Robert Fulton was an American engineer and inventor, credited with developing a commercially successful steamboat. In 1807 that steamboat traveled on the Hudson River with passengers, from New York City to Albany and back again, a round trip of 300 miles, in 62 hours; the success of his steamboat changed river trade on major American rivers. In 1800, Fulton had been commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte, leader of France, to attempt to design a submarine. Fulton is credited with inventing some of the world's earliest naval torpedoes for use by the British Royal Navy. Fulton became interested in steam engines and the idea of steamboats in 1777 when he was around age 12 and visited state delegate William Henry of Lancaster, interested in this topic. Henry had learned about inventor James Watt and his Watt steam engine on an earlier visit to England. Robert Fulton was born on a farm in Little Britain, Pennsylvania, on November 14, 1765, his father, Robert Fulton, married Mary Smith, daughter of Captain Joseph Smith and sister of Col. Lester Smith, a comparatively well off family.
He had three sisters – Isabella and Mary, a younger brother, Abraham. For six years, he lived in Philadelphia, where he painted portraits and landscapes, drew houses and machinery, was able to send money home to help support his mother. In 1785, Fulton bought a farm at Hopewell Township in Washington County near Pittsburgh for £80, moved his mother and family into it. At the age of 23, Fulton traveled to Europe, he went to England in 1786, carrying several letters of introduction to Americans abroad from prominent individuals he had met in Philadelphia. He had corresponded with artist Benjamin West. West took Fulton into his home, where Fulton studied painting. Fulton gained many commissions painting portraits and landscapes, which allowed him to support himself, he continued to experiment with mechanical inventions. Fulton became caught up in the enthusiasm of the "Canal Mania". In 1793 he began developing his ideas for tugboat canals with inclined planes instead of locks, he obtained a patent for this idea in 1794 and began working on ideas for the steam power of boats.
He patented a dredging machine and several other inventions. In 1794, he moved to Manchester to gain practical knowledge of English canal engineering. While there he became friendly with Robert Owen, a cotton manufacturer and early socialist. Owen agreed to finance the development and promotion of Fulton's designs for inclined planes and earth-digging machines, but Fulton was not successful at this practical effort and he gave up the contract after a short time. As early as 1793, Fulton proposed plans for steam-powered vessels to both the United States and British governments; the first steamships had appeared earlier. The earliest steam-powered ship, in which the engine moved oars, was built by Claude de Jouffroy in France. Called Palmipède, it was tested on the Doubs in 1776. In 1783, de Jouffroy built Phyroscaphe, the first paddle steamer, which sailed on the Saône; the first successful trial run of a steamboat in America had been made by inventor John Fitch, on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787.
William Symington had tried steamboats in 1788, it seems probable that Fulton was aware of these developments. In Britain, Fulton met the Duke of Bridgewater, Francis Egerton, whose canal, the first to be constructed in the country, was being used for trials of a steam tug. Fulton became enthusiastic about the canals, wrote a 1796 treatise on canal construction, suggesting improvements to locks and other features. Working for the Duke of Bridgewater between 1796 and 1799, Fulton had a boat constructed in the Duke's timber yard, under the supervision of Benjamin Powell. After installation of the machinery supplied by the engineers Bateman and Sherratt of Salford, the boat was duly christened Bonaparte in honour of Fulton having served under Napoleon. After expensive trials, because of the configuration of the design, the team feared the paddles might damage the clay lining of the canal and abandoned the experiment. In 1801, Bridgewater instead ordered eight vessels for his canal based on Charlotte Dundas, constructed by Symington.
In 1797 Fulton went to Paris. He studied German, along with mathematics and chemistry. In Paris, Fulton met James Rumsey, an inventor from Virginia with an interest in steamboats, who in 1786 ran his own first steamboat up the Potomac River. Fulton exhibited the first panorama painting to be shown in Paris, Pierre Prévost's Vue de Paris depuis les Tuileries, on what is still called Rue des Panoramas today. While living in France, Fulton designed the first working muscle-powered submarine, between 1793 and 1797, he experimented with torpedoes. When tested, his submarine operated underwater for 17 minutes in 25 feet of water, he asked the government to subsidize its construction. He approached the Minister of Marine and in 1800 was granted permission to build; the shipyard Perrier in Rouen built it, the submarine sailed first in July 1800 on the Seine River in the same city. In France, Fulton met Robert R. Livingston, appointed U. S. Ambassador to France in 1801, he had a scie
Kevin Haslam is an American football offensive tackle, a free agent. He was signed by the Jacksonville Jaguars as an undrafted free agent in 2010, he played college football at Rutgers. Haslam was signed as an undrafted free agent by the Jacksonville Jaguars after the 2010 NFL Draft. Haslam and two other undrafted free agents made the Jaguars' opening day roster, he played in five games for the Jaguars before being put on injured reserve. He was released on March 13, 2012. Haslam was signed by the Oakland Raiders on May 13, 2012, but was released on August 31, 2012 in the final wave of roster cuts. Haslam was signed by the San Diego Chargers on September 4, 2012, as the final member of the practice squad, he was promoted to the active squad in week 12 and played in five games for the Chargers, starting three at left tackle. He was released on May 2013 to make room on the roster for Max Starks. Haslam was claimed off waivers by the New England Patriots on May 23, 2013. On August 15, 2013, he was released by the Patriots.
Charles Poerson was a French painter. He is notable as the father and tutor of the painter Charles-François Poerson. Born in Vic-sur-Seille, he continued his style. Poerson received several religious commissions - he painted the May for 1642, Saint Peter Preaching in Jerusalem, produced the cartoons for the Life of the Madonna for the interior of Notre-Dame de Paris: The Annunciation, now in the Musée des beaux-arts d'Arras and The Coronation of the Virgin, now in the Landesmuseum Mainz, he was commissioned by cardinal Richelieu to paint the now-lost'gallery of famous men' in his palace - some works from that scheme survive, including The Election of Suger as Abbot of Saint-Denis and Louis VII Arriving at Abbot Suger's Funeral, both now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes. After Philippe de Champaigne and Jacques Stella, Poerson was the third painter to be taken on to produce a series of fourteen tapisteries for Notre-Dame, completed between 1638 and 1657 to fulfil Louis XIII and Richelieu's vow to the Madonna in 1636.
He produced designed for eleven of them between 1650 and 1657 - The Annunciation, The Visitation, The Nativity, The Adoration of the Magi, The Purification of the Virgin, The Flight into Egypt, Christ Disputing with the Doctors of the Law, The Marriage at Cana, The Dormition of the Virgin, The Assumption and The Coronation of the Virgin. The finished tapisteries were acquired by Strasbourg Cathedral chapter in 1739 and now hang in its nave every year between Advent and Epiphany, he died in Paris