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Robert Burns Woodward

Robert Burns Woodward FRS HFRSE was an American organic chemist. He is considered by many to be the most preeminent synthetic organic chemist of the twentieth century, having made many key contributions to the subject in the synthesis of complex natural products and the determination of their molecular structure, he worked with Roald Hoffmann on theoretical studies of chemical reactions. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1965. Woodward was born in Boston, Massachusetts on 10 April 1917, he was the son of Margaret Burns and her husband, Arthur Chester Woodward, himself the son of Roxbury apothecary, Harlow Elliot Woodward. His father was one of the many victims of the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. From a early age, Woodward was attracted to and engaged in private study of chemistry while he attended a public primary school, Quincy High School, in Quincy, Massachusetts. By the time he entered high school, he had managed to perform most of the experiments in Ludwig Gattermann's widely used textbook of experimental organic chemistry.

In 1928, Woodward contacted the Consul-General of the German consulate in Boston, through him, managed to obtain copies of a few original papers published in German journals. In his Cope lecture, he recalled how he had been fascinated when, among these papers, he chanced upon Diels and Alder's original communication about the Diels–Alder reaction. Throughout his career, Woodward was to and powerfully use and investigate this reaction, both in theoretical and experimental ways. In 1933, he entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but neglected his formal studies badly enough to be excluded at the end of the 1934 fall term. MIT readmitted him in the 1935 fall term, by 1936 he had received the Bachelor of Science degree. Only one year MIT awarded him the doctorate, when his classmates were still graduating with their bachelor's degrees. Woodward's doctoral work involved investigations related to the synthesis of the female sex hormone estrone. MIT required. Woodward's advisors were James Flack Norris and Avery Adrian Morton, although it is not clear whether he took any of their advice.

After a short postdoctoral stint at the University of Illinois, he took a Junior Fellowship at Harvard University from 1937 to 1938, remained at Harvard in various capacities for the rest of his life. In the 1960s, Woodward was named Donner Professor of Science, a title that freed him from teaching formal courses so that he could devote his entire time to research; the first major contribution of Woodward's career in the early 1940s was a series of papers describing the application of ultraviolet spectroscopy in the elucidation of the structure of natural products. Woodward collected together a large amount of empirical data, devised a series of rules called the Woodward's rules, which could be applied to finding out the structures of new natural substances, as well as non-natural synthesized molecules; the expedient use of newly developed instrumental techniques was a characteristic Woodward exemplified throughout his career, it marked a radical change from the tedious and long chemical methods of structural elucidation, used until then.

In 1944, with his post doctoral researcher, William von Eggers Doering, Woodward reported the synthesis of the alkaloid quinine, used to treat malaria. Although the synthesis was publicized as a breakthrough in procuring the hard to get medicinal compound from Japanese occupied southeast Asia, in reality it was too long and tedious to adopt on a practical scale, it was a landmark for chemical synthesis. Woodward's particular insight in this synthesis was to realise that the German chemist Paul Rabe had converted a precursor of quinine called quinotoxine to quinine in 1905. Hence, a synthesis of quinotoxine would establish a route to synthesizing quinine; when Woodward accomplished this feat, organic synthesis was still a matter of trial and error, nobody thought that such complex structures could be constructed. Woodward showed that organic synthesis could be made into a rational science, that synthesis could be aided by well-established principles of reactivity and structure; this synthesis was the first one in a series of exceedingly complicated and elegant syntheses that he would undertake.

Culminating in the 1930s, the British chemists Christopher Ingold and Robert Robinson among others had investigated the mechanisms of organic reactions, had come up with empirical rules which could predict reactivity of organic molecules. Woodward was the first synthetic organic chemist who used these ideas as a predictive framework in synthesis. Woodward's style was the inspiration for the work of hundreds of successive synthetic chemists who synthesized medicinally important and structurally complex natural products. During the late 1940s, Woodward synthesized many complex natural products including quinine, cortisone, lysergic acid, chlorophyll and colchicine. With these, Woodward opened up a new era of synthesis, sometimes called the'Woodwardian era' in which he showed that natural products could be synthesized by careful applications of the principles of physical organic chemistry, by meticulous planning. Many of Woodward's syntheses were described as spectacular by his colleagues and before he did them, it was thought by some that it would be impossible to create these substances in the lab.

Woodward's syntheses were described as having an element


CKXG-FM is a radio station in Grand Falls-Windsor and Labrador. Owned by Stingray Group, it broadcasts a classic rock format; the station launched in the 1960s as CJON-1 at 680 kHz, In 1977, after Don Jamieson bought out Geoff Stirling's interest in Radio CJYQ-930 Ltd, CJCN was renamed CIYQ. In 1983, Jamieson sold his company to CHUM Limited. In 1989, CHUM Limited sold the "Q" stations to Newcap. In 1990, CIYQ's program feed changed from CJYQ to CKIX-FM and changed its call letters again to CKXG. In 1999, with the AM equipment nearing the end of its life cycle, CKXG jumped to 102.3 FM. In the early 2000s, CKXG re-branded from KIXX Country to Magic 102 with a Hot adult contemporary format, shortly afterwards to 101.3/102.3 K-Rock with a classic rock format. The other two KIXX Country stations outside of St. John's, CKXD-FM in Gander and CKXX-FM in Corner Brook, were branded with the Magic name and subsequently to K-Rock. On September 29, 2011, Newcap received approval to decrease CKXG-FM's average effective radiated power from 24,000 to 17,000 watts, increasing the maximum ERP from 24,000 to 36,000 watts, decreasing the antenna's effective height above average terrain from 236.7 to 96.6 metres and relocating the antenna site.

Official website CKXG information at CKXG-FM history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CKXG-FM

Bill Becker

Bill Becker was an American journalist noted for his coverage of nuclear weapons tests, political campaigns, scientific advances, major sporting events. He covered over 25 Rose Bowls and five World Series. Becker attended the College of the Pacific, now the University of the Pacific in Stockton, California. While there he played football under the legendary coach, Amos Alonzo Stagg. Following his graduation, Becker started his journalism career at the Arizona Republic. In 1944, he covered numerous atomic tests. In 1956, he began a long career at The New York Times. In 1957, he spent five months in Antarctica as a Times reporter during the International Geophysical Year. From 1964 to 1966, he worked as writer for Universal Studios, returning to journalism in 1966 as a science writer for Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, while continuing to cover major sporting events for The New York Times. Becker was awarded the University of the Pacific's Amos Alonzo Stagg Award of Merit in 2008.

Becker, Bill, "Fiery Cloud Dims the Sun as ‘Medium” Rips Desert", The Washington Post, October 29, 1951, p. 12 Becker, Bill, "The Man Who Sets Off Atomic Bombs", Saturday Evening Post, April 19, 1952, p. 32–33, 185–188. Becker, Bill, "100 U. S. Scientists Briefed on International Geophysical Year", The New York Times, September 17, 1957. P. 18 Becker, Delays are Seen on Man in Space,. P. 15 Becker, Bill, "X-15 Flies 2,650 M. P. H. Cracking Record. P. 1 Becker, Bill, "Angels Doing Well... Except at Gate. P. S2 Becker, Bill, "U. S. A-bomb Test for Peaceful Use Frees Radiation. E. C. Doubts Danger", The New York Times, December 11, 1961. P. 1 Becker, Bill, "Stagg Gets a Nationwide Salute. P. 15 Becker, Bill, "Cuba Quarantine Is Urged By Nixon. P. 1 Becker, Bill, "Hoffa Testifies in Los Angeles. P. 4 Becker, Bill, "Negroes on Coast March at Project. P. 46 Becker, Bill, "O. J. Simpson Goes From Goat to Hero With 9-Yard Run", The New York Times, October 20, 1968. P. S4

El Paso Corp.

El Paso Corporation was a provider of natural gas and related energy products and was one of North America's largest natural gas producers until its acquisition by Kinder Morgan in 2012. It was headquartered in Texas. United States. Prior to the takeover by Kinder Morgan, the company owned North America's largest natural gas pipeline system which traveled from border-to-border and coast-to-coast; the pipeline system included Colorado Interstate Gas. The El Paso Corporation owned fifty percent of Great Lakes Transmission and Florida Gas Transmission and employed 6,000 people. Florida Gas is part of Southern Natural Gas. In 1999 the company doubled in size when it merged with Birmingham, Alabama based natural gas giant Sonat, it went on to acquire Coastal Corporation in 2001. The company's major offices were located in Texas; the company's CEO at the time of sale to Kinder Morgan was Douglas L. Foshee; the company was founded in 1928 by Houston attorney Paul Kayser, who identified the city of El Paso, Texas as a good market for natural gas transported by pipeline from Jal, New Mexico.

El Paso operated one of the largest natural gas transmission systems in North America. Its more than 17,000 miles of pipeline connected major gas supply regions throughout the American West and Mexico in the early 1990s and supplied about seven percent of U. S. natural gas demand. In 1992, El Paso was spun off from Burlington Resources. Which had operated the company as a subsidiary since 1983. Paul Kayser, a young Houston attorney, founded El Paso Natural Gas in 1928. In 1929, Kayser obtained a franchise from the El Paso City Council to sell natural gas to the city, he proposed construction of a 200-mile pipeline that linked El Paso with natural gas wells located near the city of Jal, New Mexico. After obtaining financing for the ambitious project, he began hiring work crews and securing equipment and supplies. Pipeline construction methods at the time were crude in comparison to techniques developed during the mid-1900s; the lines were built by hand and the men who worked on the lines had to be tough.

Difficulties related to building Kayser's pipeline were amplified by the fact that his pipes would cross some of the most difficult terrain in the southwestern United States. The pipeline had to cross 200 miles of rivers and deserts and it had to be built to withstand all types of natural disasters. Although the work was tedious and time-consuming, Kayser's crews pioneered new methods of welding and crossing unique terrain; the line was finished and put into service in 1930. For Kayser and his fledgling start-up, the Great Depression began shortly after the building of the pipeline. El Paso generated profits of $283,000 during the pipeline's first year of operation but the Depression-era economy threatened to quash the venture; the city of El Paso continued to buy Kayser's gas. The company was able to expand its pipeline system during the early 1930s; the company built new lines extending to the copper mining areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico and in 1934 extended service to Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona.

During the late 1930s, El Paso enjoyed steady growth. It built new pipeline systems extending throughout the oil- and gas-rich Permian Basin in south Texas and extended lines north and west to accommodate growing regional demand. By the late 1930s, the company was generating revenue of about $5 million annually and was beginning to post strong profit gains. Expansion slowed during World War II as the nation's labor and resources were steered toward the war effort. Following the war, El Paso benefitted from strong demand for natural gas in the growing southwestern United States; as the postwar economy and population boomed, cities throughout the region demanded energy sources to fuel growth and development. El Paso experienced explosive growth in the late 1940s. Gains during that period were due in part to the completion of a 700-mile pipeline reaching from El Paso's Permian Basin operations to California. El Paso began supplying gas through a 26-inch pipeline and began construction of new, larger pipelines aimed at the burgeoning California market.

As a result of those efforts, El Paso's assets rose from about $23.5 million in 1945 to $285 million in 1950. Meanwhile, sales increased from $9 million to $41 million and net income climbed to a record $9 million in 1950. During the early 1950s, El Paso continued to post steady gains as demand for its natural gas increased, it built or purchased pipes reaching as far north as Ignacio, a small town in southern Colorado, continued its westward expansion, bolstering its feeder pipes going to California and increasing sales throughout Arizona and New Mexico. By 1955, El Paso captured nearly $30 million in profits annually from about $180 million in sales. By the early 1960s, those figures had risen to $400 million, respectively. El Paso's big gains during the late 1950s were attributed to its 1957 acquisition of part of the operations of Pacific Northwest Pipeline Corporation; the acquisition gave El Paso a presence in several western and northwestern states, with pipelines reaching as far as Washington and connecting to other companies' networks in Canada.

In addition to geographic expansion, El Paso began to diversify during the 1950s into related oil and chemical businesses. It created El Paso Products Company as a subsidiary to manufacture chemicals from natural gas derivatives. Despite forays into other industries, El Paso remained focused

Hyman Schandler

Hyman Schandler was a violinist and conductor. He was the founder and conductor of the Cleveland Women's Orchestra, the oldest women's orchestra in the world. Schandler was born in Latvia, he emigrated to Cleveland at the age of three with three sisters. His father, a tailor, had arrived two years earlier. At the age of nine, Schandler began his studies at Bailey's Music School, which became the Cleveland Music School Settlement, he went to West High School. At the age of 18, Schandler began conducting instrumental groups and teaching the violin at the settlement. In 1927, Schandler auditioned for conductor Nikolai Sokoloff of the Cleveland Orchestra and became second violinist, he soon became a position he held for 35 years. He performed with the orchestra for 48 years. In 1931, Schandler traveled to Salzburg, Austria, to study violin with Theodore Mueller and conducting with Herbert von Karajan. There, he performed with the Salzburg Festival Salzburg Mozarteum. In 1935, Schandler formed the Cleveland Women's Orchestra, an orchestra composed of 60 women musicians, ranging from sixteen to seventy-five years old.

Their first concert was on November 1936, at Severance Hall. Since the orchestra has played annual concerts at Severance Hall as well as several concerts in nursing homes and other outreach programs. Schandler remained as the orchestra's conductor for 55 years until his death in 1990, he was succeeded by Robert Cronquist as musical director. Following his retirement in 1975, Schandler played for two seasons in the Dallas Symphony Orchestra as principal guest conductor, led by Louis Lane. During this time, he commuted back to Cleveland to continue conducting the Cleveland Women's Orchestra. In 1926, Schandler married a pianist and faculty colleague, their ceremony was performed at the Cleveland Music School Settlement. They had two daughters and Linda

Caatinga horned frog

The Caatinga horned frog is a species of frog in the Ceratophryidae family. It is endemic to Brazil, its natural habitats are dry savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, intermittent freshwater marshes. Skuk, G.. "Ceratophrys joazeirensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e. T56339A11464428. Doi:10.2305/IUCN. UK.2004. RLTS. T56339A11464428.en. Retrieved 20 December 2017. Photo: Ceratophrys joazeirensis