The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses. It had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life; the use of child labour was common. The working day could range from 10 to 16 hours, the work week was six days a week. Robert Owen had raised the demand for a ten-hour day in 1810, instituted it in his socialist enterprise at New Lanark. By 1817 he had formulated the goal of the eight-hour day and coined the slogan: "Eight hours' labour, Eight hours' recreation, Eight hours' rest". Women and children in England were granted the ten-hour day in 1847. French workers won the 12-hour day after the February Revolution of 1848. A shorter working day and improved working conditions were part of the general protests and agitation for Chartist reforms and the early organisation of trade unions.
The International Workingmen's Association took up the demand for an eight-hour day at its Congress in Geneva in 1866, declaring "The legal limitation of the working day is a preliminary condition without which all further attempts at improvements and emancipation of the working class must prove abortive", "The Congress proposes eight hours as the legal limit of the working day." Karl Marx saw it as of vital importance to the workers' health, writing in Das Kapital: "By extending the working day, capitalist production...not only produces a deterioration of human labour power by robbing it of its normal moral and physical conditions of development and activity, but produces the premature exhaustion and death of this labour power itself."Although there were initial successes in achieving an eight-hour day in New Zealand and by the Australian labour movement for skilled workers in the 1840s and 1850s, most employed people had to wait to the early and mid twentieth century for the condition to be achieved through the industrialised world through legislative action.
The first country to adopt eight-hour working day nationwide was Uruguay. The eight-hour day was introduced on November 1915, in the government of José Batlle y Ordóñez; the first international treaty to mention it was the Treaty of Versailles in the annex of its thirteen part establishing the International Labour Office, now the International Labour Organization. The eight-hour day was the first topic discussed by the International Labour Organization which resulted in the Hours of Work Convention, 1919 ratified by 52 countries as of 2016; the eight-hour day movement forms part of the early history for the celebration of Labour Day, May Day in many nations and cultures. In Iran in 1918, the work of reorganizing the trade unions began in earnest in Tehran during the closure of the Iranian constitutional parliament Majles; the printers' union, established in 1906 by Mohammad Parvaneh as the first trade union, in the Koucheki print shop on Nasserieh Avenue in Tehran, reorganized their union under leadership of Russian-educated Seyed Mohammad Dehgan, a newspaper editor and an avowed Communist.
In 1918, the newly organised union staged a 14-day strike and succeeded in reaching a collective agreement with employers to institute the eight-hours day, overtime pay, medical care. The success of the printers' union encouraged other trades to organize. In 1919 the bakers and textile-shop clerks formed their own trade unions; however the eight-hours day only became as code by a limited governor's decree on 1923 by the governor of Kerman and Balochistan, which controlled the working conditions and working hours for workers of carpet workshops in the province. In 1946 the council of ministers issued the first labor law for Iran, which recognized the eight-hour day; the first company to introduce an eight-hour working day in Japan was the Kawasaki Dockyards in Kobe. An eight-hour day was one of the demands presented by the workers during pay negotiations in September 1919. After the company resisted the demands, a slowdown campaign was commenced by the workers on 18 September. After ten days of industrial action, company president Kōjirō Matsukata agreed to the eight-hour day and wage increases on 27 September, which became effective from October.
The effects of the action were felt nationwide and inspired further industrial action at the Kawasaki and Mitsubishi shipyards in 1921. The eight-hour day did not become law in Japan until the passing of the Labor Standards Act in April 1947. Article 32 of the Act specifies a 40-hour week and paragraph specifies an eight-hour day, excluding rest periods. In Indonesia, the first policy regarding working time regulated in Law No. 13 of 2003 about employment. In the law, it stated that a worker should work for 7 hours a day for 6 days a week or 8 hours a day for 5 days a week, excluding rest periods; the 8-hour work day was introduced in Belgium on September 9, 1924. The 8-hour work day was first introduced in 1907. Within the next few decades, the 8-hour system spread across technically all branches of work. A worker receives 150% payment from the first two extra hours, 200% salary if the work day exceeds 10 hours; the eight-hour day was enacted in France by Georges Clemenceau, as a way to avoid unemployment and diminish communist support.
It was succeeded by a strong French support of it during the writing of the International Labour Organization Convention of 1919. The first German company to introduce the eight-hour day was Degussa; the eight-hour day was signed into law during the German Revolution of 1918. In Hungary, the eight-hour work day was introduced on April 14, 1919 by decree of the Revolutionary Governing Council. In Poland, the eight-hour day was i
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
Windsor Square, Los Angeles
Windsor Square is a small and wealthy urban neighborhood in Central Los Angeles, California. Windsor Square is known for its giant mansions, it is diverse in ethnic makeup, with a population older and better-educated than the city norm. Many notable Los Angeles residents and celebrities live in Windsor Square, it is the site of the official residence of the mayor of the city, it is served by a vest-pocket public park. In 2008, the neighborhood had an estimated population of 6,197. According to the 2000 census, Windsor Square was diverse, with the percentage of Asian people being high for the county; the racial breakdown was 41.6% Asian, 37.7% white, 14.8% Latino, 4.3% black, 1.6% other. About a third of the residents were born outside the United States, considered a high ratio for Los Angeles, the most common country being Korea at 57.7%. The median household income was average for both the city and the county, while the percentage of households earning more than $125,000 was high for the county.
The median age was 38, considered old in both the city and the county, the percentages of residents aged 35 to 64 being among the county's highest. The percentages of both widowed men and widowed women were among the county's highest, but the percentage of families headed by single parents was notably small; the percentage of veterans who served during the Vietnam War was among the county's highest. The tree-lined neighborhood, 0.68 mile in area, is sometimes used as background in crime films because of its multimillion-dollar homes and its "film noir-era look." Windsor Square is bounded on the west by Arden Avenue, on the north by Beverly Boulevard, on the east by South Wilton Place and on the south by Wilshire Boulevard. Relation of Windsor Square to nearby places: Windsor Park residents are educated. According to the 2000 census, 46.1% of the residents had a four-year degree, high compared to the city or the county as a whole. There are no schools within the boundaries of Windsor Park. Robert L. Burns Park, on the southwest corner of North Van Ness Avenue and Beverly Boulevard, is an unstaffed pocket park.
Beginning in 1980, resident Barbara McRae, tired of noise, litter and prostitution around the park, began writing letters to city officials, the next year she presented petitions with 2,248 signatures supporting the idea of private security patrols for the city facility. The city responded by building a 12-foot masonry wall and a chain-link fence between the park and neighboring homes. By 1989, criminal activity had spread throughout the surrounding neighborhood, the Windsor Square Property Owners Association requested that the park is closed at sunset and that it be fenced and locked. On December 3, 1990, an $85,000 tubular steel perimeter fence was installed and put into use. Windsor Square is covered by two Los Angeles Police Department jurisdictions, Olympic, at 1130 South Vermont Avenue, Wilshire, at 4861 Venice Boulevard. In December 2014 the neighborhood was stunned when Antonia Yager, 86, was found stabbed to death in her Beachwood Drive home. An active member of the Assistance League of Los Angeles, known as the "great dame" of Larchmont Village, she was the widow of Superior Court Judge Thomas Yager.
They were prominent people who were said to have donated $500,000 for mathematics and science school scholarships. It was the first homicide in the area since 2001; the case was never solved despite the offer of a $150,000 award. Getty House at 605 South Irving Boulevard is the official residence of the Mayor of Los Angeles; the mayors who have lived there include: Eric GarcettiOther notable Windsor Square residents have been: Christian Audigier, fashion designer Chris Brown, singer Norman Chandler, publisher of the Los Angeles Times Harold A. Henry, Los Angeles City Council president Neal McDonough, actor Oliver Morosco, theatrical producer, director and theater owner. Peter and Harold Janss, land developers.•Samantha Goodman screenwriter and prodcucer Map of Windsor Square Windsor Square Association Hancock Park – Windsor Square Historical Society Windsor Square History
Beverly Boulevard is one of the main east-west thoroughfares in Los Angeles, in the U. S. state of California. It begins off Santa Monica Boulevard in Beverly Hills and ends on the Lucas Avenue overpass near downtown Los Angeles to become 1st Street. A separate Beverly Boulevard begins off 3rd Street and Pomona Boulevard in East Los Angeles, runs through Montebello and Pico Rivera, becomes Turnbull Canyon Road in Whittier near Rose Hills Memorial Park. Work on paving Beverly Boulevard through Northwest Los Angeles began in the 1910s, making it one of Los Angeles's first boulevards; the Boulevard's most famous stretch is in West Hollywood, where it passes Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and the Beverly Center Mall. In addition, much of the Fairfax District is centered on Beverly Boulevard; the Grove is southeast of Fairfax. The intersection of Beverly and La Cienega is the center of the studio zone, the area that Los Angeles-based entertainment industry unions consider as "local" for purposes of work rules.
Beverly Boulevard runs parallel to Melrose Avenue to 3rd Street to the south. It passes directly through the Wilshire Country Club; the famous CBS Television City is located opposite The Grove. Original Tommy's, a famous Southern California burger chain, is located at the corner of Rampart and Beverly Boulevards. Situated on Beverly Boulevard are studios belonging to Westlake Recording Studios, noted as the site where music albums such as Michael Jackson's Thriller were recorded; the area of Beverly Boulevard that intersects La Cienega Boulevard and its satellite streets is part of the La Cienega Design Quarter. Its shops and galleries house many antiques, rugs and art. Belmont High School is located at Belmont Avenue. Metro Local line 14 operates on Beverly Boulevard; the Metro Red Line serves an underground station at Vermont Avenue
Los Angeles Unified School District
The Los Angeles Unified School District is the largest public school system in the U. S. state of California and the 2nd largest public school district in the United States. Only the New York City Department of Education has a larger student population. During the 2016–2017 school year, LAUSD served around 734,641 students, including 107,142 students at independent charter schools and 69,867 adult students. During the same school year, it had 33,635 other employees, it is the second largest employer in Los Angeles County, after the county government. The total school district operating budget for 2016–2017 is $7.59 billion. The school district consists of Los Angeles and all or portions of several adjoining Southern California cities. LAUSD has its own police force, the Los Angeles School Police Department, established in 1948 to provide police services for LAUSD schools; the LAUSD enrolls a third of the preschoolers in Los Angeles County, operates as many buses as the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
The LAUSD school construction program rivals the Big Dig in terms of expenditures, LAUSD cafeterias serve about 500,000 meals a day, rivaling the output of local McDonald's restaurants. The LAUSD has been criticized in the past for crowded schools with large class sizes, high drop-out and expulsion rates, low academic performance in many schools, poor maintenance and incompetent administration. In 2007, LAUSD's dropout rate was 26 percent for grades 9 through 12, but more there are signs that the district is showing improvement, both in terms of dropout and graduation rates. An ambitious renovation program intended to help ease the overcrowded conditions has been completed; as part of its school-construction project, LAUSD opened two high schools in 2005 and four high schools in 2006. Los Angeles Unified School District is governed by a seven-member Board of Education, which appoints a superintendent, who runs the daily operations of the district. Members of the board are elected directly by voters from separate districts that encompass communities that the LAUSD serves.
The district's current superintendent is Austin Beutner. The district's former superintendents are Ramon Cortines; the Board of Education selected King for superintendent in January 2016. Vivian Ekchian became acting superintendent until the Board election of Beutner in May 2018. Cortines was appointed acting superintendent after the school board decided to buy out the contract of David L. Brewer III, a former Navy Vice-Admiral who served as head of the Navy's Education and Training Division and was in charge of the SeaLift Command. From 2001 until his retirement in October 2006, the district was led by former Governor of Colorado and Democratic Party chairman Roy Romer; the six current members of Board of Education include George McKenna, Board President Monica Garcia, Scott Schmerelson, Board Vice President Nick Melvoin, Kelly Fitzpatrick-Gonez, Richard Vladovic. District 5 is vacant following the resignation of Dr. Ref Rodriguez in July 2018. In the March 2015 Los Angeles City Council and School Board elections, voters approved Charter Amendment 2, which allows the Los Angeles Unified School District Board of Education to change their election dates to even-numbered years.
It will take effect with the March 2020 Primary election and the runoff in November 2020. Every LAUSD household or residential area is zoned to an elementary school, a middle school and a high school, in one of the eight local school districts; each local school district is run by an area superintendent and is headquartered within the district. The Los Angeles Unified School District was once composed of two separate districts: the Los Angeles City School District, formed on September 19, 1853, the Los Angeles City High School District, formed in 1890; the latter provided 9–12 educational services, while the former did so for K-8. On July 1, 1961 the Los Angeles City School District and the Los Angeles City High School District merged, forming the Los Angeles Unified School District. On January 31, 1957, a DC7B crashed into the schoolyard of Pacoima Junior High School in Pacoima in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles, California following a midair collision with a US military plane, resulting in the deaths of the four crew members aboard the DC-7B, the pilot of the Scorpion jet, two students on the ground, a third died three days later.
Additionally seventy-eight students suffered injuries which ranged from minor to life-threatening. The annexation left the Topanga School District and the Las Virgenes Union School District as separate remnants of the high school district; the high school district changed its name to the West County Union High School District. LAUSD annexed the Topanga district on July 1, 1962. Since the Las Virgenes Union School District had the same boundary as the remaining West County Union High School District, on July 1, 1962 West County ceased to exist. In 1963, a lawsuit, Crawford v. Board of Ed. of Los Angeles was filed to end segregation in the district. The California Supreme Court required the district to come up with a plan in 1977; the board returned to court with what the court of appeal years would describe as "one of if not the most drastic plan of mandatory student reassignment in the nation." A desegregation busing plan was developed to be implemented in the 1978 school year. Two lawsuits to stop the enforced busing plan, both title
Susan Miller Dorsey
Susan Miller Dorsey served as the superintendent of the Los Angeles City Schools from 1920 to 1929. Susan Almira Miller was born in New York, the daughter of James and Hannah Miller. A graduate of Vassar College, Miller moved to Los Angeles in the early 1880s with her husband, the Rev. Patrick William Dorsey, who had accepted a position as minister of the First Baptist Church. In 1894, while teaching at Los Angeles High School, her husband left her with their young son. By 1902, she was working as a school administrator. In 1920, Dorsey became the first female superintendent of Los Angeles City Schools, she would serve in the capacity until her retirement in 1929. In 1937, Susan Miller Dorsey High School located in the Jefferson Park section of Los Angeles was dedicated in her honor, she died in 1946. Dorsey Hall, a dormitory at Scripps College in Claremont, California is named for her. Soroptimist International of Los Angeles
Hutchinson is the largest city and county seat in Reno County, United States, located on the Arkansas River. It has been home to salt mines since 1887, thus its nickname of "Salt City", but locals call it "Hutch"; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 42,080. Each year, Hutchinson hosts the Kansas State Fair, National Junior College Athletic Association Basketball Tournament, it is the home of Strataca. The city of Hutchinson was founded in 1871, when Indian Agent Clinton "C. C." Hutchinson contracted with the Santa Fe Railway to make a town at the railroad's crossing over the Arkansas River. The community earned the nickname "Temperance City" due to the prohibition of alcohol set by its founder. Hutchinson was incorporated as a city in August 1872. In 1887, the Chicago and Nebraska Railway built a main line from Herington through Hutchinson to Pratt. In 1888, this line was extended to Liberal, it was extended to Tucumcari, New Mexico and El Paso, Texas. It foreclosed in 1891 and taken over by Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway, which shut down in 1980 and reorganized as Oklahoma and Texas Railroad, merged in 1988 with Missouri Pacific Railroad, merged in 1997 with Union Pacific Railroad.
Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Rock Island". In 1943, German and Italian prisoners of World War II were used in Kansas and other Midwest states as a means of solving the labor shortage caused by American men serving in the war effort. Large prisoner-of-war camps were established in Kansas: Camp Funston, Camp Phillips. Fort Riley established 12 smaller branch camps, including Hutchinson. On January 17, 2001, 143 million cubic feet of compressed natural gas leaked from the nearby Yaggy storage field, it sank underground rose to the surface through old brine or salt wells, making around 15 gas blowholes. An explosion in the downtown area at 10:45 am damaged 26 others. An explosion the next day in a mobile-home park killed two people; the Kansas National Guard was called in to help evacuate parts of the city because of the gas leaks, a team of specialists looked over all the city for leaks after the event. These events were broadcast on nationally televised news stations across the country.
Hutchinson is located at 38°3′39″N 97°55′47″W at an elevation of 1,535 feet. Located in south-central Kansas at the intersection of U. S. Route 50 and Kansas Highway 96, Hutchinson is 39 miles northwest of Wichita, 200 mi west-southwest of Kansas City, 395 miles east-southeast of Denver; the city lies on the northeast bank of the Arkansas River in the Great Bend Sand Prairie region of the Great Plains. Cow Creek, a tributary of the Arkansas, runs southeast through the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.75 square miles, of which, 22.69 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. Hutchinson has a humid continental climate bordering on a humid subtropical climate, with hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters; the average temperature for the year is 56 °F, the average relative humidity is 65%. Temperatures exceed 90 °F an average of 65 days a year and drop below 32 °F an average of 121 days a year. On average, Hutchinson experiences 46 rainy days a year.
Snowfall averages 14.1 inches per year. Total precipitation averages 30.3 inches per year. On average, January is the coolest month, July is the warmest month, May is the wettest month; the hottest temperature recorded in Hutchinson was 111 °F in 1964. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 42,080 people, 16,981 households, 10,352 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,854.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 18,580 housing units at an average density of 818.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.9% White, 4.3% African American, 0.7% American Indian, 0.6% Asian, 3.4% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race were 10.6% of the population. There were 16,981 households of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.0% were non-families. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age in the city was 37.8 years. 23.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.3% male and 49.7% female. The median income for a household was $38,880, the median income for a family was $47,336. Males had a median income of $39,442 versus $26,600 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,050. About 12.9% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.0% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 40,787 people, 16,335 households, 10,340 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,932.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,693 housing units at an average density of 838.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.57% Wh