zola of the Occult". In 1898 he returned to play-writing with To Damascus, like The Great Highway, is a dream-play of spiritual pilgrimage, his A Dream Play – with its radical attempt to dramatize the workings of the unconscious by means of an abolition of conventional dramatic time and space and the splitting, doubling and multiplication of its characters – was an important precursor to both expressionism and surrealism.
He returned to writing historical drama, the genre with which he had begun his play-writing career. He helped to run the Intimate Theatre from 1907, a small-scale theatre, modeled on Max Reinhardt's Kammerspielhaus, that staged his chamber plays. Strindberg was born on 22 January 1849 in Stockholm, the third surviving son of Carl Oscar Strindberg and Eleonora Ulrika Norling. In his autobiographical novel The Son of a Servant, Strindberg describes a childhood affected by "emotional insecurity, religious fanaticism and neglect"; when he was seven, Strindberg moved to Norrtullsgatan on the northern, almost-rural periphery of the city. A year the family moved near to Sabbatsberg, where they stayed for three years before returning to Norrtullsgatan, he attended a harsh school in Klara for four years, an experience that haunted him in his adult life. He was moved to the school in Jakob in 1860, which he found far more pleasant, though he remained there for only a year. In the autumn of 1861, he was moved to the Stockholm Lyceum, a progressive private school for middle-class boys, where he remained for six years.
As a child he had a keen interest in natural science and religion. His mother, Strindberg recalled with bitterness, always resented her son's intelligence, she died when he was thirteen, although his grief lasted for only three months, in life he came to feel a sense of loss and longing for an idealized maternal figure. Less than a year after her death, his father married the children's governess, Emilia Charlotta Pettersson. According to his sisters, Strindberg came to regard them as his worst enemies, he passed his graduation exam in May 1867 and enrolled at the Uppsala University, where he began on 13 September. Strindberg spent the next few years in Uppsala and Stockholm, alternately studying for exams and trying his hand at non-academic pursuits; as a young student, Strindberg worked as an assistant in a pharmacy in the university town of Lund in southern Sweden. He supported himself in between studies as a substitute primary-school teacher and as a tutor for the children of two well-known physicians in Stockholm.
He first left Uppsala in 1868 to work as a schoolteacher, but studied chemistry for some time at the Institute of Technology in Stockholm in preparation for medical studies working as a private tutor before becoming an extra at the Royal Theatre in Stockholm. In May 1869, he failed his qualifying chemistry exam which in turn made him uninterested in schooling. Strindberg returned to Uppsala University in January 1870 to study aesthetics and modern languages and to work on a number of plays, it was at this time that
American Repertory Theater
The American Repertory Theater is a professional not-for-profit theater in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1980 by Robert Brustein, the A. R. T. is known for its commitment to music -- theater explorations. Over the past thirty years it has garnered many of the nation's most distinguished awards, including a Pulitzer Prize, a Tony Award, a Jujamcyn Award. In December 2002, the A. R. T. was the recipient of the National Theatre Conference's Outstanding Achievement Award, in May 2003 it was named one of the top three theaters in the country by Time Magazine. The A. R. T. is housed in the Loeb Drama Center at Harvard University. The A. R. T. Houses the Institute for Advanced Theater Training at Harvard University and the Harvard-Radcliffe Drama Club. In 2002 Robert Woodruff replaced founder Robert Brustein as the A. R. T.'s Artistic Director. After Woodruff's departure in 2007, Associate Artistic Director Gideon Lester took the reins for 2008-09 season, in May 2008 Diane Paulus was named the new Artistic Director.
Paulus, a Harvard alum, is known as a director of theater and opera. Her work includes The Donkey Show. In the 1920s George Pierce Baker gave his celebrated 47 Workshop Playwriting course at Harvard as an elective in the English department. Baker's dramatic instruction was effective enough to attract the likes of Eugene O'Neill, Philip Barry, S. N. Behrman to Cambridge, but when Baker requested a space in which to stage scenes from the plays of his students, the administration balked. A wealthy donor from the Harkness family thereupon offered Harvard what was the munificent sum of a million dollars to build a theatre and a drama department for Baker. In one of the few such actions in its long history, Harvard turned down the bequest. Baker took the money to Yale. Under the leadership of Robert Brustein, the American Repertory Theater was established at Harvard in 1979 as a permanent professional arts organization on campus that offered undergraduate courses in acting and dramaturgy, taught by professional members of the company with teaching experience.
Brustein described the founding of the theater as "a groundbreaking event and an unusual act of faith by the administration". One of the reasons for the founding of A. R. T. and Brustein's appointment as director of the university's Loeb Drama Center, was to help improve the quality of Harvard-Radcliffe Drama Club shows on the main stage through practical courses in the craft of acting and directing through professional guidance of HRDC production. Brustein served as artistic director of the theater until 2002, when he was succeeded by Robert Woodruff, founder of the Bay Area Playwrights Festival. In 2008, Diane Paulus became the new artistic director; the A. R. T. has become a leading force in the American theater, producing groundbreaking work in Cambridge and beyond. During its 32-year history, it has welcomed many major American and international theater artists, presenting a diverse repertoire that includes premieres of American plays, bold reinterpretations of classical texts, provocative new music theater productions.
The A. R. T. has performed throughout the U. S. and worldwide in 21 cities in 16 countries on four continents. It is continues to be a training ground for young artists, with the artistic staff teaching undergraduate classes in acting, dramatic literature, dramaturgy and design. In 1987, the A. R. T. Founded the Institute for Advanced Theater Training at Harvard, which offers a five-semester M. F. A. Graduate program that operates in conjunction with the Moscow Art Theater School, the Institute provides world-class professional training in acting and voice. Since becoming artistic director, Diane Paulus has enhanced the A. R. T.’s core mission to expand the boundaries of theater by continuing to transform the ways in which work is developed, programmed and contextualized, always including the audience as a partner. Productions such as Sleep No More, The Donkey Show, The Blue Flower, Prometheus Bound, The Gershwins’ Porgy and Bess, Wild Swans, Pippin have engaged audiences in unique theatrical experiences.
The A. R. T.’s club theater, OBERON, which Paulus calls a second stage for the 21st century, has become an incubator for local and emerging artists, has attracted national attention for its innovative programming model. The theater's productions have garnered three Tony Awards, including for Best Revival of a Musical for its productions of Pippin and The Gershwins’ Porgy and Bess; the A. R. T. received the Tony Award for Outstanding Regional Theater, the Pulitzer Prize, many Elliot Norton and I. R. N. E. Awards, its recent premiere production of Death and The Powers: The Robots’ Opera was a 2012 Pulitzer Prize finalist. Notes from the Field: Doing Time in Education, Created and performed by Anna Deavere Smith with music composed and performed by Marcus Shelby. Directed by Leonard Foglia. Abbey Theatre's the Stars, written by Seán O'Casey. Directed by Sean Holmes. Fingersmith, Based on the novel by Sarah Waters, written by Alexa Junge. Directed by Bill Rauch. Trans Scripts, Part I: The Women, Written by Paul Lucas.
Directed by Jo Bonney. The Night of the Iguana, Written by Tennessee Williams. Directed by Michael Wilson and featuring James Earl Jones. Arrabal, Book by John Weidman, music by Gustavo Santaolalla. Directed and co-choreographed by Sergio Tr
Suffolk University is a private, non-sectarian, non-profit research university located in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. With 7,560 students, it is the eighth largest university in metropolitan Boston, it is categorized as a Doctoral Research University by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. It was founded as a law school in 1906 and named after its location in Suffolk County, Massachusetts; the university's notable alumni include mayors, dozens of U. S. federal and state judges and United States members of Congress. The university, located at the downtown edge of the historic Beacon Hill neighborhood, is coeducational and comprises the Suffolk University Law School, the College of Arts & Sciences, the Sawyer Business School; the Princeton Review ranked the Sawyer Business School as "One of Top 15 in Global Management" and its entrepreneurship program is ranked among the top 25 in the U. S; the Princeton Review currently ranks some of its MBA programs among the top 50 business programs in the nation.
The 2015 edition of U. S. News publication ranked Suffolk Law School 6th in the United States for its Legal Writing, 13th for its Alternative Dispute Resolution program, 20th for legal clinics, it has an international campus in Madrid in addition to the main campus in downtown Boston. Due to its strategic location and well-known law school, many notable scholars, prominent speakers and politicians have visited and given speeches at the university such as John F. Kennedy, Supreme Court Justice William Rehnquist, former U. S. President George H. W. Bush; the university's sports teams, the Suffolk Rams, compete in NCAA Division III as members of the GNAC and the ECAC in 19 varsity sports. Suffolk University was founded as a law school in 1906 by Boston lawyer Gleason Archer, Sr. who named it "Archer's Evening Law School," intending it for law students who worked during the day. The school was renamed Suffolk School of Law in 1907, after Archer moved it from his Roxbury, Massachusetts home into his law offices in downtown Boston.
A year the first of Archer's students had passed the bar, leading to a boost in registration. The school's original goal was to "serve ambitious young men who are obliged to work for a living while studying law."By 1930, Archer developed Suffolk into one of the largest law schools in the country, decided to create "a great evening university" that working people could afford. The school became a university in the 1930s when the Suffolk College of Arts and Sciences was founded in 1934 and the Sawyer Business School—then known as the College of Business Administration—in 1937; that same year, the three academic units were incorporated as Suffolk University. During the 1990s Suffolk constructed its first residence halls, began satellite programs with other colleges in Massachusetts, opened its international campuses. From 1990 to 2005, its endowment increased over 400%, to $72 million, enrollment climbed. Gleason Archer, Sr. Walter Burse Robert Munce Dennis C. Haley John E. Fenton Thomas Fulham Daniel Perlman David Sargent Barry Brown James McCarthy Norman R. Smith Margaret McKenna Marisa Kelly The main campus in downtown Boston is situated on well-known, adjacent to the Massachusetts State House and the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
Up until 1995, Suffolk was a commuter-only school. Today, there are four coed residence halls, housing over 65% of freshman, a total of 24% of the entire undergraduate population; the Residence Halls are: 150 Tremont Miller Hall 10 West Modern Theatre The residence hall at 150 Tremont Street was the first built by the university and houses students in singles, doubles and suites, with communal bathrooms. Nathan R. Miller Residence Hall was opened in 2005 and houses 15 floors of freshman, 2 floors of sophomores in singles and quads, with bathrooms shared between every two rooms or one bathroom per quad; the 10 West Residence Hall, opened in 2008, has housing for freshman and sophomores in singles and doubles. Suites accommodate a variety of apartment-style suites house 2 to 8 students. Both Miller Hall and 150 Tremont have cafeterias. Students living at 10 West/Modern Theater can eat at 150 Tremont. Suffolk University leases additional properties. If leased, those locations house freshman students.
In 2015, due to a long housing waitlist, Suffolk housed additional freshman at the Massachusetts College of Art and Design and MCPHS University. The Modern Theatre Residence Hall opened in the fall of 2010 and is considered an extension to the 10 West Resident Hall; the two residence halls share one entrance at 10 West Street. The Modern Theater Residence Hall is built over the restored Modern Theatre. In addition to its main campus in Boston, there are satellite campuses in Madrid and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Suffolk University has many different buildings that are spread through downtown Boston and Beacon Hill. Nathan R. Miller Hall: Residence Building One Beacon Street: Few floors for academics Somerset: Academic Building Frank Sawyer Building: Academic Building Rosalie K. Stahl Center: Academic, Library Building David J. Sargent Hall: Law, Graduate Building Modern Theatre: Theatre, Residence Hall 10 West Residence Hall
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, from the theoretical to the applied; these ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City and Cornell Tech, a graduate program that incorporates technology and creative thinking; the program moved from Google's Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
Cornell is one of ten private land grant universities in the United States and the only one in New York. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural and human ecology colleges as well as its industrial labor relations school. Of Cornell's graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported; as a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered; as of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell University. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race.
Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 14 living billionaires. The student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 116 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty; the university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds.
Since 1894, Cornell fulfill statutory requirements. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes, it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor. Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, it has partnerships with institutions in India and the People's Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking Cayuga Lake. Since the university was founded, it has expanded to about 2,300 acres, encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities and museums. North Campus is composed of ten residence halls that house first-year students, although the Townhouse Community houses transfer students; the five main residence halls on West Campus make up the West Campus House System, along with several Gothic-style buildings, referred to as "the Gothics". Collegetown contains two upper-level residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a mixed-use neighborhood of apartments and businesses; the main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic and Neoclassical buildings, the more spare international and modernist structures. The more ornat
A tanker is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk. Major types of tankship include the oil tanker, the chemical tanker, gas carrier. Tankers carry commodities such as vegetable oils and wine. In the United States Navy and Military Sealift Command, a tanker used to refuel other ships is called an oiler but many other navies use the terms tanker and replenishment tanker. Tankers can range in size of capacity from several hundred tons, which includes vessels for servicing small harbours and coastal settlements, to several hundred thousand tons, for long-range haulage. Besides ocean- or seagoing tankers there are specialized inland-waterway tankers which operate on rivers and canals with an average cargo capacity up to some thousand tons. A wide range of products are carried by tankers, including: Hydrocarbon products such as oil, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas Chemicals, such as ammonia and styrene monomer Fresh water Wine Molasses Citrus juice Tankers are a new concept, dating from the years of the 19th century.
Before this, technology had not supported the idea of carrying bulk liquids. The market was not geared towards transporting or selling cargo in bulk, therefore most ships carried a wide range of different products in different holds and traded outside fixed routes. Liquids were loaded in casks—hence the term "tonnage", which refers to the volume of the holds in terms of how many tuns or casks of wine could be carried. Potable water, vital for the survival of the crew, was stowed in casks. Carrying bulk liquids in earlier ships posed several problems: The holds: on timber ships the holds were not sufficiently water, oil or air-tight to prevent a liquid cargo from spoiling or leaking; the development of iron and steel hulls solved this problem. Loading and discharging: Bulk liquids must be pumped - the development of efficient pumps and piping systems was vital to the development of the tanker. Steam engines were developed as prime-movers for early pumping systems. Dedicated cargo handling facilities were now required ashore too - as was a market for receiving a product in that quantity.
Casks could be unloaded using ordinary cranes, the awkward nature of the casks meant that the volume of liquid was always small - therefore keeping the market more stable. Free surface effect: a large body of liquid carried aboard a ship will impact on the ship's stability when the liquid is flowing around the hold or tank in response to the ship's movements; the effect was negligible in casks, but could cause capsizing if the tank extended the width of the ship. Tankers were first used by the oil industry to transfer refined fuel in bulk from refineries to customers; this would be stored in large tanks ashore, subdivided for delivery to individual locations. The use of tankers caught on because other liquids were cheaper to transport in bulk, store in dedicated terminals subdivide; the Guinness brewery used tankers to transport the stout across the Irish Sea. Different products require different handling and transport, with specialised variants such as "chemical tankers", "oil tankers", "LNG carriers" developed to handle dangerous chemicals and oil-derived products, liquefied natural gas respectively.
These broad variants may be further differentiated with respect to ability to carry only a single product or transport mixed cargoes such as several different chemicals or refined petroleum products. Among oil tankers, supertankers are designed for transporting oil around the Horn of Africa from the Middle East; the supertanker Seawise Giant, scrapped in 2010, was 458 meters in length and 69 meters wide. Supertankers are one of the three preferred methods for transporting large quantities of oil, along with pipeline transport and rail. Despite being regulated, tankers have been involved in environmental disasters resulting from oil spills. Amoco Cadiz, Erika, Exxon Valdez and Torrey Canyon were examples of coastal accidents. Many modern tankers are designed for a specific route. Draft is limited by the depth of water in loading and unloading harbors. Cargoes with high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures may require pressurized tanks or vapor recovery systems. Tank heaters may be required to maintain heavy crude oil, residual fuel, wax, or molasses in a fluid state for offloading.
Tankers used for liquid fuels are classified according to their capacity. In 1954, Shell Oil developed the average freight rate assessment system, which classifies tankers of different sizes. To make it an independent instrument, Shell consulted the London Tanker Brokers’ Panel. At first, they divided the groups as General Purpose for tankers under 25,000 tons deadweight; the ships became larger during the 1970s, the list was extended, where the tons are long tons: 10,000–24,999 DWT: Small tanker 25,000–34,999 DWT: Intermediate tanker 35,000–44,999 DWT: Medium Range 1 45,000–54,999 DWT: Medium Range 2 55,000–79,999 DWT: Large Range 1 80,000–159,999 DWT: Large Range 2 160,000–319,999 DWT: Very Large Crude Carrier 320,000–549,999 DWT: Ultra Large Crude Carrier Very Large Crude Carrier size rangeAt nearly 380 vessels in the size range 279,000 t DWT to 320,000 t DWT, these are by far the most popular size range among the larger
United States Merchant Marine Academy
The United States Merchant Marine Academy, one of the five United States service academies, is located in Kings Point, New York. It is charged with training officers for the United States Merchant Marine, branches of the military, the transportation industry. Midshipmen are trained in marine engineering, ship's administration, maritime law, personnel management, international law and many other subjects important to the task of running a large ship. Between 1874 and 1936, diverse federal legislation supported maritime training through school ships, internships at sea, other methods. A disastrous fire in 1934 aboard the passenger ship SS Morro Castle, in which 134 lives were lost, convinced the U. S. Congress that direct federal involvement in efficient and standardized training was needed. Originally—and in cooperation with the State of New York —the U. S. government planned to establish a large-scale Merchant Marine Academy at New York. Congress passed the landmark Merchant Marine Act in 1936, two years the U.
S. Merchant Marine Cadet Corps was established. In that year, the USTS Nantucket was transferred from the Massachusetts Maritime Academy to Kings Point and renamed the USTS Emory Rice; the first training was given at temporary facilities until the academy's permanent site in Kings Point, New York was acquired in early 1942. The Kings Point campus was Walter Chrysler's twelve-acre waterfront estate, named "Forker House". Construction of the academy began and 15 months the task was completed; the academy was dedicated on 30 September 1943, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who noted "the Academy serves the Merchant Marine as West Point serves the Army and Annapolis the Navy." World War II required the academy to forgo its normal operation and to devote all of its resources toward meeting the emergency need for Merchant Marine officers. Its enrollment rose to 2,700 men, the planned course of instruction was reduced in length from four years to 18 months. To meet the wartime needs for qualified merchant marine officers two additional merchant marine cadet training school sites were established, one located in Pass Christian and the other in San Mateo, California.
In spite of the war, shipboard training continued to be an integral part of the academy curriculum, midshipmen served at sea in combat zones the world over. One hundred and forty-two midshipmen gave their lives in service to their country, many others survived torpedo and aerial attacks. From 1942 to 1945, the academy graduated 6,895 officers; as the war drew to a close, plans were made to convert the academy's wartime curriculum to a four-year, college-level program to meet the peacetime requirements of the merchant marine. In 1948, such a course was instituted. Authorization for awarding the degree of bachelor of science to graduates was granted by Congress in 1949; the academy became accredited as a degree-granting institution in the same year. It was made a permanent institution by an Act of Congress in 1956; the academy accelerated graduating classes during the Vietnam War. It was involved in such programs as training U. S. officers for the nuclear-powered merchant ship, the NS Savannah. Admission requirements were amended in 1974, this Academy became the first federal service academy to enroll female students, two years before the Military, Air Force, Coast Guard Academies.
During the Persian Gulf War in early 1991, for many months prior to the war, both Academy graduates and midshipmen played important roles in the large sealift of military supplies to the Middle East. Midshipmen training at sea participated in the humanitarian sealift to Somalia during Operation Restore Hope. In 1992, the academy acquired the T/V Kings Pointer. After 20 years at the academy, MARAD transferred the ship to the Texas Maritime Academy in Galveston to serve as its new primary training vessel; this was followed by an announcement on 21 August 2012, that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration agreed to transfer the MV Liberty Star to the U. S. Department of Transportation for use as the new training vessel at the academy. Before being redesigned to serve as a training vessel for students, the former MV Liberty Star served as a solid rocket booster recovery vessel for NASA retrieving solid rocket boosters following space shuttle launches. In June 2014, the vessel was rechristened the T/V Kings Pointer, the fifth vessel of the academy to carry that name.
The rechristening followed the earlier dedication of the academy's newly replaced Mallory Pier. In the 1990s, the academy's future came into question when it was included in the National Performance Review, chaired by Vice President Albert Gore, Jr; the report recommended halving the federal subsidy and requiring students to pay half of tuition to reduce costs. Congress, soundly rejected the recommendation and voted to continue the prohibitions on charging tuition to students. Between 2009 and 2014, the Obama Administration invested more than $450 million at the academy, including $100 million for capital improvements—the most funding secured for physical improvements at the academy. During the attacks of 11 September 2001, the Merchant Marine Academy assisted in the evacuation of civilians from Lower Manhattan as well as the transportation of first responders and supplies to and from Ground Zero. Midshipman, facu