A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name. Pseudonyms include stage names and user names, ring names, pen names, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, regnal names of emperors and other monarchs, they have taken the form of anagrams and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – to provide a more clear-cut separation between one's private and professional lives, to showcase or enhance a particular persona, or to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, computer hackers' handles. Actors, voice-over artists and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to better channel a relevant energy, gain a greater sense of security and comfort via privacy, more avoid troublesome fans/"stalkers", or to mask their ethnic backgrounds.
In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes, "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin. A pseudonym may be used for personal reasons: for example, an individual may prefer to be called or known by a name that differs from their given or legal name, but is not ready to take the numerous steps to get their name changed. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Carolyn Keene, Ellery Queen, Nicolas Bourbaki. Or James S. A. Corey; the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον "false name", from ψεῦδος, "lie, falsehood" and ὄνομα, "name". A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, the name of another person, assumed by the author of a work of art; this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s.
See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship. Sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person; this is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name. In many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a person's new legal name. For example, in the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm Little changed his surname to "X", to represent his unknown African ancestral name, lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves, he changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam. Some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames, in their families for generations; the politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Many transgender people choose to adopt a new name around the time of their social transitioning, to resemble their desired gender better than their birth name.
Businesspersons of ethnic minorities in some parts of the world are sometimes advised by an employer to use a pseudonym, common or acceptable in that area when conducting business, to overcome racial or religious bias. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, dummy corporations to hide their identity, or to impersonate other persons or entities in order to commit fraud. Aliases and fictitious business names used for dummy corporations may become so complex that, in the words of the Washington Post, "getting to the truth requires a walk down a bizarre labyrinth" and multiple government agencies may become involved to uncover the truth. A pen name, or "nom de plume", is a pseudonym adopted by an author; some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. The Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books. Anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell. Emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans. Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used female pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter O'Donnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender. The most used measure of life expectancy is at birth, which can be defined in two ways. Cohort LEB is the mean length of life of an actual birth cohort and can be computed only for cohorts born many decades ago, so that all their members have died. Period LEB is the mean length of life of a hypothetical cohort assumed to be exposed, from birth through death, to the mortality rates observed at a given year. National LEB figures reported by statistical national agencies and international organizations are indeed estimates of period LEB. In the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, LEB was 26 years. For recent years, LEB in Swaziland is about 49, while LEB in Japan is about 83; the combination of high infant mortality and deaths in young adulthood from accidents, plagues and childbirth before modern medicine was available lowers LEB.
For example, a society with a LEB of 40 may have few people dying at 40: most will die before 30 or after 55. In populations with high infant mortality rates, LEB is sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life; because of this sensitivity to infant mortality, LEB can be subjected to gross misinterpretation, leading one to believe that a population with a low LEB will have a small proportion of older people. Another measure, such as life expectancy at age 5, can be used to exclude the effect of infant mortality to provide a simple measure of overall mortality rates other than in early childhood. Aggregate population measures, such as the proportion of the population in various age groups, should be used along individual-based measures like formal life expectancy when analyzing population structure and dynamics. However, pre-modern societies still had universally higher mortality rates and universally lower life expectancies at every age for both genders, this example was rare.
In societies with life expectancies of 30, for instance, a 40 year remaining timespan at age 5 may not be uncommon, but a 60 year one was. Mathematically, life expectancy is the mean number of years of life remaining at a given age, assuming age-specific mortality rates remain at their most measured levels, it is denoted by e x, which means the mean number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged x, according to a particular mortality experience. Longevity, maximum lifespan, life expectancy are not synonyms. Life expectancy is defined statistically as the mean number of years remaining for an individual or a group of people at a given age. Longevity refers to the characteristics of the long life span of some members of a population. Maximum lifespan is the age at death for the longest-lived individual of a species. Moreover, because life expectancy is an average, a particular person may die many years before or many years after the "expected" survival; the term "maximum life span" is more related to longevity.
Life expectancy is used in plant or animal ecology. The term life expectancy may be used in the context of manufactured objects, but the related term shelf life is used for consumer products, the terms "mean time to breakdown" and "mean time between failures" are used in engineering. Records of human lifespan above age 100 are susceptible to errors. For example, the previous world-record holder for human lifespan, Carrie White, was uncovered as a simple typographic error after more than two decades. Therefore, the capacity for equivalent hidden errors make maximum lifespan records dubious; the oldest confirmed recorded age for any human is 122 years, reached by Jeanne Calment who lived between 1875 and 1997. This is referred to as the "maximum life span", the upper boundary of life, the maximum number of years any human is known to have lived. A theoretical study shows that the maximum life expectancy at birth is limited by the human life characteristic value δ, around 104 years. According to a study by biologists Bryan G. Hughes and Siegfried Hekimi, there is no evidence for limit on human lifespan.
However, this view has been questioned on the basis of error patterns. The following information is derived from the 1961 Encyclopædia Britannica and other sources, some with questionable accuracy. Unless otherwise stated, it represents estimates of the life expectancies of the world population as a whole. In many instances, life expectancy varied according to class and gender. Life expectancy at birth takes account of infant mortality but not prenatal mortality. Life expectancy increases with age as the individual survives the higher mortality rates associated with childhood. For instance, the table above listed the life expectancy at birth among 13th-century English nobles at 30. Having survived until the age of 21, a male member of the English aristocracy in this period could expect to live: 1200–1300: to age 64 1300–1400: to age 45 1400–1500: to age 69 1500–1550: to age 71In a similar way, the life expectancy of scholars in the Medieval Islamic world was 59–84.3 years.17th-century English life expectancy was only about 35 years because infant and child mortality remained high.
Life expectancy was under 25 years in the early Colony of Virginia, in seventeenth-century New England, about 40 percent died befor
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Gallantry Cross (South Vietnam)
The Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross known as the Vietnamese Gallantry Cross or Vietnam Cross of Gallantry is a military decoration of the former Government of South Vietnam. The medal was created on August 15, 1950 and was awarded to military personnel and Armed Forces units and organizations in recognition of deeds of valor or heroic conduct while in combat with the enemy. Individuals who received the medal, a citation were cited at the Armed Forces, Division, Brigade or Regiment level; the Republic of Vietnam authorized members of units and organizations that were cited, to wear the Gallantry Cross Unit Citation Emblem with Palm and Frame. The medal is gold in color, 35 mm wide, it consists of a Celtic cross with two crossed swords between the arms. The cross is superimposed over a wreath; the center of the cross contains a disc with the outline of the country of Vietnam between two palm branches joined at the bottom. A scroll is on top of the map and is inscribed "QUOC-GIA LAO-TUONG"; the suspension ribbon of the medal is 35 mm wide and is made up of the following stripes: 9 mm of Old Glory Red.
The center stripe has sixteen strands of Old Glory Red. DegreesThe Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross was awarded in four degrees, with a basic medal followed by higher degrees which were the equivalent of personal citations on an organizational level; the degrees of the Gallantry Cross are as follows: Gallantry Cross with Palm: cited at the Armed Forces level Gallantry Cross with Gold Star: cited at the Corps level Gallantry Cross with Silver Star: cited at the Division level Gallantry Cross with Bronze Star: cited at the Regiment or Brigade levelRibbon devicesThe devices to the Gallantry Cross are not worn but instead are upgraded to the next higher device which would replace the previous device for wear on the decoration. U. S. Marine Corps uniform regulations in 2003 state the recipient should wear only one Gallantry Cross award regardless of the number received. For multiple awards, wear as many authorized devices as will fit on one medal suspension ribbon or ribbon bar. Wear the devices for subsequent awards in order of seniority from the wearer's right.
The first palm is 6⁄8 inch on the service ribbon. Subsequent palms are 3⁄8 inch on the service ribbon. Stars are 3⁄8 inch. Service versionsThe Gallantry Cross was awarded to members of all military branches, as well as service members of foreign and allied militaries; the named decorations were the Air Gallantry Cross and Navy Gallantry Cross. These decorations were awarded under a different authority, with different criteria, were considered separate decorations; the Unit Citation Emblem of the colors of the Gallantry Cross is awarded to personnel in the South Vietnamese military and Allied military units that have been cited and presented a decoration, prescribed to be awarded on a collective basis. Known as the Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation with Palm, the Unit Citation Emblem in the colors of the Gallantry Cross with Palm, was created on January 20, 1968 and was issued with the Gallantry Cross ribbon bar with a 5⁄32 by 9⁄16 inch bronze palm and a gold frame; the former South Vietnamese military awarded the Gallantry Cross to specific military units that distinguished themselves to the same level as would be required for the individual award.
Regulations for the issuance of the Vietnam Gallantry Cross permit the wearing of both the individual and unit award since both are considered separate awards. The Gallantry Cross was awarded to every Allied nation; the Gallantry Cross became the most awarded Vietnamese decoration to foreigners, second only to the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal. FourragereThe South Vietnamese military Fourragere in the colors of the Gallantry Cross represented a military unit cited two times, it was a brilliant golden-yellow, with red intermixed. Department of the Army message 111030Z from April 1974, established the policy that only one emblem for a unit award was authorized to be worn at a time; this change resulted in the fourragere being no longer authorized for wear, as it was representative of multiple awards. U. S. authorizationRepublic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation: U. S. Department of Defense: U. S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam and its subordinate units, 8 Feb 1962 to 28 Mar 1973 U.
S. Army and its subordinate units, 20 July 1965 to 28 Mar 1973 This permits all personnel who served in Vietnam to wear the RVN Gallantry Cross unit citation. Republic of Vietnam Meritorious Unit Citation. S. Navy and Marine Corps: In addition to specific ships/units, all personnel who served "in country" Vietnam, 8 February 1962 to 28 March 1973; the United States military began authorizing the Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross in March 1968 with retroactive presentation of the decoration to 1961. In 1974, Army General Order Number 8 confirmed eligibility for the Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm and Frame Unit Citation to every military unit of the United States Army which had served under the Military Assistance Command from 1961 to 1974, orders, specific as to dates and units, do exist for specific Army commands as well as for members of other services not affected by the Army General Order. Award requestsThe National Pe
A Crown of Swords
A Crown of Swords is a fantasy novel by American author Robert Jordan, the seventh book of The Wheel of Time. It was published by Tor Books and released on May 15, 1996. A Crown of Swords consists of 41 chapters. A Crown of Swords has three primary plotlines: Rand al'Thor, the Dragon Reborn, prepares to attack the Forsaken Sammael in Illian while enjoying life with his friend, Min Farshaw, attempting to quell the rebellion by nobles in Cairhien, during which Padan Fain injures him. After recovering, accompanied by Asha'man, defeats Sammael in Shadar Logoth, where Sammael is destroyed by Mashadar. Rand takes the crown of Illian: the Laurel Crown, but now called the'Crown of Swords'. Egwene al'Vere and Siuan Sanche attempt to manipulate the Aes Sedai in Salidar against Elaida's Aes Sedai in the White Tower. Investigating Myrelle Berengari, Egwene exploits the transfer of Lan Mandragoran's Warder bond from Moiraine to Myrelle, to force Myrelle and Nisao to swear fealty to her. In the city of Ebou Dar in Altara, Elayne Trakand, Nynaeve al'Meara and Mat Cauthon search for a ter'angreal, the Bowl of the Winds, to break the unnatural heat brought by the Dark One's manipulation of climate.
They enlist the help of the Kin and the Atha'an Miere. They confront a Gholam. Mat is caught in the fighting as the Seanchan invade Ebou Dar. Concise summaries of each chapter from http://www.dragonmount.com/ Even more detailed summaries of each chapter from http://www.encyclopaedia-wot.org "Flaming Swords and Wizards' Orbs" - article in The New York Times Review at http://www.flowerfire.com/ Review at http://www.sfsite.com/ ISBN 0-312-85767-5 ISBN 0-8125-5028-5
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, focused on integrated clinical practice and research. It employs more than 4,500 physicians and scientists, along with another 58,400 administrative and allied health staff; the practice specializes in treating difficult cases through tertiary destination medicine. It is home to the ranked Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine in addition to many of the largest, best regarded residency education programs in the United States, it has more than 3,000 full-time research personnel. William Worrall Mayo settled his family in Rochester in 1864 and opened a sole proprietorship medical practice that evolved under his sons and Charlie Mayo, into Mayo Clinic. Today, in addition to its flagship hospital in Rochester, Mayo Clinic has major campuses in Arizona and Florida; the Mayo Clinic Health System operates affiliated facilities throughout Minnesota and Iowa. Mayo Clinic is ranked number 1 in the United States on the 2018–2019 U. S. News & World Report Best Hospitals Honor Roll, maintaining a position at or near the top for more than 27 years.
It has been on the list of "100 Best Companies to Work For" published by Fortune magazine for fourteen consecutive years, has continued to achieve this ranking through 2017. In 1863, William Worrall Mayo came to Rochester, from Salford in Lancashire, England, as part of his appointment as an examining surgeon for the military draft board during the American Civil War; the city was to his liking, his wife and children joined him in early 1864. On January 27, 1864, William Worrall Mayo advertised in the Rochester City Post the opening of a private medical partnership "over the Union Drug Store on Third Street" with "all calls answered by day or night". Both of W. W. Mayo's sons, William James Mayo and Charles Horace Mayo grew up in Rochester and, when old enough, both attended medical school. William graduated in 1883 and joined his father's practice, with Charles joining after he completed his training in 1888. On August 21, 1883, a tornado struck Rochester, causing at least 37 deaths in the area and over 200 injuries.
One-third of the town was destroyed. The relief efforts began with a temporary hospital being established at Rommell's Hall, the doctors Mayo as well as other local doctors, were extensively involved in treating the injured who were brought there for help. Mother Alfred Moes and the Sisters of Saint Francis were called in to act as nurses despite having been trained as teachers and with little if any medical experience. After the crisis subsided, Moes approached W. W. Mayo about establishing a hospital in Rochester. Mayo agreed to work in the hospital and soon other local doctors agreed as well. On September 30, 1889, Saint Mary's Hospital was opened by the Sisters. W. W. Mayo, 70 years old, was one of the consulting physicians at the hospital, his two sons began performing surgeries at the hospital. In 1892, W. W. Mayo asked Augustus Stinchfield, whom he considered to be the best doctor in the area, to join the practice. After Stinchfield agreed, W. W. Mayo retired at the age of 73 and the practice continued to grow.
The founders of Mayo Clinic are the Mayo brothers Will and Charlie, Graham, Henry Plummer, Millet and Balfour. These early founders and partners shared in the profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by the partners were salaried. W. W. Mayo died in 1911 and in 1919 the remaining founders, with the exception of Graham, created the Mayo Properties Association, their private practice became a not-for-profit entity; the founders gave the Clinic furnishings to this newly formed association. The integrated practice model developed by Plummer created a foundation for what would grow into Mayo Clinic; as the private practice grew, it required additional space. In 1914, the partners planned and built a new clinic building. Ellerbe Architects are the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red" building, as well as for the 1922 Mayo Institute of Experimental Medicine, the 1927 Plummer building, the 1954 Mayo Clinic building, the 2002 Gonda building. In 1914, under the guidance of Henry Plummer, the new building allowed the integrated group medical practice concept to be expressed.
Many innovative medical systems and equipment were incorporated into the building design. Plummer worked with Frederic Maass, of Maass & McAndrew, to design and fabricate many of the building systems innovations like the steam sterilization rooms, metal surgical tools and equipment, pneumatic tube system, knee operated sinks, a state of the art HVAC system; the air exchange rate for the building was three minutes. One intriguing innovation was the Rookwood fountain in the main lobby, designed to clean and humidify air from the outside, it heated and humidified air in the winter, provided cool air in the summer. To fight infection, steam sterilizer rooms were designed to hold much of the operating rooms metal surgical furniture and equipment; these and other aseptic procedures helped bring the overall patient infection rates down. Until 1919 the Mayo Clinic was operated as a for-profit medical practice. In 1919, the Mayo brothers donated the clinic property and significant amounts of their wealth to develop the Mayo Properties Association.
The Association became the Mayo Clinic Foundation. The result of this was that the Mayo Clinic became a non-profit medical practice in 1920. In 1928, the Plummer Building was completed wit