Robert Fripp is an English musician and record producer, best known as the guitarist and longest lasting member of the progressive rock band King Crimson. He has worked extensively as a session musician and collaborator, notably with David Bowie, Brian Eno, David Sylvian, he has contributed sounds to the Windows Vista operating system. His discography includes contributions to over 700 official releases, he is ranked 62nd on Rolling Stone magazine's 2011 list of the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time after having been ranked by David Fricke 42nd on its 2003 list. Tied with Andrés Segovia, he is ranked 47th on Gibson's Top 50 guitarists of all time, his compositions feature unusual time signatures, which have been influenced by classical and folk traditions. His innovations include Frippertronics, "soundscapes", new standard tuning. Robert Fripp was born in Wimborne Minster, England; the second child of a working class family, his mother Edith was from a Welsh mining family. Her earnings from working at the Bournemouth Records Office allowed his father to start a business as an estate agent.
In 1957, at age ten, Fripp received a guitar for Christmas from his parents and recalled: "Almost I knew that this guitar was going to be my life". He took guitar lessons from Kathleen Gartell and Don Strike, he cited jazz musicians Charlie Parker and Charlie Mingus as his musical influences during this time. In 1961, the fifteen-year-old Fripp joined his first band, The Ravens, which included Gordon Haskell on bass. After they split in the following year, Fripp concentrated on his O-level studies and joined his father's firm as a junior negotiator. At this point, he intended to study estate management and take over his father's business. However, at seventeen, Fripp decided to become a professional musician, he became the guitarist in the jazz outfit The Douglas Ward Trio, playing in the Chewton Glen Hotel near Bournemouth, followed by a stint in the rock and roll band The League of Gentlemen which included two former Ravens members. In 1965, Fripp left the group to attend Bournemouth College, where he studied economics, economic history, political history for his A-levels.
It was during this time when he met musicians that he would collaborate with in his career: John Wetton, Richard Palmer-James, Greg Lake. He subsequently spent three further years playing light jazz in the Majestic Dance Orchestra at the Bournemouth Majestic Hotel. At age 21, going back home from college late at night, Fripp tuned on to Radio Luxemburg where he heard the last moments of "A Day in the Life". "Galvanized" by the experience, he went on to listen to Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, Béla Bartók's string quartets, Antonín Dvořák's New World Symphony, Jimi Hendrix's Are You Experienced and John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers. Many years Fripp would recall that "although all the dialects are different, the voice was the same... I knew I couldn't say no". In 1967, Fripp responded to an advertisement placed by Bournemouth-born brothers Peter and Michael Giles, who wanted to work with a singing organist. Though Fripp was not what they sought, his audition with them was a success and the trio relocated to London and became Giles and Fripp.
Their only studio album, The Cheerful Insanity of Giles and Fripp, was released in 1968. Despite the recruitment of two further members – singer Judy Dyble and multi-instrumentalist Ian McDonald – Fripp felt that he was outgrowing the eccentric pop approach favoured by Peter Giles and the band broke up in 1968. Fripp, McDonald and Michael Giles formed the first lineup of King Crimson in mid-1968, recruiting Fripp's old Bournemouth College friend Greg Lake as lead singer and bass player, McDonald's writing partner Peter Sinfield as lyricist, light show designer and general creative consultant. King Crimson's debut album, In the Court of the Crimson King, was released in late 1969 to great success: drawing on rock and European folk/classical music ideas, it is regarded as one of the most influential albums in the history of progressive rock; the band was tipped for stardom but broke up at the end of its first American tour in 1969. A despondent Fripp offered to leave the group if it would allow King Crimson to survive.
During the recording of the band's second album In the Wake of Poseidon Greg Lake departed to form Emerson and Palmer, leaving Fripp and Sinfield as the only remaining founder members. They issued two more albums and were the only constants in a changing King Crimson lineup, it included Gordon Haskell, saxophonist/flute player Mel Collins, drummers Andy McCulloch and Ian Wallace and future Bad Company bass player Boz Burrell, in addition to a palette of guest players from Soft Machine, Keith Tippett's band, Brotherhood of Breath and Centipede. Fripp was listed as the sole composer of the band's music during this time, which built on the first album's blueprint but progressed further into jazz rock and free jazz while taking form from Sinfield's esoteric lyrical and mythological concepts. In 1971, Fripp ousted Sinfield and took over de facto
Joe Lucy was a British boxer, British lightweight champion between 1953 and 1955 and again between 1956 and 1957. Born in Mile End, Lucy made his professional debut in May 1950, he won 15 of his first 16 fights, his only defeat to South African Gerald Dreyer on points in April 1951. In February 1952 he suffered his second loss while challenging Tommy Barnham for the vacant BBBofC Southern Area lightweight title, he lost his next fight, against Hocine Khalfi the following month. He returned to winning ways and in January 1953 beat Tommy McGovern to win the Southern Area title, the fight a final eliminator for the British title, he was due to meet Frank Johnson in June 1953 for the latter's British title, but Johnson failed to make the weight. In September Lucy faced McGovern again for the now vacant British title. Lucy won on points to become British champion, he had three fights in 1954, beating Belgian champion Joseph Janssens but losing twice to Johnny Butterworth, the first due to a cut while comfortably ahead.
He started 1955 with an unsuccessful challenge for the vacant British Empire lightweight title against Johnny van Rensburg in Johannesburg in February, losing on a split decision, two months lost his British title to Johnson in one of the earliest British title fights to be shown live on television, being admitted to hospital after the fight with abdominal pains. He finished the year to European champion Duilio Loi. In 1956 Lucy's focus returned to the domestic title, after knocking out Gordon Goodman in a final eliminator in February, challenged for Johnson's British title in April. Lucy avenged his earlier defeat, he made a successful defence two months stopping Sammy McCarthy in the thirteenth round. He lost the title in April 1957 to Dave Charnley on points, subsequently retired from boxing, he went on to run the Ruskin Arms Hotel in East Ham. Career record at boxinghistory.org.uk Career record at Boxrec.com Lucy v McCarthy, British lightweight title fight, British Movietone
The 1953–54 season was Port Vale's 42nd season of football in the English Football League, their fifth season overall in the Third Division North. Freddie Steele's side were crowned Third Division North champions with 69 points out of a possible 92, eleven points ahead of their nearest rivals, they reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup, would be denied an appearance in the final due to a controversial goal from a dubious penalty. These achievements were based upon a record-breaking'Iron Curtain' defence, a solid squad of nineteen players, most of whom had taken the club to second in the league the previous season. Seven still-standing club records were set this season, including three Football League records. One Football League record was for the fewest Football League goals conceded in a 46 match season – 26, just over one every two games. Just five of these were conceded at another Football League record; this was based upon 30 clean sheets, again a Football League record. They recorded a club record low of three league defeats, a club record home clean sheet streak of eleven matches, lasting from 7 September 1953 to 13 February 1954.
Another club record was a streak of six away draws. They were undefeated at home all season, continuing a 42 match unbeaten run started on 8 November 1952, that would last until 18 September 1954; the key players that formed the first eleven of 1953–54 were: Ray King. Their achievements came as a team, without any outstanding stars, which caused The Sentinel to remark that the whole team were stars; the pre-season saw no new signings as the young local squad that had finished second in the 1952–53 campaign was enough for manager Freddie Steele. Steele signed a three-year contract following his success the previous season, he considered signing Stoke City goalkeeper Dennis Herod, the two parties held talks before he was instead sold to Stockport County for £500. Alf Jones was given his first professional contract, whilst Selwyn Whalley, Harry Oliver and John Poole all were given part-time professional contracts. Don Bould and Ron Fitzgerald returned from national service to become full-time professionals.
This gave the club a total of 21 full-time professionals, six part-time players and ten players aged 17–21 who could only play and train if they could find time off from their compulsory two-year national service. The strip was a traditional white shirt with black shorts, whilst the change kit of red and white stripes were donated by a friend of one of the club's directors, a Sunderland supporter. There was only one public pre-season friendly on 13 August, which saw the club's first team take on the reserves. Pre-season training consisted of assistant manager Ken Fish leading a marathon running session from Burslem to Hanley and back to Burslem following a stop at a pub for a half-pint of shandy. After returning to the ground Fish would organise a practise game; the fitness work was crucial to the team's success, as Steele was ahead of his time in that he insisted that wide players should defend when the opposition were on the ball, in order to support the defence. Superstition was of great importance to Steele, who ensured that the team rigidly stuck their pre-match rituals such as the intricacies of kit layout and the order in which players entered the pitch.
The season began with a 2–1 win over Mansfield Town at Field Mill on 19 August. The main surprise in the line-up of the opening day was that goalkeeper Ray Hancock had been dropped in favour of Ray King after King impressed in the pre-season friendly, the club's positive season meant that Hancock was unable to win back his place in the side. Vale were held to two consecutive goalless draws but remained unbeaten in their first seven league games, conceding just two goals; this run included a 3–0 win over Darlington at Feethams, a 4–0 win over Barrow in which Hayward scored a hat-trick. They had risen to the top of the table by the third game of the season and remained in first place until the end of the season. Of the Barrow first eleven that day three of the players were brothers: Jack and Bert Keen. Vale lost by a single goal at Redheugh Park against Gateshead on 12 September; this brought to an end the club's then-record streak of 16 games unbeaten. Four days Vale recorded a 2–1 win over Bradford Park Avenue at the Horsfall Stadium despite Reg Potts being injured with a swollen ankle early in the match.
A 2–0 home win over Workington on 19 September began a sequence of five clean sheets, with Jim Elsby standing in for Potts as Steele changed the starting line-up for the first time in eight games – this brought Potts' run of 73 consecutive appearances to an end. The defensive fivesome of keeper Ray King, Tommy Cheadle, Reg Potts, Stan Turner and Roy Sproson began to be known as'the Iron Curtain' or'the Steele Curtain'. A 21 September game against nearby unbeaten Crewe Alexandra was billed as a'crunch clash' between first and second, a Sproson goal on 87 minutes won the match for the Vale. For the return a week late
The WARM Festival is an international arts and human rights festival held annually in Sarajevo and Herzegovina. It was established by the WARM Foundation in 2014, its main focus is on bringing awareness to contemporary armed conflicts through the mediums of war reporting and war art. The WARM Foundation was established in 2013 by French journalist and war correspondent, Rémy Ourdan, who had covered the Siege of Sarajevo and other chapters of the Yugoslav Wars for the French daily newspaper Le Monde, before covering the Rwandan genocide, the Sierra Leone civil war and the wars in the Middle East. On 6 April 2012 - the 20th anniversary of the start of the Siege of Sarajevo, he organized a reunion called "Sarajevo 2012", attended by hundreds of war reporters that had covered it; the reunion was a precursor to the foundation, established 9 months and founded the festival on the 100th anniversary of the start of the First World War in 2014. The first edition was held in May and June of the same year and hosted numerous international historians, journalists and artists including French cartoonist Plantu, German film director Marcel Mettelsiefen, Syrian filmmaker Ossama Mohammed, photojournalist Camille Lepage, killed one month covering the conflict in the Central African Republic and others.
The festival has subsequently become an annual affair and gathers the biggest names in international war correspondence. The festival lasts for 6 days, it is composed of numerous conferences, photography exhibitions, film screenings and panel discussions. Official website
The Hodgdon Powder Company began in 1952 as B. E. Hodgdon, Inc. and has become a major distributor of smokeless powder for the ammunition industry, as well as for individuals who load their own ammunition by hand. The company's corporate office and manufacturing facilities are located in United States. Hodgdon acquired IMR Powder Company in 2003. Winchester branded reloading powders have been distributed in the United States by Hodgdon since March 2006. In January 2009 Hodgdon acquired GOEX Powder, Inc. located in Minden, the only manufacturer of black powder in the USA. Together these product lines make Hodgdon one of the largest manufacturers and distributors of gunpowder in the world. In the opening days of World War II, a chemist friend of Bruce E. Hodgdon was casually reminiscing about World War I, he mentioned the quantities of surplus smokeless powder the military had dumped at sea after the war. He anticipated a similar surplus powder situation might occur after World War II. Hodgdon began investigating availability of surplus powder.
One of the first powders he found was 4895 used for loading.30-06 Springfield service ammunition. He purchased 25 tons of government surplus 4895 for $2000 and purchased two boxcars to store it in preparation for resale at 75 cents per pound, his family packaged the powder for resale in the basement of their home. In 1947, he began acquisition of 80 tons of spherical powder salvaged from disassembled.303 British military rifle cartridges manufactured in the United States. By 1949, he was marketing the powder as BL type C; the C was to indicate the powder burned "cooler" than traditional Improved Military Rifle powders. In 1949, he began acquisition of powder salvaged from disassembled Oerlikon 20mm cannon cartridges; this powder resembled IMR 4350 in appearance, with a slower burning rate, was marketed as "4350 Data", as 4831. United States powder manufacturers had discontinued production of sporting ammunition during World War II. A common approach to product safety involved offering ammunition safe for use in the oldest or weakest firearm chambered for that cartridge.
Owners of stronger firearms found and experimented with Hodgdon's unknown powders to achieve ballistics superior to available factory ammunition for older cartridges like the 7.92×57mm Mauser. Long-range shooters found 4831 was superior to available powders for high-capacity bottle-necked cases. United States powder manufacturers resumed powder sales of one-pound canisters after observing Hodgdon's successful sales to handloaders. DuPont resumed retail distribution of their pre-war nitrocellulose Improved Military Rifle series. Hodgdon Powder Company began using an H-prefix to differentiate powders distributed by Hodgdon from competitors. Surplus Vulcan cannon spherical powder was distributed as H870 beginning in 1959. All of the surplus BL type C had been sold by 1961. Olin Corporation had manufactured the powder as 846, continued production for loading 7.62×51mm NATO cartridges. Hodgdon began marketing post-war production as spherical BL-C lot no. 2, or BL-C. Olin began retail distribution of Winchester-Western ball powders for pistol and shotgun loading in 1960.
Hodgdon distributed spherical powders HS-5 and HS-6 for shotguns and H110, H335, H380, H414, H450 for rifles. DuPont added IMR 4895 to their retail distribution line in 1962, added IMR 4831 in 1973 when supplies of surplus H4831 were exhausted. Hodgdon acquired newly manufactured H4831 from Nobel Enterprises in Scotland; the Nobel formulations offer similar ballistic performance, but substitute centralite deterrent coatings for dinitrotoluene used in United States formulations. Handloaders were advised H-prefix powders were not the same as IMR-prefix powders of the same number. Hodgdon distributed H4227 similar to IMR powders distributed by DuPont. Hodgdon's product line includes Pyrodex and Triple Seven, which are modern substitutes for black powder and intended for use in muzzleloaders and certain antique firearms. Consequences of black powder's easy ignition by sparks or static electricity make manufacture and storage hazardous; the sole factory of the United States' largest 20th-century black powder manufacturer was closed by an accidental explosion as 1970 legislation established new regulations discouraging merchants from stocking black powder for sale.
Future historical re-enactments with replica firearms appeared doubtful until Hodgdon introduced black powder substitute Pyrodex in 1975 with black powder combustion characteristics and smokeless powder safety. Hodgdon Powder Company
Masanao Hanihara was a Japanese diplomat. He was born on August 25, 1876, he came to the United States in 1902 as a member of the Japanese Embassy at Washington, D. C. was consul general at San Francisco in 1916–18 returned to Japan as director of the Bureau of Commerce of the Japanese Foreign Office. He was a member of the Ishii Mission from -- Ishii Agreement, he was an influential member of the Washington Disarmament Conference. In December 1922, he was appointed ambassador to the United States, arrived in Washington in February 1923, his protest, in April 1924, on the passage of the immigration law by the United States government because it would bar the admission of Japanese to the country, was interpreted as "a veiled threat" by the Senate, had quite an opposite effect from that intended. After the passage of the bill, It was rumored that Hanihara was to be recalled by the Japanese government. Although this was denied, it was soon announced, he came back to Japan in 1924 and resigned his Government post in 1927.
He died at the age of 58 in 1934. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead