An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, is thus a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created; the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. If more than one person created the work a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship; the United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, musical, certain other intellectual works" gives rights to this person, the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to engage in or authorize any production or distribution of their work.
Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions – following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have strong lobbying power – have been amended since their inception, to extend the length of this fixed period where the work is controlled by the copyright holder. However, copyright is the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time. An interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon one's death; the person who inherits the copyright enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.
How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors and other considerations, come into play? Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may involved trademark law, likeness rights, fair use rights held by the public, many other interacting complications. Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game. An author may not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire, or when writing material using intellectual property owned by others.
In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting. In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea, he writes, in his essay "Death of the Author", that "it is language which speaks, not the author". The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, not someone possessing legal responsibility for the process of its production; every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture". With this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, the limits imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed; the explanation and meaning of a work does not have to be sought in the one who produced it, "as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author'confiding' in us".
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?" that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to attribute certain standards upon the text which, for Foucault, are working in conjunction with the idea of "the author function". Foucault's author function is the idea that an author exists only as a fun
Sir David Paradine Frost was an English television host, media personality, journalist and writer. After graduating from Gonville and Caius College, Frost rose to prominence in the United Kingdom when he was chosen to host the satirical programme That Was the Week That Was in 1962, his success on this show led to work as a host on U. S. television. He became known for his television interviews with senior political figures, among them the Nixon Interviews with former U. S. President Richard Nixon in 1977, which were adapted into a stage play and film. Frost was one of the "Famous Five", behind the launch of ITV breakfast station TV-am in 1983. For the BBC, he hosted the Sunday morning interview programme Breakfast with Frost from 1993 to 2005, he spent two decades as host of Through the Keyhole. From 2006 to 2012 he hosted the weekly programme Frost Over the World on Al Jazeera English and from 2012, the weekly programme The Frost Interview. Frost died on 31 August 2013, aged 74, on board the cruise ship MS Queen Elizabeth, on which he had been engaged as a speaker.
In March 2014, his memorial stone was unveiled in Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey for his contribution to British culture. David Paradine Frost was born in Tenterden, Kent, on 7 April 1939, the son of a Methodist minister of Huguenot descent, the Rev. Wilfred John "W. J." Paradine Frost, his wife, Mona. While living in Gillingham, Kent, he was taught in the Bible class of the Sunday school at his father's church by David Gilmore Harvey, subsequently started training as a Methodist local preacher, which he did not complete. Frost attended Barnsole Road Primary School in Gillingham, St Hugh's School, Woodhall Spa, Gillingham Grammar School and – while residing in Raunds – Wellingborough Grammar School. Throughout his school years he was an avid football and cricket player, was offered a contract with Nottingham Forest F. C. For two years before going to university he was a lay preacher following his witnessing of an event presided over by the Christian evangelist Billy Graham. Frost studied at Gonville and Caius College, from 1958, graduating with a Third in English.
He was editor of both the university's student paper and the literary magazine Granta. He was secretary of the Footlights Drama Society, which included actors such as Peter Cook and John Bird. During this period, Frost appeared on television for the first time in an edition of Anglia Television's Town And Gown, performing several comic characters. "The first time I stepped into a television studio", he once remembered, "it felt like home. It didn't scare me. Talking to the camera seemed the most natural thing in the world."According to some accounts, Frost was the victim of snobbery from the group with which he associated at Cambridge, confirmed by Barry Humphries. Christopher Booker, while asserting that Frost's one defining characteristic was ambition, commented that he was impossible to dislike. According to the satirist John Wells, the Old Etonian actor Jonathan Cecil congratulated Frost around this time for "that wonderfully silly voice" he used while performing, but discovered that it was Frost's real voice.
After leaving university, Frost became a trainee at Associated-Rediffusion. Meanwhile, having gained an agent, Frost performed in cabaret at the Blue Angel nightclub in Berkeley Square, London during the evenings. Frost was chosen by writer and producer Ned Sherrin to host the satirical programme That Was the Week That Was, alias TW3 after Frost's flatmate John Bird suggested Sherrin should see his act at The Blue Angel; the series, which ran for less than 18 months during 1962–63, was part of the satire boom in early 1960s Britain and became a popular programme. The involvement of Frost in TW3 led to an intensification of the rivalry with Peter Cook who accused him of stealing material and dubbed Frost "the bubonic plagiarist"; the new satirical magazine Private Eye mocked him at this time. Frost visited the U. S. during the break between the two series of TW3 in the summer of 1963 and stayed with the producer of the New York City production of Beyond The Fringe. Frost was unable to swim, but still jumped into the pool, nearly drowned until he was saved by Peter Cook.
At the memorial service for Cook in 1995, Alan Bennett recalled that rescuing Frost was the one regret Cook expressed. For the first three editions of the second series in 1963, the BBC attempted to limit the team by scheduling repeats of The Third Man television series after the programme, thus preventing overruns. Frost took to reading synopses of the episodes at the end of the programme as a means of sabotage. After the BBC's Director General Hugh Greene instructed that the repeats should be abandoned, TW3 returned to being open-ended. More sombrely, on 23 November 1963, a tribute to the assassinated President John F. Kennedy, an event which had occurred the previous day, formed an entire edition of That Was the Week That Was. An American version of TW3 ran. Following a pilot episode on 10 November 1963, the 30-minute US series featuring Frost, ran on NBC from 10 January 1964 to May 1965. In 1985, Frost produced and hosted a television special in the same format, That Was the Year That Was, on NBC.
Frost fronted various programmes following the success of TW3, including its immediate successor, Not So Much a Programme, More a Way of Life, which he co-chaired with Willie Rushton and poet P. J. Kavanagh. Screened on three evenings each week, this series was dropped after a sketch was found to be offensive to Catholics and another to the British royal family. More successful was The Frost Report, broadcast between 1966 and 1967; the show
Angela May Rippon is an English television journalist, newsreader and presenter. Rippon presented radio and television news programmes in South West England before moving to BBC One's Nine O'Clock News, becoming a regular presenter in 1975, she was the first female journalist permanently to present the BBC national television news. Rippon appeared on a Morecambe and Wise Christmas Show in 1976, presented the first two series of Top Gear and presented Come Dancing, she was a presenter on, co-founder of, breakfast television franchisee TV-am. In the 1990s, she moved to radio, presenting daily news programmes for LBC Newstalk between 1990 and 1994, appeared on Channel 4's The Big Breakfast as a stand-in newsreader, she presented the BBC broadcast of the United Kingdom Ballroom Championships at the Bournemouth International Centre in 1991. Rippon has written fourteen books, toured with a production of Anything Goes and presented a segment of BBC One's The One Show. Since 2009, she has co-presented the BBC consumer show Rip Off Britain with Gloria Hunniford and Julia Somerville and since 2013, she has co-hosted Holiday Hit Squad on the BBC alongside Helen Skelton and Joe Crowley.
Rippon was born in Plymouth, into a working-class family. Her father, was a Royal Marine. Rippon's Scottish mother, worked at a fine china company called Lawley's and was a seamstress, she attended Coburg Street in Plymouth. After leaving school at 17, Rippon joined the photographic office of the Western Morning News and worked for the Sunday Independent, BBC local radio and Westward Television as an editor; when she was 21, Rippon began her television career at BBC South West in Plymouth in 1966, before becoming a reporter for BBC TV news. Rippon first presented a national news programme on BBC2 in 1974. For a fortnight, she replaced newsreader Richard Baker –, on holiday – on BBC One's Nine O'Clock News, was offered a permanent newsreading role on that programme in 1975. Rippon was called by newspapers the first female television newsreader. However, ITN's Barbara Mandell predated her, having first appeared on the second night of ITV in 1955. Rippon was the first female journalist to read the news on national television.
In an interview with The Guardian, she said: "You just become an automated autocue reader and if you've half a brain you want an opportunity to use it. When I read the Nine O'Clock News, I kept my brain active by working on programmes like Antiques Roadshow, Top Gear and In the Country." Rippon was a guest in the 1976 Morecambe and Wise Christmas Show, first appearing behind a BBC newsdesk emerging to perform a high-kicking dance routine. Her appearance was so popular she made a cameo appearance in the following year's show, in which she was revealed to be one of a chorus line. Rippon presented the long-running show Come Dancing. In 1977, Rippon hosted the Eurovision Song Contest at the Wembley Conference Centre in London, she was the first presenter of BBC television's Top Gear, presenting the motoring programme from 1977 to 1979. Rippon appeared on TV-am following its launch in 1983. After a much publicised exit from TV-am, she worked as an Arts and Entertainments correspondent for WHDH-TV in Boston, Massachusetts for a brief period.
Rippon co-presented the BBC's coverage of the wedding of the Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer on 29 July 1981 and BBC One's coverage of the 1979 UK general election results. In the mid-1980s, she hosted the quiz show, Masterteam on BBC One, hosted ITV's revival of the panel game What's My Line? from 1989 to 1990. In 1990, she hosted a game show, based on tennis format, she became a regular presenter on BBC Radio 2 sitting in for Jimmy Young and presenting a seasonal Friday night show from 1986 to 1989. From 1990 to 1994, she presented Angela Rippon's Morning Report, a daily radio news programme on LBC Newstalk, Angela Rippon's Drivetime, she was a stand-in newsreader on Channel 4's The Big Breakfast until 2002. In 2005, Rippon co-hosted a series of Sun and Bargain Spotting for BBC 2 and in April 2006, she toured the UK as a cast member of the musical Anything Goes. In 2007, she became a presenter on Cash in the Attic, a BBC One daytime television programme broadcast where presenters meet members of the general public, who seek out valuables and antiques to be sold at auction, in their homes.
In 1997, Rippon Presented the Channel 4 show "Game of War" with co-pesenter Paddy Griffith, a programme that re-enacted historic battles on the wargames table with modern day military commanders re-fighting the battles. The show only aired for 3 episodes; the battles re-fought were Battle of Battle of Waterloo and Battle of Balaklava. In 2010, Rippon appeared for one night on the ITV show Dancing on Ice as a judge, covering for Robin Cousins and returned to the show as one of 16 participants in the sixth season on 9 January 2011, with her professional partner, Canadian ice skater Sean Rice. In March 2011, she appeared with Lenny Henry, Samantha Womack and Reggie Yates in a BBC documentary to raise funds for Comic Relief, it was called Famous, Rich and in the Slums, showed four celebrities travelling to Kibera in Kenya, Africa's largest slum. In 2011 she joined the One Show. On 19 November 2011, Rippon appeared on Children in Need, performing alongside BBC newsreaders Sian Wil
Picture Post was a photojournalistic magazine published in the United Kingdom from 1938 to 1957. It is considered a pioneering example of photojournalism and was an immediate success, selling 1,700,000 copies a week after only two months, it has been called the UK's equivalent of Life magazine. The magazine’s editorial stance was liberal, anti-Fascist and populist and from its inception, Picture Post campaigned against the persecution of Jews in Nazi Germany. In the 26 November 1938 issue, a picture story was run entitled "Back to the Middle Ages": photographs of Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels and Hermann Göring were contrasted with the faces of those scientists and actors they were persecuting. In January 1941 Picture Post published their "Plan for Britain"; this included minimum wages throughout industry, full employment, child allowances, a national health service, the planned use of land and a complete overhaul of education. This document led to discussions about post-war Britain and was a populist forerunner of William Beveridge's November 1942 Report.
Sales of Picture Post increased further during World War II and by December 1943 the magazine was selling 1,950,000 copies a week. By the end of 1949 circulation had declined to 1,422,000. Founding editor Stefan Lorant had been succeeded by Tom Hopkinson in 1940. Lorant, who had some Jewish ancestry, had been imprisoned by Hitler in the early 1930s, wrote a best-selling book thereafter, I Was Hitler's Prisoner. By 1940, he feared he would be captured in a Nazi invasion of Britain, fled to Massachusetts, USA, where he wrote important illustrated U. S. histories and biographies. During World War Two, the art editor of the magazine, Edgar Ainsworth, served as a war correspondent and accompanied the American 7th Army on their advance across Europe in 1945, he visited the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp three times after the British army liberated the complex in April 1945. Several of his sketches and drawings from the camp were published in a September 1945 article and Prisoner. Ainsworth commissioned the artist Mervyn Peake to visit France and Germany at the end of the war, he too reported from Bergen-Belsen.
Hopkinson said his photographers were thoroughbreds, whereas text could always be written after the event, if his photographers did not come back with good pictures, he had nothing to work with. Years Hopkinson said the greatest photos he received to lay out were Bert Hardy's images from the Korean War Battle of Incheon, which James Cameron wrote the article for; the magazine's greatest photographers included Hardy, Kurt Hutton, Felix H. Man, Francis Reiss, Thurston Hopkins, John Chillingworth, Grace Robertson, Leonard McCombe, who joined Life Magazine's staff. Staff writers included MacDonald Hastings, Lorna Hay, Sydney Jacobson, J. B. Priestley, Lionel Birch, James Cameron, Fyfe Robertson, Anne Scott-James, Robert Kee and Bert Lloyd. On 17 June 1950 Leader magazine was incorporated in Picture Post. Editor Tom Hopkinson was in conflict with Edward G. Hulton, the owner of Picture Post. Hulton supported the Conservative Party and objected to Hopkinson's socialist views; this conflict led to Hopkinson's dismissal in 1950 following the publication of Cameron's article, with pictures by Hardy, about South Korea's treatment of political prisoners in the Korean War.
By June 1952, circulation had fallen to 935,000. Sales continued to decline in the face of competition from television and a revolving door of new editors. By the time the magazine closed in July 1957, circulation was less than 600,000 copies a week. Picture Post was digitised as The Picture Post Historical Archive, 1938-1957 and consists of the complete searchable facsimile archive of the Picture Post, it was made available in 2011 to institutions. As the photographic archive of Picture Post expanded through the Second World War, it became clear that its vast collection of photographs and negatives, both published and unpublished, were becoming an important historical documentary resource. In 1945, Sir Edward Hulton set up the Hulton Press Library as a semi-independent operation, he commissioned Charles Gibbs-Smith of the Victoria and Albert Museum to catalogue the entire archive using a system of keywords and classifications. The Gibbs-Smith system was the world’s first indexing system for pictures, it was adopted by the Victoria and Albert and parts of the British Museum collections.
When Picture Post folded, Sir Edward Hulton sold the archive collection to the BBC in 1957. It was incorporated into the Radio Times photo archive, the BBC expanded the collection further with the purchase of the photo archives of the Daily Express and Evening Standard newspapers; the BBC disposed of its photo archive and the BBC Hulton Picture Library was sold on once more, this time to Brian Deutsch, in 1988. In 1996, the Hulton Picture Collection was bought by Getty Images for £8.6 million. Getty now owns the rights to some 15 million photographs from the British press archives dating back to the 19th century. In 2000, Getty embarked on a large project to digitise the photo archive, launched a dedicated website in 2001. A data migration programme began in 2003 and the Hulton Archive was transferred to the main Getty Images website. Marcou, David J..'All the Best', a Complete History of Picture Post Magazine. La Crosse History Unbound. Harrison, Graham. "The Life and Times of Albert Hardy
Magdalen College, Oxford
Magdalen College is one of the wealthiest constituent colleges of the University of Oxford, with an estimated financial endowment of £273 million as of 2018. Magdalen stands next to the River Cherwell and has within its grounds a deer park and Addison's Walk; the large, square Magdalen Tower is an Oxford landmark, it is a tradition, dating to the days of Henry VII, that the college choir sings from the top of it at 6 a.m. on May Morning. Magdalen College was founded in 1458 by William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor. Wayneflete had founded a university hall named Magdalen Hall in 1448; the founder's statutes included provision for a choral foundation of men and boys and made reference to the pronunciation of the name of the college in English. The college received another substantial endowment from the estate of Sir John Fastolf of Caister Castle in Norfolk. A second university hall named Magdalen Hall emerged on a site adjacent to Magdalen College, moved to Catte Street in 1822 and became Hertford College in 1874.
Magdalen's prominence since the mid-20th century owes much to such famous fellows as C. S. Lewis and A. J. P. Taylor, its academic success to the work of such dons as Thomas Dewar Weldon. Like many of Oxford's colleges, Magdalen admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after more than half a millennium as a men-only institution. In 2015, Magdalen topped Oxford's Norrington Table of college undergraduate examination results, its average score over the 2006–2016 period is the best among the colleges; the college grounds stretch north and east from the college, include most of the area bounded by Longwall Street, the High Street, St Clement's. The Great Tower was built between 1492 and 1509 by William Orchard, is an imposing landmark on the eastern approaches to the city centre; the hall and chapel were built at similar times, though both have undergone some changes in the intervening years. The Cloister or Great Quad has been altered several times since then. In 1822, the north side was in bad shape, was knocked down while most of the fellows were away from college.
It was rebuilt shortly afterwards. In the early 1900s, renovations were performed, it was returned to a more mediaeval character. Student rooms were installed in the roof space in the 1980s; the New Building was built across a large lawn to the north of the Great Quad beginning in 1733. Its spacious setting is due to the builders' intentions to create an new quad, but only one side was completed. Edward Gibbon and C. S. Lewis had their rooms in this building and as many rooms are occupied by tutors, the few student rooms are sought after; the college has four other quads. The irregularly shaped St John's Quad is the first on entering the college, includes the Outdoor Pulpit and old Grammar Hall, it connects to the Great Quad via the Perpendicular Gothic Founders Tower, richly decorated with carvings and pinnacles and has carved bosses in its vault. The Chaplain's Quad runs to the foot of the Great Tower. St Swithun's Quad and Longwall Quad date from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, make up the southwest corner of the college.
The Grove Buildings are the newest, built in the 1990s in a traditional style. The Waynflete Building, located across Magdalen Bridge from the main college site, was designed by Booth and Pinckheard and completed in 1964; this large meadow occupies most of the north west of the college's grounds, from the New Buildings and the Grove Quad up to Holywell Ford. During the winter and spring, it is the home of a herd of fallow deer, it is possible to view the meadow from the path between New Buildings and Grove Quad, from the archway in New Buildings. In the 16th century, long before the introduction of the deer, the grove consisted of gardens and bowling greens. During the Civil War, it was used to house a regiment of soldiers. At one point in the 19th century it was home to three traction engines belonging to the works department of the college. By the 20th century it had become well-wooded with many large trees, but most of them were lost to Dutch elm disease in the 1970s; this triangular meadow lies to the east of the college, bounded on all sides by the River Cherwell.
In the spring, it is filled with the flower Fritillaria meleagris, which gives it an attractive green-purple colour. These flowers grow in few places, have been recorded growing in the meadow since around 1785. Once the flowering has finished, the deer are moved in for autumn. In wet winters, some or all of the meadow may flood, as the meadow is lower lying than the surrounding path. All around the edge of the meadow is a tree-lined path, Addison's Walk, it is a beautiful and tranquil walk, favoured by students and visitors alike. It links the college with Holywell Ford, the Fellows' Garden. Located to the north east of the Meadow, directly behind the new building of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies; this long and narrow garden follows the Cherwell to the edge of the University Parks. In spring, the ground is covered with flowers. In summer, there are some flowers, many different shrubs, the varied trees provide dappled cover from the sun, it is linked to Addison's Walk by a bridge. Magdalen Ground is located North of the fellows' garden.
The Chapel of Magdalen College is a place of worship for members of the college and others in the University of Oxford community an
A news presenter – known as a newsreader, anchorman or anchorwoman, news anchor or an anchor – is a person who presents news during a news program on the television, on the radio or on the Internet. They may be a working journalist, assisting in the collection of news material and may, in addition, provide commentary during the program. News presenters most work from a television studio or radio studio, but may present the news from remote locations in the field related to a particular major news event; the role of the news presenter developed over time. Classically, the presenter would read the news from news "copy" which he may or may not have helped write with a or news writer; this was taken directly from wire services and rewritten. Prior to the television era, radio-news broadcasts mixed news with opinion and each presenter strove for a distinctive style; these presenters were referred to as commentators. The last major figure to present commentary in a news broadcast format in the United States was Paul Harvey.
With the development of the 24-hour news cycle and dedicated cable news channels, the role of the anchor evolved. Anchors would still present material prepared for a news program, but they interviewed experts about various aspects of breaking news stories, themselves provided improvised commentary, all under the supervision of the producer, who coordinated the broadcast by communicating with the anchor through an earphone. Many anchors write or edit news for their programs, although modern news formats distinguish between anchor and commentator in an attempt to establish the "character" of a news anchor; the mix of "straight" news and commentary varies depending on the type of program and the skills and knowledge of the particular anchor. The terms anchor and anchorman are derived from the usage common in relay racing the anchor leg, where the position is given to the fastest or most experienced competitor on a team. In 1948, "anchor man" was used in the game show "Who Said That?" to refer to John Cameron Swayze, a permanent panel member of the show, in what may be the first usage of this term on television.
The anchor term became used by 1952 to describe the most prominent member of a panel of reporters or experts. The term "anchorman" was used to describe Walter Cronkite's role at the Democratic and Republican National Conventions, where he coordinated switches between news points and reporters; the widespread claim that news anchors were called "cronkiters" in Swedish has been debunked by linguist Ben Zimmer. Anchors occupy a contestable role in news broadcasts; some argue anchors have become sensationalized characters whose identities overshadow the news itself, while others cite anchors as necessary figureheads of "wisdom and truth" in the news broadcast. The role of the anchor has changed in recent years following the advent of satirical journalism and citizen journalism, both of which relocate the interpretation of truth outside traditional professional journalism, but the place anchormen and anchorwomen hold in American media remains consistent. "Just about every single major news anchor since the dawn of the medium after World War II has been aligned with show business," says Frank Rich, writer-at-large for New York Magazine, in a polemic against commoditized news reporting, "reading headlines to a camera in an appealing way is incentivized over actual reporting".
Brian Williams, an anchor for NBC Nightly News, evidences this lapse in credibility generated by the celebration of the role of the anchor. In early 2015, Williams apologized to his viewers for fabricating stories of his experiences on the scene of major news events, an indiscretion resulting in a loss of 700,000 viewers for NBC Nightly News. David Folkenflik of NPR asserted that the scandal "corrodes trust in the anchor, in NBC and in the greater profession", exhibiting the way in which the credibility of the anchor extends beyond his or her literal place behind the news desk and into the expectation of the news medium at large. CBS's long-running nighttime news broadcast 60 Minutes displays this purported superfluousness of anchors, insofar as it has no central figurehead in favor of many correspondents with important roles. Up-and-coming news networks like Vice Magazine's documentary-style reporting eschew traditional news broadcast formatting in this way, suggesting an emphasis on on-site reporting and deemphasizing the importance of the solitary anchor in the news medium.
In her essay, "News as Performance", Margaret Morse posits this connection between anchor persona newsroom as an interconnected identity fusing many aspects of the newsroom dynamic: For the anchor represents not the news per se, or a particular network or corporate conglomerate that owns the network, or television as an institution, or the public interest. In this way, the network anchor position is a "symbolic representation of the institutional order as an integrated totality", an institutional role on par with that of the president or of a Supreme Court justice, although the role originates in corporate practices rather than political or judicial processes. Despite the anchor's construction of a commodified, aestheticized version of the news, some critics defend the role of the anchor in society, claiming that he or she functions as a necessary conduit of credibility; the news anchor's position as an omnipotent arbiter of information results from his or her place behind a elevated desk, wherefrom he or she interacts with reporters through a screen-within-screen spatial setup.
A criticism levied against the role of anchor stems from this dyn