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Robert Estienne

Robert I Estienne, known as Robertus Stephanus in Latin and sometimes referred to as Robert Stephens or Roberti Stephani was a 16th-century printer and classical scholar in Paris. He was the proprietor of the Estienne print shop after the death of his father Henri Estienne, the founder of the Estienne printing firm. Estienne published and republished many classical texts as well as Greek and Latin translations of the Bible. Known as "Printer to the King" in Latin and Greek, Estienne's most priominent work was the Thesaurus linguae latinae, considered to be the foundation of modern Latin lexicography. Additionally, he was the first to print the New Testament divided into standard numbered verses, he was a former Catholic. Many of his published Bibles included commentary which upset the Catholic theologians of the Sorbonne who sought to censor Estienne's work. Overcome by the prejudice of the Sorbonne and his family fled to Geneva where he continued his printing uncensored, publishing many of the works of John Calvin.

He became a citizen of Geneva in 1556, where he would die on September 7, 1559. Of Estienne's four sons, two became accomplished printers, one of, Henri Estienne who continued the legacy of his grandfather Estienne's printing firm. Robert Estienne was one of the most successful printers in the Estienne family and one of the greatest scholars of the time. Along with other printers, Estienne contributed to the "Golden Age of French Typography". Robert Estienne was born in Paris in 1503; the second son of the famous humanist printer Henri Estienne, he became knowledgeable in Latin and Hebrew. After his father's death in 1520, the Estienne printing establishment was maintained by his father's former partner Simon de Colines who married Estienne's mother, the widow Estienne; as Estienne was not yet of age at the time of his father's death and Gilles Nepveu became his legal guardians. Estienne and Colines collaborated in Estienne print shop for a time. Colines was known for his exquisite type cutting.

In 1526, Robert Estienne assumed control of his father's printing shop while Colines established his own firm nearby. The parties agreed to divide the house, printing equipment, printing supplies in half. Colines moved his shop down the street from the Estienne shop. Though the nature of their relationship after this is unknown, scholars suggest that they had mutual respect for one another and may have continued to collaborate, sharing fonts and materials. Though Estienne re-established his father's printing shop in 1526, his first independent project as a scholar-printer can be traced back to 1524, he was in the process of publishing a Latin version of the Bible as he searched Paris for manuscripts. He had printed a New Testament, some slight alterations which he had introduced into the text brought upon him the censures of the faculty of theology, it was the first of a long series of disputes between that body. Around this time, he joined the Reformed Church. Estienne married Perrette Badius in 1526 whose father Josse Badius Ascensius owned a print shop, giving Estienne the resources to print that he lacked from his father's materials alone.

After her father's death in 1535, Estienne merged the Estienne and Badius printing business. His first Biblia or version of the Vulgate Bible was published in 1527. While he was working on the Bible, he increased his revenue and reputation by publishing a series of octavos, which in this case were small, inexpensive educational books from scholars such as Cicero and Lucian. Estienne's trade was as printer-bookseller and though he did publish his own prints, he did not publish in partnership with other printers as was a common practice for printers of the time. With his title of "royal typographer" Robert Estienne promoted the Estienne print shop by his numerous editions of grammatical works and other schoolbooks and of classical and Patristic authors, such as Dio Cassius, Sallust, Julius Caesar, Socrates Scholasticus, Sozomen. During the first fifteen years of his career, Estienne focused his printing on five Latin classic authors Cicero, Plautus and Virgil, he printed works from Horace and Persisus.

He nearly tripled the number of authors' works he published from 1541 to 1545. Scholars suggest that Estienne's trouble with his published Bibles and the Catholic Church led him to publish more authors of Latin Classics as a buffer. Many of Estienne's published classics the Greek editions, were famous for their typographical elegance; the editiones principes issued from Estienne's press were eight in number. He ended with Appian; the last was completed after Estienne's departure from Paris by his brother Charles and appeared under Charles's name. Estienne printed numerous editions of Latin classics, of which the folio Virgil of 1532 is the most noteworthy, he printed a large number of Latin grammars and other educational works, many of which were written by Mathurin Cordier, his friend and co-worker in the cause of humanism. He was trained as a punchcutter. Estienne did, oversee the work of the best punchcutters of the time such as Claude Garamond and Guillaume Le Bé. Under Estienne, Garamond designed the Greek type used by the King of France, used to print the first edition of Roman History.

Estienne was the first printe

Camerton (band)

Camerton are a Mongolian vocal group. They independently formed on June 24, 1995; the same year they won "Best Debut Group" at the Pentatonic Award, the biggest music awards in Mongolia. Considered as the first and the most successful pop/boy band in Mongolia, Camerton have released a total of ten albums and EPs between 1996 and 2004. All four of the bands members were classmates since they were 6 years old at the Mongolian Music and Dance academy, and the band was born by the time. At the peak of their success, the band's popularity spanned throughout East Asia, most notably in Taiwan, where they have released a "best of" compilation, their song "Don't I think About You" has been included in an Asian All Stars' CD, named "Love is The Answer". Following the release of "Celebration" EP in 2004, Camerton announced their hiatus. All four members of the group went on to launch solo careers, most prominently Bold, who released several solo albums since 2005 and started a musical project named "Mongol Pop".

The band reunites for one-time concerts and performances, most notable ones include their tenth and twentieth anniversary concerts in 2005 and 2015 respectively. In January 2015, they released a brand new song called "Асах Гэрэл", a soundtrack for the film "Давхар Цохилт", with a new music video. In November 2015, the band played another sold-out concert in Ulaanbaatar; the concert named. Following their hugely successful concert, Bold announced via his Facebook page that Camerton would be releasing a new album in 2016, the band's first release in more than a decade. 18 нас Уйлахдаа ухаар Амин нутаг EP June 24 Retro II Remix Төгсөшгүй Өнөөдөр Хайрын хот EP June 2004 Celebration EP Хязгааргүй EP Ts. Lkhagvasuren. "Camerton Recording New Album". UB Post. Retrieved 2008-11-02. "Камертон"., Mongolian music portal. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2008-11-02


IEFBR14 is an IBM mainframe utility program. It runs in all IBM mainframe environments derived from OS/360, including z/OS, it is a placeholder that returns the exit status zero, similar to the true command on UNIX-like systems. On OS/360 and derived mainframe systems, most programs never specify files directly, but instead reference them indirectly through the Job Control Language statements that invoke the programs; these data definition statements can include a "disposition" parameter that indicates how the file is to be managed — whether a new file is to be created or an old one re-used. IEFBR14 was created because while DD statements can create or delete files they cannot do so without a program to be run due to a certain peculiarity of the Job Management system, which always requires that the Initiator execute a program if that program is a null statement; the program used in the JCL does not need to use the files to cause their creation or deletion — the DD DISP=... specification does all the work.

Thus a simple do-nothing program was needed to fill that role. IEFBR14 can thus be used to create or delete a data set using JCL. A secondary reason to run IEFBR14 was to unmount devices, left mounted from a previous job because of an error in that job's JCL or because the job ended in error. In either event, the system operators would need to demount the devices, a started task – DEALLOC – was provided for this purpose. Entering the command S DEALLOC at the system console would run the started task, which consisted of just one step. However, due to the design of Job Management, DEALLOC must exist in the system's procedure library, SYS1. PROCLIB, lest the start command fail. All such started tasks must be a single jobstep as the "Started Task Control" module within the Job Management component of the operating system only accepts single-step jobs, it fails all multi-step jobs, without exception. //STEP01 EXEC PGM=IEFBR14 At least on z/OS, branching off to execute another program would cause the calling program to be evaluated for syntax errors at that point.

The "IEF" derives from a convention on mainframe computers that programs supplied by IBM were grouped together by function or creator and that each group shared a three-letter prefix. In OS/360, the first letter was always "I", the programs produced by the Job Management group all used the prefix "IEF". Other common prefixes included "IEB" for dataset utility programs, "IEH" for system utility programs, "IEW" for program linkage and loading. Other major components were "IEA" and "IEC"; as explained below, "BR 14" was the essential function of the program, to return to the operating system. This portion of a program name was mnemonic — for example, IEBUPDTE was the dataset utility that applied updates to source code files, IEHINITT was the system utility that initialized magnetic tape labels; as explained further in "Usage" below, the name "BR14" comes from the IBM assembler-language instruction "Branch Register 14", which by convention is used to "return from a subroutine". Most early users of OS/360 were familiar with IBM Assembler Language and would have recognized this at once.

Example JCL would be: To create a Partitioned Data Set: IEFBR14 consisted of a single instruction a "Branch to Register" 14. The mnemonic used in the IBM Assembler was BR and hence the name: IEF BR 14. BR 14 is identically equivalent to BCR 15,14. BR is a pseudo instruction for BCR 15; the system assembler accepts many cases of such pseudo-instructions, as logical equivalents to the canonical System/360 instructions. The canonical instance of BR 14 is BCR 15,14; the linkage convention for OS/360 and its descendants requires that a program be invoked with register 14 containing the address to return control to when complete, register 15 containing the address at which the called program is loaded into memory. But IEFBR14 was not coded with these characteristics in mind, as IEFBR14 was used as a dummy control section, one which returned to the caller, not as an executable module; the original version of the program did not alter register 15 at all as its original application was as a placeholder in certain load modules which were generated during Sysgen, not as an executable program, per se.

Since IEFBR14 was always invoked by the functional equivalent of the canonical BALR 14,15 instruction, the return code in register 15 was always non-zero. A second instruction was to be added to clear the return code so that it would exit with a determinant status, namely zero. Programmers were not using all properties of the Job Control Language, anyway, so an indeterminate return code was not a problem. However, subsequently programmers were indeed using these properties, so a determinate status became mandatory; this modification to IEFBR14 did not in any way impact its original use as a placeholder. The machine code for the modified program is: SR R15,R15 put zero completion code into register 15 BR R14 branch to the address in register 14 The equivalent machine code, eliminating the BR for clarity, is: SR R15,R15

Eudocia (Lycia)

Eudocia was a town in ancient Lycia. Although William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography said that the Synecdemus of Hierocles mentions four towns in Asia Minor called Eudocia, including one in Lycia, other scholars report the Synecdemus as calling one or more of them Eudocias or Eudoxias. and the name of the Lycian town as it appears in the text of the Synecdemus as edited by Parthey in 1866 is Eudocias, while noting that in some Notitiae Episcopatuum the name is given as Eudoxias. Le Quien, who mentions no town in Lycia called Eudocia, says that the Synecdemus called a town in Lycia Eudocias and one in Pamphylia Eudoxias, but that other sources speak of the Pamphylian town as Eudocias, he sees in the presence in the Synecdemus both of a Lycian Telmessus and a Lycian Eudocias and of a Pamphylian Termessus and a Pamphylian Eudoxias or Eudocias proof that they were all distinct cities. It is curious that, when speaking of Telmessus, he says that it was the Pamphylian Termessus and the Pamphylian Eudocias that for long had the same bishop, when he speaks of the Lycian Eudocias, he attributes to that see the same bishops that he attributes elsewhere to the Pamphylian Eudocias, calling the two most ancient one either bishops of Telmessus and Eudocias or bishops of Termessus and Eudocias.

The bishops that he mentions for both towns that he calls Eudocias are Timotheus and Photius or Photinus. The more recent study by Gams makes no mention of any bishopric in Lycia called either Eudocias or Eudocia, but mentions both the Lycian Telmessus and the Pamphylian Termessus and Eudocias; the Annuario Pontificio speaks of a no longer residential, therefore now titular, episcopal see in the Roman province of Lycia as called Eudocia. It was a suffragan of Myra, the metropolitan see and capital of that province; the Annuario Pontificio states that the town that it calls Eudocia was near Makri, the name that at least by the 9th century was given to the city called Telmessus, now Fethiye, Muğla Province, Turkey

Metro Transit (Minnesota)

Metro Transit is the primary public transportation operator in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area of the U. S. state of Minnesota and the largest operator in the state. The system is a division of the Metropolitan Council, the region's metropolitan planning organization, averaging 264,347 riders each weekday, carrying 90% to 95% of the transit riders in the region on a combined network of regular-route buses, light rail and commuter rail; the remainder of Twin Cities transit ridership is split among suburban “opt-out” carriers operating out of cities that have chosen not to participate in the Metro Transit network. The biggest opt-out providers are Minnesota Valley Transit Authority, Maple Grove Transit and Southwest Transit; the University of Minnesota operates a campus shuttle system that coordinates routes with Metro Transit services. In 2017, buses carried about 68% of the system's passengers. Just above 16% of ridership was concentrated on Metro Transit's busiest route, the Green Line light rail.

The region's other light rail line, the Blue Line, fell close behind, carrying 13% of Metro Transit passengers. Nearly 2% rode the A Line arterial rapid bus line; the remaining 1% rode the Northstar Commuter Rail service. In 2015, Metro Transit saw its highest yearly ridership with a total of 85.8 million trips, 62.1 million of which were on buses. The remaining 23.7 million of passengers traveled on the region's rail lines, including the opened Green Line. The single-day ridership record is 369,626, set on September 1, 2016. Metro Transit drivers and vehicle maintenance personnel are organized through the Amalgamated Transit Union; the agency contracts with private providers such as First Transit to offer paratansit services which operate under the Metro Mobility brand. The agency was established by the Minnesota State Legislature in 1967 as the Metropolitan Transit Commission. MTC's operations were moved under the auspices of the Metropolitan Council in 1994, prompting a name change to “Metropolitan Council Transit Operations” and in 1998, to Metro Transit.

The organization traces its history back to the 19th-century streetcar systems of the region through the acquisition in 1970 of the Twin City Lines bus system from businessman Carl Pohlad. At the time of the acquisition, Twin City Lines had 635 buses: 75% of those were over 15 years old and 86 buses were so old that they were banned from operating in Minneapolis. MTC built many new bus shelters. Shortly thereafter, a long battle began to return rail transit to the region and efforts for additional lines continue at a snail's pace, it took 32 years to see the first line implemented. In 1972, the Regional Fixed Guideway Study for MTC proposed a $1.3 billion 37- or 57-mile heavy-rail rapid transit system, but the then-separate Metropolitan Council disagreed with that idea—refusing to look at the plan—and continuing political battles prevented its implementation. The Met Council had its own plans for bus rapid transit in the Cities. Another system using smaller people movers was proposed in the 1975 Small Vehicle Fixed Guideway Study and gained the most traction with the Saint Paul city council, but was dropped in 1980.

In the 1980s, light rail was proposed as an alternative and several possible corridors were identified, including the Central Corridor, for which a draft environmental impact statement was drawn up in 1982. However, it was another two decades before the Blue Line light rail line began operation on June 26, 2004, by just over 50 years since the last regular-service streetcar ran on June 19, 1954, under the old Twin City Lines. Heavy-rail commuter service began on November 2009, with the Northstar Line; the 2010s decade may see several new lines open. Metro Transit does not cover the whole Twin Cities area. Bus service in the suburbs was being cut back in the early 1980s and suburb-to-suburb service was limited. In 1986, cities and counties in the seven-county metropolitan area were given the option to run their own bus services and leave the MTC system. About 17.5% of the area which has regular route transit service is served by these six other “opt out” transit systems. About 5% of the system is contracted to private transit providers.

In the mid-2000s decade, the system claimed to have a safety record five times better than the national average. Metro Transit receives the majority of its funding from the State Motor Vehicle Sales Tax, the State General Fund and federal revenues. Metro Transit prepares an annual calendar budget, but most of its subsidy comes from state funds, on a July 1 biennial budget. Between 2001 and 2006, reductions in state general funds and state motor vehicle sales tax collections forced a set of service cuts, fare increases and fuel surcharges, all of which reduced ridership. Local policy requires that one third of the system's funding is to come from fares and current operations exceed that level. Since 1 October 2008, fares on all trains increased by 25 cents. Express routes cost more and certain eligible individuals may ride for $1. Many of the fares are more expensive during rush hour periods. For instance, a rush-hour ride on an express bus costs $3.25, as opposed to $2.50 for non-rush hours. The system does not make much use of fare zones aside from downtown zones in Minneapolis and St. Paul, where rides only cost $0.50.

Fare transfer cards valid for 2.5 hours are available upon payment of fare. Only the Northstar commuter rail line charges fares based on distance. A number of discounted multiple-use transit pass options are available. In early 2007, the system intro

Meriden Markham Municipal Airport

Meriden Markham Municipal Airport is a public-use airport located three miles southwest of the central business district of Meriden, a city in New Haven County, United States. This general aviation airport is owned by City of Meriden, it is included in the Federal Aviation Administration National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017–2021, in which it is categorized as a local general aviation facility. Although most U. S. airports use the same three-letter location identifier for the FAA and IATA, Meriden Markham Municipal Airport is assigned MMK by the FAA but has no designation from the IATA. The history of the airport goes back to at least 1928 when Ernest L. Markham was named the first airport manager. Meriden Markham Municipal Airport covers an area of 157 acres which contains one asphalt paved runway measuring 3,100 x 75 ft. For the 12-month period ending May 30, 2007, the airport had 18,028 aircraft operations, an average of 49 per day: 97% local general aviation, 1% transient general aviation, 1% air taxi and <1% military.

There are 70 aircraft based at this airport: 3 % multi-engine and 1 % helicopters. The Connecticut Wing Civil Air Patrol Silver City Cadet Squadron operates out of the airport. Meriden Markham Airport Meriden Aviation Services, Inc. FAA Terminal Procedures for MMK, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for MMK AirNav airport information for KMMK FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures