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The Orosirian Period is the third geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from 2050 Mya to 1800 Mya. Instead of being based on stratigraphy, these dates are defined chronometrically; the half of the period was an episode of intensive orogeny on all continents. Two of the largest known impact events on Earth occurred during the Orosirian. At the beginning of the period, 2023 Mya, a large asteroid collision created the Vredefort impact structure; the event that created the Sudbury Basin structure occurred near the end of 1850 Mya. For the time period from about 2060 to 1780 Mya, an alternative period based on stratigraphy rather than chronometry, named the Columbian, was suggested in the geological timescale review 2012 edited by Gradstein et al. but as of February 2017, this has not yet been adopted by the IUGS. The supercontinent Columbia formed at the end of this period. "Orosirian Period". GeoWhen Database. Retrieved July 8, 2011. James G. Ogg. "Status on Divisions of the International Geologic Time Scale".

Lethaia. 37: 183–199. Doi:10.1080/00241160410006492

Ron Washington

Ronald Washington is an American former professional baseball shortstop. He played Major League Baseball for the Los Angeles Dodgers, Minnesota Twins, Baltimore Orioles, Cleveland Indians, Houston Astros. Washington is the third base coach for the Atlanta Braves, he is the former manager of the Texas Rangers, whom he took to the World Series in 2010 and 2011. Prior to managing the Rangers, Washington coached in the New York Mets and Oakland Athletics organizations, he is one of only three MLB players, along with U L Washington and Frank White, who were products of the Royals Academy. Washington was signed by the Kansas City Royals on July 17, 1970, he spent the next ten seasons in the minor leagues with three different organizations. He earned a brief September callup with the Los Angeles Dodgers in 1977 hitting.368. He would not return to the major league level until 1981 with the Minnesota Twins where he would remain until 1986, he played one season each for the Baltimore Orioles, Cleveland Indians, Houston Astros before retiring from Triple-A Oklahoma City in 1990.

He was a middle infielder for most of his career. On May 28, 1988, while playing for the Indians, Washington broke up Milwaukee Brewers pitcher Odell Jones' no-hit bid after 8 and 1/3 innings with a pinch-hit single. Following his retirement as a player, Washington worked in the New York Mets organization for five years. After being hired as the Oakland Athletics first base coach in 1996 under his former Astros manager Art Howe, Washington served as infield and third base coach for the A's between 1997 and 2006; as infield coach Washington has been credited for developing much of the A's young infield talent in the last decade, including six-time Gold Glover Eric Chavez, former MVP and A's shortstop Miguel Tejada. In 2004, Chavez expressed his appreciation by giving Washington one of his Gold Glove trophies, signed "Wash, not without you."Washington plays a significant role in the events of the book Moneyball, a book detailing how the A's have been successful despite a small budget. Washington is shown in a positive light for the way he trained Scott Hatteberg to field first base for the first time in his career.

Washington is however, portrayed as too old-fashioned and traditional in his lack of acceptance of general manager Billy Beane's sabermetric strategies. He was portrayed in the film adaptation of the book by Brent Jennings. Washington parodied his character in Moneyball during a July 2014 Texas Rangers commercial in which he repeated the line "It's hard". On November 6, 2006, the Texas Rangers announced that Washington had accepted their offer to manage the team replacing Buck Showalter, fired a month earlier. Washington beat out four other candidates for the job: Rangers bench coach Don Wakamatsu New York Mets third base coach Manny Acta, Nippon Ham Fighters manager Trey Hillman and former Rangers catcher John Russell. At the beginning of the 2007 season, it was rumored that there was a rift between Washington and Rangers star Mark Teixeira. Asked about it, Washington responded, A lot of times we make three outs on four or five pitches... I just can't see that late in the game when you're five runs down.

You're at the point where the starter is out of the game, you're in the middle, these are the guys you want to get to. I've never asked him to do it, but the middle guys, you want to make'em throw... He feels, he wants to take advantage of it. I've got no problem with that, but can you guarantee with that one pitch that you're going to do something with it? I don't think. You might miss it, roll over it, jam yourself. You make one out on one pitch. I want to see him get a pitchers' strike right there. Teixeira was traded to the Atlanta Braves in July 2007 and had been rumored to have been on the trading block before reports of tensions with Washington, as his agent, Scott Boras, had refused to negotiate a contract extension beyond the 2008 season. Reports suggested tensions between Washington and catcher Gerald Laird. Questioned about the rumors, Washington conceded that the pressure he put on Laird was "a lot to put on a young kid... that's what we've got. He's got to grow up fast."On March 17, 2010, Jon Heyman of Sports Illustrated reported that Washington tested positive for cocaine during the 2009 season and has acknowledged using cocaine.

In 2010, Washington became the second manager of the Rangers franchise to take his team to the postseason. On October 12, 2010, Washington became the first manager in franchise history to win a playoff series, with a 3–2 victory in the ALDS over the Tampa Bay Rays. On October 22, 2010, Washington's Rangers defeated the New York Yankees in the ALCS in six games, to advance to their first World Series in franchise history, before losing to the San Francisco Giants in five games, he became the third African American to manage a team into a World Series, joining Cito Gaston, who managed the Toronto Blue Jays to the World Championship in the 1992 and 1993 World Series, Dusty Baker, who managed the Giants in the 2002 World Series. Referring to Washington, second baseman Ian Kinsler said: "I just love the way he never holds his emotion back when he's managing, he hangs on every pitch, it's great to know that your manager is in every single pitch and cares that much." In 2009 his salary was about $750,000.

On November 4, 2010, Washington agreed to a two-year contract extension. On October 15, 2011, Washington managed the Rangers to their second World Series in as many years, when the

Law's Empire

Law's Empire is a 1986 text in legal philosophy by Ronald Dworkin, in which the author continues his criticism of the philosophy of legal positivism as promoted by H. L. A. Hart during the middle to late 20th century; the book notably introduces Dworkin's Judge Hercules as an idealized version of a jurist with extraordinary legal skills, able to challenge various predominating schools of legal interpretation and legal hermeneutics prominent throughout the 20th century. Judge Hercules is challenged by Judge Hermes, another idealized version of a jurist, affected by an affinity to respecting historical legal meaning arguments which do not affect Judge Hercules in the same manner. Judge Hermes' theory of legal interpretation is found by Dworkin in the end to be inferior to the approach of Judge Hercules. Much of the twentieth century in legal philosophy has been characterized by the confrontation of legal positivism with natural law theory as being among the most prominent legal theories seen in the century.

One major proponent of the Anglo-American version of legal positivism was H. L. A. Hart, a professor at Oxford University, a teacher of Dworkin's and with whom Dworkin would come to disagree. To challenge the prevailing schools of legal interpretation and legal philosophy in the late twentieth century, Dworkin invented the personage of Judge Hercules to represent a version of legal philosophy which he saw as answering many of the shortcomings he had come to identify with Hart and other legal schools prominent in his time. Dworkin's approach in the book is to present his argument in ten chapters with one summary chapter added at the end of the book titled, "Law Beyond Law"; the book is original in its format compared to conventional approaches to academic studies in the law by introducing the personage of Judge Hercules early in the text to answer many of the legal theories which Dworkin wishes to discuss as to their being insufficient to meet the requirements of late 20th century jurisprudence.

In Dworkin's perspective, the prevailing climate of legal theory at the end of the 20th century was understood by him as being represented by the deficiencies of many competing and contradictory legal theories being presented by the legal academy. The ten chapters of the book build their logical argument sequentially and in growing complexity of exposition where each chapter is dependent upon the logical demonstrations made in previous chapters in order to establish the rationale and comprehension at work in the mind of the legal personage represented by Judge Hercules. Dworkin concisely states his primary concern in the preface of this volume concerning his approach to the philosophy of law: "We are subjects of law's empire, liegemen to its methods and ideals, bound in spirit while we debate what we must therefore do." The "empire" of the law is expansive for Dworkin and includes not only the domain of jurisprudence but extends into the domain of politics and sociology, including the philosophical domain of morals and aesthetics as these affect the lives of all individuals of society.

In this chapter, Dworkin tells his readers that there are three types of law with which he is concerned. These three areas of law are outlined as Conventionalism and Law as integrity. Dworkin shall make a primary point of defending Law as integrity throughout the subsequent chapters of his text. Dworkin introduced his principle of the'semantic sting' of the semantic philosophy of law, he develops and distinguishes between two forms of skepticism to present his arguments differentiating between "internal skepticism" and "external skepticism", for use in subsequent chapters. Dworkin informs his readers; the ground of law is the basis upon which the suppositions for the working and application of law are based and form an unavoidable basis for subsequent discussion of differing concepts of law. The phrase'concept of law' was used by Hart as the title for an approach to law oriented to Anglo-American reading of positive law to which Dworkin would take exception as to its insufficiency for dealing with issues of jurisprudence encountered throughout the 20th century.

In this chapter, Dworkin begins his three part, 3-tier assessment of law with his criticism of Conventionalism. He differentiated Conventionalism as falling into two different kinds, which are insufficient, in the end, to the needs of contemporary jurisprudence at the end of the 20th century leading to the start of the 21st century. Dworkin ends the chapter asserting the failure of Conventionalism. Dworkin rejects pragmatism here as insufficient to the requirement of adjudication requirements and legislative principles which he sees as prevailing at the end of the twentieth century. Dworkin begins to stress that contemporary jurisprudence in his view needs to hold in high esteem the values of justice as integrity and due process. For Dworkin, "Justice is a matter of outcomes: a political decision causes injustice, however fair its procedures that produced it, when it denies people some resource, liberty, or opportunity that the best theories of justice entitle them to have." For Dworkin, the answerability of jurisprudence to political theory and political obligations is central.

Poliltical ideals are presented as operating from a base of moral concerns which do influence what is legislated as law. Allard, Julie. Dworkin et Kant: Réflexions sur le judgement. Bruxelles: Editions de l'ULB, 2001. Brown, Alexander. Ronald Dworkin's Theory of Equality: Domestic and Global Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Benjamin Brown, From Principles to Rules and from Musar to Halakhah - The Hafetz Hayim's Rulings on Libel and Gossip Burke, Joh


Rathauspark is a 40,000 square meter park in Vienna, located across the street from the Vienna City Hall. The Emperor Franz Joseph I, in 1863, made known his desire to transform the area into a city park for the residents of Vienna. Toward that end, he removed the military parade ground from the site and tasked Dr. Rudolf Siebeck, the city's gardener, with designing the park. To provide contrast to the large, nearby buildings, including the Austrian Parliament Building and Burg Theater, the park had few established structures; the park opened in 1873 with two nearly symmetrical segments on the north and south sides of the site. Between the two parks is a large square. Traditionally, the area is used for a Christmas market, a winter skating rink, a summer outdoor movie venue; the park's flora is among its most desirable characteristics. In addition to large groups of native trees and bushes, the park has exotic trees, including a Japanese Umbrella Tree and an aged Ginkgo Biloba tree

Epicephala obovatella

Epicephala obovatella is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is found in the warm temperate in Taiwan; the wingspan is 7.5–11 mm. The forewings are brown with a narrow white band on the dorsum from the base to 2/3 of the entire length. There are three pairs of narrow white bands beginning at the costal and dorsal margin near 1/2 to 3/4 length of the wing and extending obliquely toward the wing apex, terminating before reaching mid-width of the wing. There is a narrow silver band with metallic reflection extending from the costa to the dorsum at 5/6 length and the distal 1/6 is orange-brown with a black dot centrally, franked by a short white band near the dorsum; the distal end is fringed with a narrow white band. The hindwings are brown; the larvae feed on the seeds of Glochidion rubrum. The species name refers to the species name of the primary host plant