The North Col refers to the sharp-edged pass carved by glaciers in the ridge connecting Mount Everest and Changtse in Tibet, It forms the head of the East Rongbuk Glacier. When climbers attempt to climb Everest via the North ridge, the first camp on the mountain itself is established on the North Col. From this point at approximately 7,020 metres above sea level, climbers make their final push to the summit from Camp VI at 8,230 meters altitude. The North Col was first climbed by George Mallory, Edward Oliver Wheeler and this was the first time a Westerner had set foot on Mount Everest. All subsequent expeditions in the 1920s and 1930s attempted to reach the summit of Everest by using the North Col and this map is inverted, south is up and north is down. The North Col is lower than South Col, and farther from the Everest peak, South Col Sagarmatha National Park Geology of the Himalaya Geography of China Painting of the Camp on North-Col Description of the climbing route to the summit via the North Col
Kangchenjunga, spelled Kanchenjunga, is the third highest mountain in the world, and lies partly in Nepal and partly in Sikkim, India. Mount Kangchenjunga lies about 125 km east-south-east of Mount Everest and it is the second highest mountain of the Himalayas. Three of the five peaks – Main and South – are on the border between North Sikkim and Nepal, two peaks are in Nepals Taplejung District. Kangchenjunga Main is the highest mountain in India, and the easternmost of the higher than 8,000 m. It is called Five Treasures of Snow after its five high peaks, allowing for further verification of all calculations, it was officially announced in 1856 that Kangchenjunga is the third highest mountain in the world. Kangchenjunga was first climbed on 25 May 1955 by Joe Brown and George Band and they stopped short of the summit as per the promise given to the Chogyal that the top of the mountain would remain inviolate. Every climber or climbing group that has reached the summit has followed this tradition, other members of this expedition included John Angelo Jackson and Tom Mackinon.
Kangchenjunga is the spelling adopted by Douglas Freshfield, Alexander Mitchell Kellas. Freshfield referred to the used by the Indian Government since the late 19th century. There are a number of spellings including Kangchendzönga, Khangchendzonga. It means The Five repositories or ledges of great snow and is descriptive of its five peaks. Kangchenjungas name in the Limbu language is Senjelungma or Seseylungma, and is believed to be an abode of the omnipotent goddess Yuma Sammang. The Kangchenjunga transboundary landscape is shared by Bhutan, China and Nepal, the Kangchenjunga Himal section of the Himalayas lies both in Nepal and India, and encompasses 16 peaks over 7,000 m. In the north, it is limited by the Lhonak Chu, Goma Chu and Jongsang La, the western limit runs from the Jongsang La down the Gingsang and Kangchenjunga glaciers and the rivers of Ghunsa and Tamur. Kanchenjunga rises about 20 km south of the alignment of the Great Himalayan range about 125 km east-south-east of Mount Everest as the crow flies.
South of the face of Kanchenjunga runs the 3, 000–3,500 m high Singalila Ridge that separates Sikkim from Nepal. Kangchenjunga and its satellite peaks form a mountain massif. The massifs five highest peaks are listed in the following table, the main ridge of the massif runs from north-north-east to south-south-west and forms a watershed to several rivers
Douglas William Freshfield was a British lawyer and author, who edited the Alpine Journal from 1872 to 1880. He was an member of the Royal Geographical Society and the Alpine Club. Born in London, Freshfield was the son of Henry Ray Freshfield. His father was a lawyer and member of the family firm of Freshfields. His mother was the daughter of William Crawford, MP for the City of London and she was an author and her publications included Alpine Byways and A Tour of the Grisons. In an interview with Adolfo Hess, Freshfield recalls that his family loved to take holidays in the summer of up to five weeks. He recalls that when he was six, they visited Lodore Falls in the Lake District, the following year they travelled to Scotland. In 1854, they travelled to the Swiss Alps, going from Basel to Chamonix and his father attached great importance to preserving open spaces for public enjoyment and was active in campaigns to save Hampstead Heath and Ashdown Forest. Freshfield was educated at Eton College, and University College, Oxford and he was called to the bar in 1870.
Freshfield was a traveller and mountaineer. From his childhood acquired a love of the mountains and was particularly fond of the Alps. In July 1867 he made the first ascent of the Tour Ronde, by his twenties, Freshfield was already venturing further afield. Freshfield led an exploration of the Caucasus and was the first man, officially and he described the denuded territories of Abkhazia in a moving chapter on The Solitude of Abkhazia, in The Exploration of the Caucasus published in 1892. In 1899 Douglas Freshfield travelled to Green Lakes accompanied by the Italian photographer Vittorio Sella and he conducted expeditions around Kangchenjunga and set out with his party to trek in a circle around Kangchenjunga from the North. When he arrived safely in at Dzongri, he lit a big bonfire, which could be seen from Darjeeling and he became the first mountaineer to examine the western face of Kangchenjunga, which rises from the Kanchenjunga Glacier. Freshfield described Siniolchu as The Most Superb Triumph of Mountain Architecture, in 1905 he attempted to climb Rwenzori Abruzzi in Uganda but failed due to bad weather.
However the Freshfield Pass on the mountain was named after him, Freshfield wrote extensively about travel and the Alps, editing the Alpine Journal from 1872 to 1880. He was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and became its Joint Secretary in 1881, at that time he was living at Stanhope Gardens, and by 1891 at Camden Hill, Hampstead
The Highlands are a historic region of Scotland. Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the Middle Ages into the modern period, the term is used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, although the exact boundaries are not clearly defined, particularly to the east. The Great Glen divides the Grampian Mountains to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands, the Scottish Gaelic name of A Ghàidhealtachd literally means the place of the Gaels and traditionally, from a Gaelic-speaking point of view, includes both the Western Isles and the Highlands. The area is sparsely populated, with many mountain ranges dominating the region. At 9.1 per km2 in 2012, the density in the Highlands and Islands is less than one seventh of Scotlands as a whole, comparable with that of Bolivia, Chad. The Highland Council is the body for much of the Highlands. However, the Highlands includes parts of the areas of Aberdeenshire, Angus and Bute, North Ayrshire, Perth & Kinross, Stirling.
The Scottish highlands is the area in the British Isles to have the Taiga biome as it features concentrated populations of Scots pine forest. Between the 15th century and the 20th century, the area differed from most of the Lowlands in terms of language. In Scottish Gaelic, the region is known as the Gàidhealtachd, because it was traditionally the Gaelic-speaking part of Scotland, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably but have different meanings in their respective languages. Scottish English is the predominant language of the area today, though Highland English has been influenced by Gaelic speech to a significant extent, the Highland line distinguished the two Scottish cultures. Most of this legislation was repealed by the end of the 18th century as the Jacobite threat subsided, there was soon a rehabilitation of Highland culture. Tartan was adopted for Highland regiments in the British Army, which poor Highlanders joined in large numbers in the era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.
Tartan had largely abandoned by the ordinary people of the region, but in the 1820s, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland. The international craze for tartan, and for idealising a romanticised Highlands, was set off by the Ossian cycle, individual clan tartans were largely designated in this period and they became a major symbol of Scottish identity. The period of the Napoleonic wars brought prosperity, the economy grew thanks to wages paid in industries such as kelping and weaving, as well as large-scale infrastructure spending such as the Caledonian Canal project. On the East Coast, farmlands were improved, and high prices for cattle brought money to the area, Service in the Army was attractive to young men from the Highlands, who sent pay home and retired there with their army pensions. This prosperity ended after 1815, and long-term negative factors began to undermine the position of the poor tenant farmers, who typically rented a few acres
New College, Oxford
New College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1379 by William of Wykeham, the name of the college is The Warden. The name New College, soon came to be used following its completion in 1386 to distinguish it from the existing college of St. Mary. In 2013, the college ranked second in the Norrington Table, having been ranked third in the 2011-12 tables, maintaining its place from 2010 to 2011, New College jumped to 1st after the 2012-13 academic year. The college is between Holywell Street and New College Lane, next to All Souls College, Harris Manchester College, Hertford College, The Queens College, the colleges sister college is Kings College, Cambridge. The college is one of the main foundations of the University of Oxford. The college choir is regarded as one of the choirs of the world. New College is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford University, as of June 2015, it had a financial endowment in excess of £190 million, and net assets of over £220 million.
In 1379 William of Wykeham had purchased land in Oxford and was able to apply to King Richard II for a charter to allow the foundation of a de novo. In his own charter of foundation, Wykeham declared the college to consist of a warden, the site on which the college would be built was acquired from several sources, including the City of Oxford, Merton College and Queens College. This land had been the City Ditch, a haunt of thieves, on 5 March 1380, the first stone of New College was laid. By 14 April 1386, the college entered formal possession of the buildings, Wykeham set to drawing up the statutes of the college, with a first draft presented in 1390. The statutes were not completed until the year before Wykeham died, the coat of arms of the college is one adopted by William Wykeham. It features two black chevrons, one said to have been added when he became a bishop and the other representing his skill with architecture, Winchester College uses the same arms. The grand collection of buildings is a testament to Williams experience in administering both ecclesiastical and civil institutions as the Bishop of Winchester and High Chancellor of England.
Both Winchester College and New College were originally established for the education of priests, William of Wykeham ordained that there were to be ten chaplains, three clerks and 16 choristers on the foundation of the college. The original choristers were accommodated within the walls of the college under one schoolmaster, since the school has expanded and in 1903 moved to New College School in Savile Road. In August 1651, New College was fortified by the Parliamentarian forces, in 1685, Monmouths rebellion involved Robert Sewster, a fellow of the college, who commanded a company of university volunteers
Aoraki / Mount Cook
Aoraki / Mount Cook is the highest mountain in New Zealand. Its height since 2014 is listed as 3,724 metres, down from 3,764 m before December 1991, due to a rockslide and it lies in the Southern Alps, the mountain range which runs the length of the South Island. A popular tourist destination, it is a challenge for mountain climbers. Aoraki / Mount Cook consists of three summits, from South to North the Low Peak, Middle Peak and High Peak. The summits lie slightly south and east of the divide of the Southern Alps, with the Tasman Glacier to the east. The mountain is in the Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, in the Canterbury region, the park was established in 1953 and along with Westland National Park, Mount Aspiring National Park and Fiordland National Park forms one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The park contains more than 140 peaks standing over 2,000 metres and 72 named glaciers and these two valleys provide the closest easily accessible view points of Aoraki / Mount Cook. A lookout point at the end of the Hooker Valley Track located only 10 km from the peak offers views of the entire mountainside.
The settlement of Mount Cook Village, referred to as Aoraki / Mount Cook, is a tourist centre and it is 7 km from the end of the Tasman Glacier and 15 km south of Aoraki / Mount Cooks summit. The near horizontal ridge connecting the three summits forms a distinctive blocky shape when viewed from an eastern or western direction. Another popular view point is from Lake Matheson on the West Coast, described as the view of views, where on calm days, the peaks of Aoraki / Mount Cook and Mt Tasman are reflected in Lake Matheson. Annual precipitation around the mountain ranges varies greatly as the climate is dominated by the eastward movement of depressions. As the air rises towards the peaks, it expands and cools and snowfall is often heaviest around the 1,200 m level and can last for several days if the front is slow-moving. While the weather on the side of the mountain is generally better. This brings with it a drop in temperature and poor visibility. Temperatures at the base in the Hooker Valley around 800 metres range from −13 °C to 32 °C.
From about 1,000 m and higher, semi-permanent snow and spring are usually less settled than summer and autumn. Anticyclones often bring days of settled weather in summer, or clear cold conditions in winter with severe frost, Aoraki is the name of a person in the traditions of the Ngāi Tahu iwi, an early name for the South Island is Te Waka o Aoraki
Pen-y-Gwryd is a pass at the head of Nantygwryd and Nant Cynnyd rivers close to the foot of Snowdon in Gwynedd, Wales. The area is located at the junction of the A4086 from Capel Curig to Llanberis and Caernarfon and it is close to the boundary with Conwy county borough in northern Snowdonia. The famous mountaineering hostelry, Pen-y-Gwryd Hotel, is located in the pass and it is a mountain rescue post with links to the other rescue posts at Ogwen Cottage and Plas y Brenin. The Old Miners Track from the Snowdon copper mines are now part of the modern A4086 road between Pen-y-Gwryd and Pen-y-Pass and it continues northwards beyond Pen-y-Gwryd skirting Glyder Fach to Bwlch Tryfan and Dyffryn Ogwen. From Pen-y-Pass is the PYG track, one of the routes leading to the summit of Snowdon. However, older maps show it as the Pig track, a derived from Bwlch y Moch. During Roman Britain, the Roman Army built a camp at the head of Dyffryn Mymbyr at the strategic intersection of three major routes through the Snowdonian mountains.
This type of fortified cantonment was the kind built each evening by Roman legionaries when out in the field or on campaign, the camp, which has a rhomboid shape, covers about 4 ha providing accommodation for up to 2000 soldiers and their baggage trains. Its defences included a ditch approximately 5 ft wide and 2 ft deep below the turf-line, the northern rampart runs through the current location of the Pen-y-Gwryd Hotel. The camp was probably first built during the Roman General Gnaeus Julius Agricola’s conquest of the Ordovices in the late AD 70’s, as it is unusual for temporary camps to survive, its existence suggests it was periodically reoccupied. Although the camp had no permanent garrison or buildings, it may have been a waypoint for Roman units travelling between Deva Victrix and Segontium. The site is difficult to due to erosion and local land usage as nothing remains except grass. It was first excavated in 1960 by early surveying courses from Plas-y-Brenin under the auspices of Dr Josephine Flood, the Pen-y-Gwryd Hotel was originally a farmhouse dating from 1811.
It was converted to wayside inn by a John Roberts from Llanberis, a Mrs Hughes, who was the widow of the first landlord of the Capel Curig Inn, and the widow of Reverend Robert Hughes of Capel Curig, took over the Inn in 1843. In 1847 Henry Owen acquired the Inn and he was born in Beddgelert, Caernarvonshire on 2 April 1822, the son of a farmer, Owen Owen. He married Ann Pritchard from the parish of Llanbeblig near Caernarvon, initially Henry combined his hostelry work with a position of Agent at the nearby Snowdonian copper mine and with farming. But by 1858, the inn business was successful to allow him to purchase the freehold. During the Owens tenure running the inn, it became renowned for its status for comfort, the original building was considerably extended transforming it from a farmhouse Inn to a well-known and popular hotel
The Aletschhorn is a mountain in the Alps in Switzerland, lying within the Jungfrau-Aletsch region, which has been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The mountain shares part of its name with the Aletsch Glacier lying at its foot, the Aletschhorn, the second highest mountain of the Bernese Alps after the Finsteraarhorn, is the only one of the higher peaks that lies completely in Valais. It is the point of a chain running parallel with the dividing ridge. The Aletschhorn is often thought to command the finest of all the views from Alpine summits. On its northern flank lies the Aletschfirn, which is part of the Aletsch Glacier, on the southwest lies the Oberaletsch Glacier and, on the southeast, lies the Mittelaletsch Glacier. Both are in the catchment area of the Massa river, which originates in the Aletsch Glacier, the Aletschhorn was first climbed almost 50 years after the first ascent of the Jungfrau. When the Jungfrau was first climbed, the climbers used base camps on the Aletschfirn, the Aletschhorn was climbed first in 1859 by Francis Fox Tuckett, J. J.
Bennen, V. Tairraz and P. Bohren. But the summit could be reached without too much difficulty, like many other climbers, Tuckett took with him a barometer and made scientific observations. He noted the icy temperature and the strong wind, blowing the snow. After they reached the summit, Tuckett separated from Bennen and descended via the face with Bohren. He wanted to directly to the Lötschental, but soon after they began the descent. They cautiously went back and descended on the Mittelaletsch, Aletschhorn on Summitpost Photo Aletschhorn from Lötschenlücke Photo Aletschhorn from Mischabelhuts
Mont Blanc or Monte Bianco, both meaning White Mountain, is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia after the Caucasus peaks. It rises 4,808 m above sea level and is ranked 11th in the world in topographic prominence, the mountain lies in a range called the Graian Alps, between the regions of Aosta Valley and Savoie and Haute-Savoie, France. The location of the summit is on the line between the valleys of Ferret and Veny in Italy and the valleys of Montjoie, and Arve in France. The Mont Blanc massif is popular for mountaineering, skiing, the three towns and their communes which surround Mont Blanc are Courmayeur in Aosta Valley and Saint-Gervais-les-Bains and Chamonix in Haute-Savoie, France. The latter town was the site of the first Winter Olympics, a cable car ascends and crosses the mountain range from Courmayeur to Chamonix, through the Col du Géant. The 11.6 km Mont Blanc Tunnel, constructed between 1957 and 1965, runs beneath the mountain and is a major transport route.
The first recorded ascent of Mont Blanc was on 8 August 1786 by Jacques Balmat and this climb, initiated by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, who gave a reward for the successful ascent, traditionally marks the start of modern mountaineering. The first woman to reach the summit was Marie Paradis in 1808, nowadays the summit is ascended by an average of 20,000 mountaineer-tourists each year. It could be considered an easy, yet arduous, ascent for someone who is well-trained and acclimatized to the altitude, from lAiguille du Midi, Mont Blanc seems quite close, being 1,000 m higher. Some routes require knowledge of mountaineering, a guide. All routes are long and arduous, involving delicate passages and the hazard of rock-fall or avalanche, climbers may suffer altitude sickness, occasionally life threatening, particularly if they do not acclimatize to it. Since the French Revolution, the issue of the ownership of the summit has been debated, from 1416 to 1792, the entire mountain was within the Duchy of Savoy.
In 1723 the Duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus II, acquired the Kingdom of Sardinia, the resulting state of Sardinia was to become preeminent in the Italian unification. In September 1792, the French revolutionary Army of the Alps under Anne-Pierre de Montesquiou-Fézensac seized Savoy without much resistance, in a treaty of 15 May 1796, Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia was forced to cede Savoy and Nice to France. This act further states that the border should be visible from the town of Chamonix, neither the peak of the Mont Blanc is visible from Courmayeur nor the peak of the Mont Blanc de Courmayeur is visible from Chamonix because part of the mountains lower down obscure them. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Congress of Vienna restored the King of Sardinia in Savoy and Piedmont, his traditional territories, forty-five years later, after the Second Italian War of Independence, it was replaced by a new legal act. This act was signed in Turin on 24 March 1860 by Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy, a demarcation agreement, signed on 7 March 1861, defined the new border.
With the formation of Italy, for the first time Mont Blanc was located on the border of France, the 1860 act and attached maps are still legally valid for both the French and Italian governments
George Herbert Leigh Mallory was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s. The pair were last seen when they were about 800 vertical feet from the summit, Mallorys ultimate fate was unknown for 75 years, until his body was discovered on 1 May 1999 by an expedition that had set out to search for the climbers remains. Whether Mallory and Irvine reached the summit before they died remains a subject of speculation, Mallory was born in Mobberley, the son of Herbert Leigh Mallory, a clergyman who changed his surname from Mallory to Leigh-Mallory in 1914. His mother was Annie Beridge, the daughter of a clergyman in Walton, George had two sisters and a younger brother, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, the World War II Royal Air Force commander. He was raised in 10-bedroom house on Hobcroft Lane in Mobberley, in 1896, Mallory attended Glengorse, a preparatory boarding school in Eastbourne on the south coast of England, having transferred from another preparatory school in West Kirby.
At the age of 13, he won a scholarship to Winchester College. In his final year there, he was introduced to climbing and mountaineering by a master, R. L. G. Irving. In October 1905, Mallory entered Magdalene College, Cambridge, to study history, Mallory was a keen oarsman, rowing for his college while at Cambridge. In 1909 Lytton Strachey wrote of Mallory, Mon dieu. —George Mallory, after gaining his degree, Mallory stayed in Cambridge for a year writing an essay he published as Boswell the Biographer. He lived briefly in France afterwards, in 1910, he began teaching at Charterhouse School, Surrey, where he met the poet Robert Graves, a pupil. In his autobiography, Goodbye to All That, Graves remembered Mallory fondly both for his encouragement of Graves interest in literature and poetry and his instruction in climbing, Graves recalled, He was wasted at Charterhouse. He tried to treat his class in a way, which puzzled and offended them. While at Charterhouse, Mallory met his wife, Ruth Turner, who lived in Godalming and Ruth had two daughters and a son, Frances Clare, Beridge Ruth, known as Berry, and John.
After the war, Mallory returned to Charterhouse, resigning in 1921 in order to join the first Everest expedition, between expeditions, he attempted to make a living from writing and lecturing, with only partial success. In 1923, he took a job as lecturer with the Cambridge University Extramural Studies Department and he was given temporary leave so that he could join the 1924 Everest attempt. In 1910, in a party led by Irving, Mallory and an attempted to climb Mont Vélan in the Alps. In 1911, Mallory climbed Mont Blanc, as well as making the ascent of the Frontier ridge of Mont Maudit in a party again led by Irving. To which he responded, None but ourselves, by 1913, he had ascended Pillar Rock in the English Lake District, with no assistance, by what is now known as Mallorys Route—currently graded Hard Very Severe 5a
They are considered to be high-level experts in mountaineering, and are hired to instruct or lead individuals or small groups who require this advanced expertise. Their skills usually include climbing and hiking and their knowledge includes furthermore the topics rocks, weather, navigation and health, each practically and theoretically. Mountain guides, or more formally high mountain guides, are employed by groups or individuals assuring the safety of the climbing or skiing party and this professional class of guides arose in the middle of the 19th century when Alpine climbing became recognized as a sport. Certification is earned through an examination process encompassing rock climbing, alpine climbing. Typically lasting between 3 and 7 years, mountain guide certification required a level of commitment, dedication. In addition to assuring safety, professional mountain guides frequently offer other services to their clients. These services can improve the alpine experience, especially when the client climber has limited time or equipment.
Mountain guides are commonly organized in national and international associations, the worlds oldest guides association is the Compagnie des guides de Chamonix, established in Chamonix in 1821. It remains today the largest association with nearly 250 mountain guides