Kingdom of Germany
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire. Like Anglo-Saxon England and medieval France, it began as a conglomerate, East Francia was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, and was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective. The initial electors were the rulers of the duchies, who generally chose one of their own. After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, the formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire. The term rex teutonicorum first came into use in the chancery of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy, in the twelfth century, in order to stress the imperial and transnational character of their office, the emperors began to employ the title rex Romanorum on their election. Distinct titulature for Germany and Burgundy, which traditionally had their own courts, there are nevertheless relatively few references to a German realm and an instability in the terms use. The eastern division of the Treaty of Verdun was called the regnum Francorum Orientalium or Francia Orientalis and it was the eastern half of the old Merovingian regnum Austrasiorum.
The east Franks themselves were the people of Franconia, which had settled by Franks. Foreign kings and ecclesiastics continued to refer to the regnum Alemanniae, the term regnum Germaniae begins to appear even in German sources at the beginning of the fourteenth century. Therefore, throughout the Middle Ages, the convention was that the king of Germany was Emperor of the Romans and his title was royal from his election to his coronation in Rome by the Pope, thereafter, he was emperor. After the death of Frederick II in 1250, the trend toward a clearly conceived German kingdom found no real consolidation. The title of king of the Romans became less and less reserved for the emperor-elect but uncrowned in Rome, the reign was dated to begin either on the day of election or the day of the coronation. The election day became the starting date permanently with Sigismund, Maximilian I changed the style of the emperor in 1508, with papal approval, after his German coronation, his style was Dei gratia Romanorum imperator electus semper augustus.
That is, he was emperor elect, a term that did not imply that he was emperor-in-waiting or not yet fully emperor, at the same time, the custom of having the heir-apparent elected as king of the Romans in the emperors lifetime resumed. For this reason, the king of the Romans came to mean heir-apparent. The Archbishop of Mainz was ex officio arch-chancellor of Germany, as his colleagues the Archbishop of Cologne and Archbishop of Trier were, arch-chancellors of Italy and these titles continued in use until the end of the empire, but only the German chancery actually existed. The tripartite division of the Carolingian Empire effected by the Treaty of Verdun was challenged early on with the death of the Emperor Lothair I in 855. He had divided his kingdom of Middle Francia between his three sons and immediately the northernmost of the three divisions, was disputed between the kings of East and West Francia, the war over Lotharingia lasted until 925
Pope Sergius IV
It can refer to Sergius IV of Naples, Duke of Naples in 1002–36. Pope Sergius IV was Pope and the ruler of the Papal States from 31 July 1009 to his death in 1012 and he was born in Rome as Pietro Martino Buccaporci, which essentially translates as Peter Martin Pigs Snout. The date of his birth is unknown but is believed to be around 970, Buccaporci was the son of a shoemaker by the name of Pietro. Despite his familys background, he performed well after entering the Church. In 1004, he became the Cardinal-Bishop of Albano after he became a cardinal and he was elected pope after the abdication of Pope John XVIII in 1009, and adopted the name Sergius IV. The power held by Sergius IV was small and often overshadowed by John Crescentius III, some historians have claimed that Sergius IV was essentially a puppet ruler for Crescentius III. Others, claimed that the Pope resisted his power, acts sometimes attributed to Sergius IV include measures to relieve famine in the city of Rome, and the exemption of certain monasteries from episcopal rule.
More recently, Hans Martin Schaller has forcefully argued for the documents authenticity. Sergius IV died on 12 May 1012 and was buried in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, there was some suspicion that he was murdered, as he died within a week of Crescentius, considered by many to have been his patron. Sergius was followed in the papacy by Pope Benedict VIII
The word excommunication means putting a specific individual or group out of communion. In some religions, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the member or group, Excommunication may involve banishment and shaming, depending on the religion, the offense that caused excommunication, or the rules or norms of the religious community. 1 Corinthians 5, 1-8 directs the church at Corinth to excommunicate a man for sexual immorality, in 2 Corinthians 2, 5-11, the man, having repented and suffered the punishment by the majority is restored to the church. In Romans 16,17, Paul writes to mark those who cause divisions contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned and avoid them. Also, in 2 John 1, 10-11, the writer advises believers that whosoever transgresseth and he that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son. If there come any unto you, and bring not this doctrine, receive him not into your house, neither bid him God speed, within the Catholic Church, there are differences between the discipline of the majority Latin Church regarding excommunication and that of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
Excommunication can be either latae sententiae or ferendae sententiae, according to Bishop Thomas J. Paprocki, excommunication does not expel the person from the Catholic Church, but simply forbids the excommunicated person from engaging in certain activities. g. A thus excommunicated bishop cannot validly invest a priest as pastor of a vacant parish and they are urged to retain a relationship with the Church, as the goal is to encourage them to repent and return to active participation in its life. These are the effects for those who have incurred a latae sententiae excommunication. Since excommunication excludes from reception of the sacraments, absolution from excommunication is required before absolution can be given from the sin that led to the censure, in many cases, the whole process takes place on a single occasion in the privacy of the confessional. For some more serious wrongdoings, absolution from excommunication is reserved to a bishop, another ordinary and these can delegate a priest to act on their behalf.
Such ceremonies are not held today, and instead are simply announced by the bishop, interdict is a censure similar to excommunication. It too excludes from ministerial functions in public worship and from reception of the sacraments, in the Eastern Catholic Churches, excommunications is imposed only by decree, never incurred automatically by latae sententiae excommunication. A distinction is made between minor and major excommunication and those on whom minor excommunication has been imposed are excluded from receiving the Eucharist and can be excluded from participating in the Divine Liturgy. They can even be excluded from entering a church when divine worship is being celebrated there, the decree of excommunication must indicate the precise effect of the excommunication and, if required, its duration. They are to be removed from participation in the Divine Liturgy, and they are deprived of the right to vote or to be elected. Minor excommunication is roughly equivalent to the interdict in Western law, under current law, an excommunicate is never vitandus.
Persons belonging to an Eastern Catholic Church are never subject to a latae sententiae punishment, according to the Code of Canon Law of 1917, the excommunications reserved to the Apostolic See were grouped in three categories, those reserved 1
Bertha of Burgundy
Bertha of Burgundy was the daughter of Conrad the Peaceful, King of Burgundy and his wife Matilda, daughter of Louis IV, King of France and Gerberga of Saxony. She was named for her fathers mother, Bertha of Swabia and she first married Odo I, Count of Blois in about 983. They had several children, including Odo II, after the death of her husband in 996, Berthas cousin Robert, co-King of France wished to marry her, in place of his repudiated first wife Rozala, who was many years his senior. The union was opposed by Roberts father, Hugh Capet, due to the political problem that could be caused by religious authorities due to their consanguinity. However, the marriage went ahead after Hughs death in October 996, the closeness of Robert and Bertha by blood was such that Church authorities considered the marriage illegal since they had not received a dispensation, nor had they requested one. Accordingly, Pope Gregory V declared the pair excommunicated and this, and the lack of children, caused Robert to agree with Pope Silvester II to have the marriage annulled in 1000.
Robert next married Constance of Arles while Bertha may have been the Bertha who married Arduin of Ivrea, King of Italy, Marquis of Ivrea
Beaugency is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France. It is located on the Loire river, upriver from Blois,11 March 1152 the council of Beaugency doomed the marriage between Eleanor of Aquitaine and Louis VII. Aaron ben Joseph of Beaugency was a French Bible commentator and rabbinical scholar, the lords of Beaugency attained considerable importance in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, at the end of the 13th century they sold the fiefdom to the Crown. Afterward it passed to the house of Orléans, to those of Dunois and Longueville, the city of Beaugency has been the site of numerous military conflicts. It was occupied on four occasions by the English. On June 16–17,1429, it was the site of the famous Battle of Beaugency, Beaugency played an important strategic role in the Hundred Years War. It was burned by the Protestants in 1567 and suffered damage to the walls, the castle. On the 8th, 9th and 10 December 1870, the Prussian army, commanded by the grand-duke of Mecklenburg, defeated the French army of the Loire, under General Chanzy and it was fought on the right bank of the Loire to the northwest of Beaugency.
In 1940 and again in 1944, the city was bombed by Nazi Germany, on 16 September 1944, German Major General Botho Henning Elster and his 18850 men and 754 officers surrendered at the Loire bridge of Beaugency to French résistance. Until 1846 Beaugency was an important commercial center due to trade along the Loire, after trade moved from the river to rail traffic, the citys role changed. Beaugency became a center for the surrounding agricultural district. Today Beaugencys economy depends largely on tourism, medieval keep 47°46′39″N 1°37′59″E Lock of Dunois Church Saint Etienne Abbey church City hall Bridge INSEE statistics Beaugency yesterday, vintage cards
Rozala of Italy
Rozala of Italy was a Countess of Flanders and Queen consort of the Franks. She was regent of Flanders in 987-988 during the minority of her son, born sometime between 950–960, was the daughter of King Berengar of Ivrea, King of Italy. Her mother was Willa of Tuscany, the daughter of Boso, Margrave of Tuscany, in 968 she married Arnulf II, Count of Flanders. On her husbands death, she acted as regent for her young son, on c. 1 April 988 she married secondly the much younger Robert the Pious, the Rex Filius of France, the marriage had been arranged by his father Hugh Capet. According to disputed account she brought her husband Montreuil and Ponthieu as a dowry, upon her marriage, she took the name of Susannah, and was the queen consort of the co-ruling king Robert, under senior King Hugh. From 991/992 the couple lived basically separated as Rozala had become too old to have more children, when her father-in-law died in 996, Robert repudiated her completely, desiring to marry Bertha of Burgundy in her place.
That marriage was not lawful because of too close kinship so Robert married a third time 1003 with Constance of Arles who bore him seven children, Rozala retired back to Flanders, where she died and was buried. Robert retained control of her dowry, or the rights to the mentioned territory, Rozala was firstly married to Arnulf II, Count of Flanders. They had the children, Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders Mathilda. The second marriage with Robert II of France did not produce any children
Pope John XV
John XV and Pope John XV can refer to Pope John XV of Alexandria. Pope John XV was Pope from August 985 to his death in 996 and he was said to have been Pope after another Pope John who reigned four months after Pope John XIV and was named Papa Ioannes XIV Bis or Pope John XIVb. This supposed second John XIV never existed, rather he was confused with a cardinal deacon John, son of Robert. In 993, he was the first pope to proclaim a saint, at the request of the German ruler, he canonized Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg on 31 January 993. Before that time, saint cults had been local and spontaneous, John XV was the son of Leo, a Roman presbyter. The Popes venality and nepotism made him unpopular with the citizens of Rome. He was a patron and protector of the monks of Cluny. During this papacy, a dispute arose over the deposition in 991 of Arnulf, Archbishop of Reims, by French churchmen. Hugh Capet, king of France, made Arnulf archbishop of Reims in 988, even though Arnulf was the nephew of the Kings bitter rival, Charles thereupon succeeded in capturing Reims and took the archbishop prisoner.
Hugh, considered Arnulf a turncoat and demanded his deposition by John XV, what would you say of such a one, when you see him sitting upon the throne glittering in purple and gold. Must he not be the Antichrist, sitting in the temple of God, the proceedings of the Synod of Reims were repudiated by Rome, although a second synod had ratified the decrees issued there. John XV summoned the French bishops to hold an independent synod outside the French kings realm at Aachen to reconsider the case, when they refused, he called them to Rome, but they protested that the unsettled conditions en route and in Rome made that impossible. Through the exertions of the legate, the deposition of Arnulf was finally pronounced illegal, after Hugh Capets death on 23 October 996, Arnulf was released from his imprisonment and soon restored to all his dignities. As for Gerbert, he set out for the court at Magdeburg. This was the first time in history that a solemn canonization had been made by a Pope, the Emperor elevated his own kinsman Bruno to the papal dignity under the name of Gregory V.
Herbermann, Charles, ed. Pope John XV. Franz Xaver Seppelt, Geschichte der Päpste, 2nd edition, Kösel Verlag, Munich,1955, pp. 381ff. In, Massimo Bray, Enciclopedia dei Papi, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Vol.2, Rome,2000, OCLC313581688, pp. 102–107
Borrell II, Count of Barcelona
Borrell II was Count of Barcelona and Ausona from 945 and Count of Urgell from 948. Borrell was first seen acting as Count during the reign of his father Sunyer in 945 at the consecration of the church of Sant Pere de les Puelles in Barcelona. In 947, Sunyer retired to life and ceded the government of his realms jointly to his sons Borrell. In 948, Borrell inherited Urgell from his uncle Sunifred II. Sunyer died in 950, and Miró died in 966, leaving Borrell sole ruler of more than half of Old Catalonia and his own documents almost all refer to him merely as comes et marchio and Marquis. Borrell was the son of Sunyer, in 967 he married Letgarda, who is speculated to have been daughter of a Count of Toulouse or Rouergue based on the names given to her children. By her Borrell had two sons and two daughters, Ramon Borrell, Ermengol and Richilda, after Letgardas death circa 986, he married Eimeruda of Auvergne in 987. On the other hand, he had far greater success as a diplomat, furthermore, in 970, he voyaged to Rome to meet with both Pope John XIII and Emperor Otto I.
Borrell was a patron of learning and culture, in 967, Borrell visited the monastery of Aurillac and the Abbot asked the count to take Gerbert of Aurillac with him so that the boy could study mathematics in Spain. In the following years, Gerbert studied under the direction of Bishop Atto of Vic, some 60 km north of Barcelona, and probably at the nearby Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll. He was taken on the 970 embassy to Rome, during which the Pope persuaded Otto to employ Gerbert as a tutor for his young son, the future emperor Otto II. In 985 the Hispanic March was attacked by the Muslim general Almanzor, who managed to take Barcelona, many citizens were taken prisoner by the Muslim forces. No answer to Hughs letter is known from Borrell, and the connection between the March and France was effectively broken. From 988, Borrells sons Ramon Borrell and Ermengol appear as rulers in a territory, with Ramon Borrell being count of Barcelona, Girona. It was not to be, and his death followed soon afterwards
Fulk III, Count of Anjou
Fulk III, the Black was an early Count of Anjou celebrated as one of the first great builders of medieval castles. He constructed an estimated 100 of them, along with abbeys and he fought successive wars with neighbors in Brittany, Blois and Aquitaine and traveled four times to Jerusalem on pilgrimage during the course of his life. He had two wives and three children, Fulk was a natural horseman and a fearsome warrior, with a keen sense of military strategy that saw him get the better of most of his opponents. He was allied with the goals and aims of the Capetians against the dissipated Carolingians of his era, with his county seat at Angers, Fulk’s bitter enemy was Eudes II of Blois, his neighbor 128 km east along the Loire River, at Tours. The two men traded towns and insults throughout their lives, Fulk finished his first castle at Langeais,104 km east of Angers, on the banks of the Loire, in 994. He built it in the territory of Eudes I, Count of Blois, but Eudes I died of a sudden illness, and his son and successor, Eudes II, did not manage to evict him.
He fortified the castles at Angers, Chateau-Gontier, Chinon and Semblançay, “The construction of castles for the purpose of extending a ruler’s power was part of Fulk Nerra’s strategy, ” wrote Peter Fraser Purton, in A History of Medieval Siege, c. Although he never learned to write, he endowed a school with revenue to provide students with an education. Fulk undertook four pilgrimages to Jerusalem and he was the son of Geoffrey I of Anjou, known as Geoffrey Grisegonelle, and Adélaide of Vermandois. He had a sister, who married Conan of Brittany. A half-brother, was born in 980, Fulk married Elisabeth de Vendôme, daughter of Count Bouchard of Vendome, and they had a daughter, Adèle. Married Bodon, son of Landry, count of Nevers and their eldest son, inherited Vendôme. Fulk married Hildegarde de Sundgau, whose family was from Lorraine and they had two children, Geoffroy, in 1006, who became known as Geoffroy Martel, succeeded Fulk as count of Anjou in 1040. Fulk Nerra’s first victory was in June 992 at Battle of Conquereuil, Conan’s territorial ambitions had been quashed by Geoffroy Grisgonelle in 980, and seven years later, he planned an ambush on Angers while Fulk was at the crowning of Robert the Pious.
Fulk and his men foiled the ambush, killing Conan’s son, in 992 Fulk laid siege to Conan’s castle at Nantes, but he slipped away to Conquereuil. Conan was killed in the battle, and Fulk set up as governor a regent, while Fulk and Eudes II fought many skirmishes over territory and alliances, their biggest battle occurred in July 1016 at Battle of Pontlevoy. Eudes was marching a large troop of 10,000 men southward toward Fulk’s tower at Montboyau when Fulk, Fulk’s men were routed, and retreated, and Eudes, thinking the battle won, went for a swim in the Cher River. Reinforcements arrived to help Fulk, and they returned and slaughtered Eudes men, Fulk undertook four pilgrimages to Jerusalem, seeking forgiveness for his sins in at least two of the journeys
Adelaide of Aquitaine
Adbelahide or Adele or Adelaide of Aquitaine, was queen consort of France by marriage to Hugh Capet. Adelaide was the daughter of William III, Duke of Aquitaine and Adele of Normandy and her father used her as security for a truce with Hugh Capet, whom she married in 969. In 987, after the death of Louis V, the last Carolingian king of France and they were proclaimed at Senlis and blessed at Noyon. They were the founders of the Capetian dynasty of France and Hughs children were, Countess of Mons, wife of Reginar IV, Count of Mons Robert II, the future king of France. Crowned co-king 987 in order to consolidate the new dynasty Gisèle, Countess of Ponthieu, wife of Hugh I, Count of Ponthieu A number of other daughters are less reliably attested