Basilicata, known as Lucania, is a region in the south of Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia to the north and east, and Calabria to the south. It has two coastlines, one on the Tyrrhenian Sea between Campania and Calabria, and a coastline along the Gulf of Taranto between Calabria and Apulia. The region can be thought of as the instep of Italy, with Calabria functioning as the toe, the region covers about 10,000 km2 and in 2010 had a population slightly under 600,000. The region is divided into two provinces and Matera, the president of Basilicata is Marcello Pittella. The name derives from basilikos, which refers to the basileus, the Byzantine emperor, others argue that the name may refer to the Basilica of Acerenza which held judicial power in the Middle Ages. During the Greek and Roman Ages, Basilicata was known as Lucania, Basilicata covers an extensive part of the southern Apennine Mountains between Ofanto in the north and the Pollino massif in the south. It is bordered on the east by a part of the Bradano river depression which is traversed by numerous streams.
The region has a coastline to the southwest on the Tyrrhenian Sea side of the peninsula. Basilicata is the most mountainous region in the south of Italy, of the remaining area, 45% is hilly, and 8% is made up of plains. Notable mountains and ranges include Monte Alpi, Monte Carmine, Dolomiti lucane, Monti Li Foj, Toppa Pizzuta, and Monte Vulture. Geological features of the include the volcanic Monte Vulture and the seismic faults in the Melfi and Potenza areas in the north. Much of the region was devastated in the 1857 Basilicata earthquake, more recently, there was another major earthquake in 1980. The combination of the terrain combined with the rock and soil types makes landslides prevalent. While the lithological structure of the substratum and its chaotic tectonic deformation contribute to the cause of landslides and this area, similar to others in the Mediterranean region, while originally abundant with dense forests, was stripped and made barren during the time of Roman rule. The variable climate is influenced by three coastlines and the complexity of the physical features.
The climate is continental in the mountains and Mediterranean along the coasts, the first traces of human presence in Basilicata date to the late Paleolithic, with findings of Homo erectus. Late Cenozoic fossils, found at Venosa and other locations, include elephants, examples of rock art from the Mesolithic have been discovered near Filiano. From the fifth millennium, people stopped living in caves and built settlements of huts up to the leading to the interior
A femme fatale is a stock character of a mysterious and seductive woman whose charms ensnare her lovers, often leading them into compromising and deadly situations. She is an archetype of literature and art, in American early 20th century film, femme fatale characters were referred to as vamps, an allusion to their role as sexual vampires. The phrase is French for fatal woman, a femme fatale tries to achieve her hidden purpose by using feminine wiles such as beauty and sexual allure. In some situations, she uses lies or coercion rather than charm and she may make use of some subduing weapon such as sleeping gas, a modern analog of magical powers in older tales. She may be a victim, caught in a situation from which she cannot escape, a younger version of a femme fatale is called a fille fatale, or fatal girl. Femmes fatale are typically villainous, or at least morally ambiguous, and always associated with a sense of mystification, the femme fatale archetype exists in the culture and myth of many cultures.
Ancient mythical or legendary examples include Mohini, the Sirens, historical examples from Classical times include Cleopatra and Messalina, as well as the Biblical figures Delilah and Salome. An example from Chinese literature and traditional history is Daji, the femme fatale was a common figure in the European Middle Ages, often portraying the dangers of unbridled female sexuality. The pre-medieval inherited Biblical figure of Eve offers an example, as does the wicked, along with them, there rose the gothic novel, The Monk featuring Matilda, a very powerful femme fatale. This led to her appearing in the work of Edgar Allan Poe, pre-Raphaelite painters frequently used the classic personifications of the femme fatale as a subject. Later, Salome was the subject of an opera by Strauss, and was popularized on stage, another enduring icon of glamour and moral turpitude is Margaretha Geertruida Zelle, 1876–1917. While working as a dancer, she took the stage name Mata Hari. Although she may have been innocent, she was accused of German espionage and was put to death by a French firing squad, after her death she became the subject of many sensational films and books.
Other considerably famous femmes fatales are Isabella of France, Hedda Gabler of Kristiania, Marie Antoinette of Austria, one traditional view portrays the femme fatale as a sexual vampire, her charms leech the virility and independence of lovers, leaving them shells of themselves. Rudyard Kipling took inspiration from a vampire painted by Philip Burne-Jones, the poem inspired the 1913 eponymous film The Vampire by Robert Vignola, sometimes cited as the first vamp movie. Like much of Kiplings verse it became popular, and its refrain. Describing a seduced man, became the title of the popular 1915 film A Fool There Was that made Theda Bara a star, the poem was used in the publicity for the film. On this account, in the American slang of the era the femme fatale was called a vamp, from the American film-audience perspective, the femme fatale often appeared foreign, usually either of indeterminate Eastern European or Asian ancestry
Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families. It was among Shakespeares most popular plays during his lifetime and along with Hamlet, is one of his most frequently performed plays, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers. Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. The plot is based on an Italian tale translated into verse as The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet by Arthur Brooke in 1562, Shakespeare borrowed heavily from both but expanded the plot by developing a number of supporting characters, particularly Mercutio and Paris. Believed to have written between 1591 and 1595, the play was first published in a quarto version in 1597. The text of the first quarto version was of quality, however. Shakespeares use of his dramatic structure has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill. The play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters, sometimes changing the form as the character develops, for example, grows more adept at the sonnet over the course of the play.
Romeo and Juliet has been adapted numerous times for stage, musical, during the English Restoration, it was revived and heavily revised by William Davenant. David Garricks 18th-century version modified several scenes, removing material considered indecent, Performances in the 19th century, including Charlotte Cushmans, restored the original text and focused on greater realism. John Gielguds 1935 version kept very close to Shakespeares text and used Elizabethan costumes, the play, set in Verona, begins with a street brawl between Montague and Capulet servants who, like their masters, are sworn enemies. Prince Escalus of Verona intervenes and declares that further breach of the peace will be punishable by death, Count Paris talks to Capulet about marrying his daughter Juliet, but Capulet asks Paris to wait another two years and invites him to attend a planned Capulet ball. Lady Capulet and Juliets nurse try to persuade Juliet to accept Pariss courtship, Benvolio talks with his cousin Romeo, Montagues son, about Romeos recent depression.
Benvolio discovers that it stems from unrequited infatuation for a girl named Rosaline, one of Capulets nieces, persuaded by Benvolio and Mercutio, Romeo attends the ball at the Capulet house in hopes of meeting Rosaline. However, Romeo instead meets and falls in love with Juliet, Juliets cousin, Tybalt, is enraged at Romeo for sneaking into the ball but is only stopped from killing Romeo by Juliets father, who does not wish to shed blood in his house. Romeo makes himself known to her and they agree to be married, with the help of Friar Laurence, who hopes to reconcile the two families through their childrens union, they are secretly married the next day. Tybalt, still incensed that Romeo had sneaked into the Capulet ball, now considering Tybalt his kinsman, refuses to fight. Mercutio is offended by Tybalts insolence, as well as Romeos vile submission, Mercutio is fatally wounded when Romeo attempts to break up the fight
Hollywood is an ethnically diverse, densely populated neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. It is notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its studios, and its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry. Hollywood was a community in 1870 and was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910, in 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished, the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, known as the Father of Hollywood, along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed, the Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, I holly-wood, meaning hauling wood. H. J. Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood, Holly would represent England and wood would represent his Scottish heritage.
Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States, Whitley arranged to buy the 500-acre E. C. Hurd ranch and disclosed to him his plans for the land. They agreed on a price and Hurd agreed to sell at a date, before Whitley got off the ground with Hollywood, plans for the new town had spread to General Harrison Gray Otis, Hurds wife, eastern adjacent ranch co-owner Daeida Wilcox, and others. Daeida Wilcox may have learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and she recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. In August 1887, Wilcox filed with the Los Angeles County Recorders office a deed and parcel map of property he had sold named Hollywood, Wilcox wanted to be the first to record it on a deed. The early real-estate boom busted that year, yet Hollywood began its slow growth. By 1900, the region had a post office, hotel, Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent, the old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood. The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley who was a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard, having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitleys company developed and sold one of the residential areas
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. Simplistically speaking, the person denominated actor or actress is someone beautiful who plays important characters, the actor performs in the flesh in the traditional medium of the theatre, or in modern mediums such as film and television. The analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής, literally one who answers, the actors interpretation of their role pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs even when the actor is playing themselves, as in forms of experimental performance art, or, more commonly, to act, is to create. Formerly, in societies, only men could become actors. When used for the stage, women played the roles of prepubescent boys. The etymology is a derivation from actor with ess added. However, when referring to more than one performer, of both sexes, actor is preferred as a term for male performers. Actor is used before the name of a performer as a gender-specific term.
Within the profession, the re-adoption of the term dates to the 1950–1960s. As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper, Im an actor – I can play anything. The U. K. performers union Equity has no policy on the use of actor or actress, an Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the. subject divides the profession. In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that Actress remains the term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. However, player remains in use in the theatre, often incorporated into the name of a group or company, such as the American Players. Also, actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as players, prior to Thespis act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, and in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are commonly called Thespians, the exclusively male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama, tragedy and the satyr play.
Western theatre developed and expanded considerably under the Romans, as the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies, from the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder
From the Manger to the Cross
From the Manger to the Cross or Jesus of Nazareth is a 1912 American motion picture that was filmed on location in Palestine. It tells the story of Jesus life, directed by Sidney Olcott who appeared in the film and screenwriter Gene Gauntier wrote the script and portrayed the Virgin Mary. The film received excellent reviews at the time of its original release, after Vitagraph Studios acquired Kalem, the film was re-released in February 1919. According to Turner Classic Movies, the film cost $35,000 to produce, although the films profits eventually amounted to almost $1 million, the Kalem directors refused to increase Olcotts basic salary and he resigned. Mayer, head of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, would say this was the film for his movie theater in Haverhill, Massachusetts. However, most sources place the date of this film as 1912. A statement by Israel Zangwill describing it as An artistic triumph — the kinema put to its true end appeared on advertising bills outside the Queens Hall. From the Manger to the Cross gained considerable publicity from an outcry in the Daily Mail and it demanded, and waxed indignant about the profits for its American film producers.
Although initially disappointed, he discovered a set of negatives after searching in the vaults. Hession added a sound track and spoken commentary, and From the Manger to the Cross was re-released in 1938. TCM host Robert Osborne and the National Film Preservation Foundation consider this film to be the most important silent film to deal with the life of Christ. In 1998, the United States Library of Congress deemed the film culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant, Burke Publishing Co. Michel Derrien, Aux origines du cinéma irlandais, Sidney Olcott, le premier oeil, TIR2013. ISBN 978-2-917681-20-6 Philippe Baron, Première passion, documentaire sur From the Manger to the Cross, France,2009,55 minutes, produit par Vivement lundi
The Scarlet Letter (1934 film)
The Scarlet Letter is a 1934 American film directed by Robert G. Vignola. It was shot in Salems Pioneer Village and Sherman Oaks, California and it was the only film Colleen Moore ever said she made for the money. She was reportedly preparing to take her dollhouse on tour for charity, walthall played Roger Chillingworth in both this and the 1926 silent version. The film has been preserved by the UCLA Film & Television Archive, Hester Prynne has a child out of wedlock and refuses to name the father. For this, she is sentenced to wear a red letter A and her husband is long missing and presumed dead. When the husband returns and finds his wife with another mans child, at last, the father reveals himself, with a letter A carved in his chest. Colleen Moore as Hester Prynne Hardie Albright as Arthur Dimmesdale Henry B
Upstate New York
Upstate New York is the portion of the American state of New York lying north of New York City. The region includes most of the state of New York, excluding New York City and its environs, as well as Long Island, Upstate New York includes the major cities of Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse. Before the American Revolutionary War, Upstate was populated by Native Americans, the region saw many battles between the Continental Army and the Iroquois, and several treaties drawn up after the war ceded much of the land to settlers of European descent. As a result, Upstate became a hotbed for manufacturing, giving birth to such firms as General Electric, IBM, and Xerox, and it welcomed a large influx of immigrants. Since the mid 20th century, American de-industrialization has contributed to economic and population decline Upstate, unlike the New York metropolitan area, Upstate New York contains vast areas of rural land. As a result, Upstate supports a strong industry, and is notable for its milk and dairy products, its fruit production.
New York City is dependent on the resources of Upstate for a variety of services, including the citys water supply. The region is home to popular tourist and recreational destinations, including Niagara Falls, the Adirondack and Catskill Mountains. There is no official boundary between Upstate New York and Downstate New York. The broadest usage of the term Upstate New York excludes only New York City and Long Island, which are always considered to be part of Downstate New York. Another usage locates the Upstate/Downstate boundary further north, at the point where New York Citys suburbs segue into its exurbs, yet another definition uses the prior Census definition of the New York metropolitan area, which until 2010 included Westchester and Putnam Counties. This was the used by the plaintiffs in the federal redistricting case of Rodriguez v. Pataki. Residents of Upstate New York sometimes prefer to identify with a more specific subregion, a number of businesses and institutions in the area have Upstate as part of their name.
The other regions of New York State are culturally and economically distinct from the New York City area, the states major metropolitan areas outside of New York City are Buffalo, Albany-Schenectady-Troy, and Syracuse, each of whose population exceeds 500,000. The different regions of New York State are influenced by and have affinities with other adjacent regions, Western New York has cultural and economic ties to the other Great Lakes states as well as Southern Ontario. The Capital District, the Hudson Valley, the Mohawk Valley, the North Country, the extreme northern portion of the state, has strong cultural, economic and familial ties to Quebec and Eastern Ontario. Thus, Plattsburgh has close ties to its neighbors in the Montreal area as well as Vermont, much of New York State receives television and radio broadcasts from Canada and there are often other cross-border ties, both historical and familial. A similar relationship can be seen in Northern New England, the Hudson and lower Mohawk Valley has more in common dialectologically with western New England and New York City
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. The silent film era lasted from 1895 to 1936, in silent films for entertainment, the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures and title cards which contain a written indication of the plot or key dialogue. During silent films, a pianist, theatre organist, or, in large cities and organists would either play from sheet music or improvise, an orchestra would play from sheet music. The term silent film is therefore a retronym—that is, a term created to distinguish something retroactively, the early films with sound, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were referred to as talkies, sound films, or talking pictures. A September 2013 report by the United States Library of Congress announced that a total of 70% of American silent feature films are believed to be completely lost, the earliest precursors of film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern. This utilized a glass lens, a shutter and a persistent light source, such as a powerful lantern and these slides were originally hand-painted, but still photographs were used on after the technological advent of photography in the nineteenth century.
The invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years, the next significant step towards film creation was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828 and only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called Persistence of Vision. This experience was further demonstrated through Rogets introduction of the thaumatrope, the first projected primary proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horses gallop, the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a film of people walking in Oakwood streets garden. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, due to Edisons lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were invented around the world. The Lumière brothers, for example, created the Cinématographe in France, the Cinématographe proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edisons as it combined a camera, film processor and projector in one unit.
In contrast to Edisons peepshow-style kinetoscope, which one person could watch through a viewer. Their first film, Sortie de lusine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture, the invention of celluloid film, which was strong and flexible, greatly facilitated the making of motion pictures. This film was 35 mm wide and pulled using four sprocket holes and this doomed the cinematograph, which could only use film with just one sprocket hole. From the very beginnings of film production, the art of motion pictures grew into maturity in the silent era. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that virtually every style, the silent era was pioneering era from a technical point of view
William Clark Gable was an American film actor, often referred to as The King of Hollywood or just simply as The King. Gable began his career as an actor and appeared as an extra in silent films between 1924 and 1926, and progressed to supporting roles with a few films for MGM in 1931. The next year, he landed his first leading Hollywood role and he starred with Lana Turner in four features, and with Norma Shearer and Ava Gardner in three each. Gables final film, The Misfits, united him with Marilyn Monroe, Gable is considered one of the most consistent box-office performers in history, appearing on Quigley Publishings annual Top Ten Money Making Stars Poll 16 times. He was named the seventh-greatest male star of classic American cinema by the American Film Institute, William Clark Gable was born in Cadiz, Ohio, to William Henry Will Gable, an oil-well driller, and his wife, Adeline. Gable was named William after his father, but even in childhood and he was mistakenly listed as a female on his birth certificate.
Among Gables ancestors were Pennsylvania Dutch and Bavarians, when he was six months old, his mother had him baptized as a Roman Catholic. She died when he was ten months old, possibly from a brain tumor, will Gable refused to raise his son Catholic, provoking criticism from Adelines side of the family. The dispute was resolved when Will Gable agreed to allow his son to spend time with his uncle, Charles Hershelman. In April 1903, Gables father married Jennie Dunlap, whose family came from the neighboring town of Hopedale. Gable was a tall, shy child with a loud voice and his stepmother raised him to be well-dressed and well-groomed. Jennie played the piano and gave her lessons at home. Later he took up brass instruments, at 13, he was the only boy in the mens town band. He was very mechanically inclined and loved to strip down and repair cars with his father, though his father insisted on Gable doing manly things, like hunting and hard physical work, Gable loved language. Among trusted company, he would recite Shakespeare, particularly the sonnets, will Gable agreed to buy a 72-volume set of The Worlds Greatest Literature to improve his sons education, but claimed he never saw his son use it.
In 1917, when Gable was in school, his father had financial difficulties. Will decided to settle his debts and try his hand at farming, despite his fathers insistence that he work the farm, Gable soon left to work in Akron for the Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. At 17, Clark Gable was inspired to be an actor after seeing the play The Bird of Paradise, by then, his stepmother had died, and his father moved to Tulsa, Oklahoma to go back to the oil business