Göttingen is a university city in Lower Saxony, the capital of the eponymous district. It is run through by River Leine. At the start of 2017, the population was 134,212; the origins of Göttingen lay in a village called Gutingi, first mentioned in a document in 953 AD. The city was founded northwest of this village, between 1150 and 1200 AD, adopted its name. In medieval times the city was a member of hence a wealthy town. Today, Göttingen is famous for its old university, founded in 1734 and became the most visited university of Europe. In 1837, seven professors protested against the absolute sovereignty of the kings of Hanover, its alumni include some well-known historical figures: the Brothers Grimm, Heinrich Ewald, Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Georg Gervinus. German Chancellors Otto von Bismarck and Gerhard Schröder attended law school at the Göttingen University. Karl Barth held his first professorship here; some of the most famous mathematicians in history, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Bernhard Riemann and David Hilbert, were professors at Göttingen.
Like other university towns, Göttingen has developed its own quaint traditions. On the day they are awarded their doctorate degrees, students are drawn in handcarts from the Great Hall to the Gänseliesel-Fountain in front of the Old Town Hall. There they have to kiss the statue of the Gänseliesel; this practice is forbidden, but the law is not enforced. She is considered the most kissed girl in the world. Nearly untouched by Allied bombing in World War II, the inner city of Göttingen is now an attractive place to live with many shops and bars. For this reason, many university students give Göttingen a youthful feel. In 2003, 45 % of the inner city population was only between 30 years of age. Commercially, Göttingen is noted for its production of optical and precision-engineered machinery, being the seat of the light microscopy division of Carl Zeiss, Inc. and a main site for Sartorius AG which specialises in bio-technology and measurement equipment—the region around Göttingen advertises itself as "Measurement Valley".
Unemployment in Göttingen was 12.6% in 2003 and is now 7%. The city's railway station to the west of the city centre is on Germany's main north-south railway. Göttingen has two professional basketball teams. For the 2007-08 season, both teams will play in the 1st division; the origins of Göttingen can be traced back to a village named Gutingi to the immediate south-east of the eventual city. The name of the village derives from a small stream, called the Gote, that once flowed through it. Since the ending -ing denoted "living by", the name can be understood as "along the Gote". Archaeological evidence points towards a settlement as early as the 7th century, it is first mentioned in a document by the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I in 953 AD, in which the emperor gives some of his belongings in the village to the Moritz monastery in Magdeburg. Archaeological findings point to extensive commercial relations with other regions and a developed craftsmanship in this early period. In its early days, Gutingi was overshadowed by Grona documented from the year 915 AD as a newly built fortress, lying opposite Gutingi on a hill west of the River Leine.
It was subsequently used as an Ottonian imperial palace, with 18 visits of kings and emperors documented between 941 and 1025 AD. The last Holy Roman Emperor to use the fortress of Grona, Heinrich II had a church built in the neighbouring Gutingi, dedicated to Saint Alban; the current church building that occupies this site, the St. Albani Church, was built in 1423; the fortress lost its function as a palace in 1025, after Heinrich II died there, having retreated to it in ill health. It was subsequently used by the lords of Grone; the fortress was destroyed by the citizens of Göttingen between 1323 and 1329, razed to the ground by Duke Otto I during his feuds with the city of Göttingen in 1387. With time, a trading settlement started to form at the river crossing of the Leine to the west of the village, from which it took its name, it is this settlement, given city rights. The original village remained recognisable as a separate entity until about 1360, at which time it was incorporated within the town's fortification.
It is the present city was founded between 1150 and 1180, although the exact circumstances are not known. It is presumed that Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, founded the city; the configuration of the streets in the oldest part of the town is in the shape of a pentagon, it has been proposed that the inception of the town followed a planned design. At this time, the town was known by the name Gudingin or Gotingen, its inhabitants obeyed welfish ownership and ruling rights, the first Göttingen burghers are mentioned, indicating that Göttingen was organised as a true city. It was not, however, a Free Imperial City, but subject to the Welf dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Henry the Elder of Brunswick, eldest son of Henry the Lion and brother of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, is given as the lord over Göttingen between 1201 and 1208; the original Welf residency in the town consisted of a farm building and the stables of the Welf dukes, which occupied the oldest part of the city's fortifications built prior to 1250.
In its early days, Göttingen became involved in the conflicts of t
Oxford Professor of Poetry
The Professor of Poetry is an academic appointment at the University of Oxford. The chair was created in 1708 by an endowment from the estate of Henry Birkhead; the professorship carries an obligation to lecture, but is in effect a part-time position, requiring only three lectures each year. In addition, every second year, the professor delivers the Creweian Oration, which offers formal thanks to benefactors of the university; until 1968 this oration was delivered in Latin. The professor is appointed to a single five-year term. After individuals are nominated, an election is held in which the members of the university's Convocation are eligible to participate. Convocation consists of members of the faculty both current and retired, former student members of the university who have been admitted to a degree. In 2010, on-line voting was allowed for the first time; as of 2009, it carried a stipend of £6,901 plus £40 in travel expenses for each Creweian Oration. Since 1708, 45 persons have been elected to the position including many prominent poets and academics.
The only woman elected to the post, Ruth Padel, resigned prior to filling the post. Simon Armitage, elected on 19 June 2015, is the current Professor of Poetry; the elections attract media attention and involve campaigning by proponents of quite diverse candidates. In the past, both practising poets and academic critics have been chosen. On 16 May 2009, Ruth Padel defeated the Indian poet Arvind Mehrotra to become the first woman elected to the post since its inception in 1708; the Nobel Prize-Winning candidate Derek Walcott had withdrawn his candidacy, following what he called a “low and degrading” campaign against him, after The Sunday Times and Cherwell revealed that around 100 Oxford academics had been sent, photocopied pages from The Lecherous Professor, a University of Illinois publication on the prevalence of sexual harassment in American universities, describing two such accusations made against Walcott at Harvard University and Boston University. Walcott's candidacy had been controversial within the university from the beginning, some counselling against on grounds of Walcott's university past, others arguing that his record was immaterial since he would have no contact with students.
Newspapers had claimed Walcott was the favourite, although Libby Purves suggested that this claim was based on a misunderstanding of the electoral system. Padel criticised the anonymous missives and denied any knowledge of them, though many in the media continued to insinuate her involvement. After her election, two journalists who had requested information from Padel regarding voters' opinions revealed that she had cited to them the source of some people's unease about the suitability for appointment of someone with such a university record. Padel stated,'I wish he had not pulled out' and resigned on 25 May only nine days after her election. Letters to British newspapers criticised media handling of the election. An open letter to the Times Literary Supplement, complained of unfair media pursuit of Walcott's past, a letter in The Guardian complained of unjust denigration of Padel, claiming she was "justly held in high regard" for her poetry and teaching, a letter to The Times claimed that "Oxford has missed out for the worst of reasons.'One can only speculate why so many male voices were loud in condemning Padel but silent with respect to Walcott.
I attended a course taught by Ruth Padel: she was inspirational, involved and interested in her students. It was unwise of her to email journalists but if Walcott's past is "irrelevant to his suitability to fill the post of Professor of Poetry", so is Padel's "unwisdom"; that Walcott removed. Padel should not have been made to pay for his decision to confront neither his accusers nor his past." American commentators attributed the series of events to an assumption on the part of academics and writers that a gender war was behind it all, perceiving a "split across the Atlantic - with the Americans, the ones after all working with Walcott over the decades, taking those claims much more seriously"Some commentators in Britain supported Padel, attributing the smear campaign in the media to misogyny and networking. "The old boys have closed in on her", the poet Jackie Kay stated. On Newsnight Review the poet Simon Armitage and poetry writer Josephine Hart expressed regret about Padel's resignation.
"Ruth's a good person", Armitage said. "She dipped a toe in the media whirlpool and it dragged her down. I don't think she should have resigned, she would have been good." The election was for a post beginning the first day of Michaelmas Term 2009 hence Padel did not take up office. In the 2010 election she supported Geoffrey Hill. On 7 May 2010, the university, having changed its system of voting to embrace online voters, confirmed that Paula Claire, Geoffrey Hill, Michael Horovitz, Steve Larkin, Chris Mann and seven others had been nominated as candidates for the position. Paula Claire, the only woman standing, announced her withdrawal on 7 June 2010, citing concerns about the fairness of the election which were dismissed by the university authorities. On 18 June, Geoffrey Hill was declared elected, he received 1,156 votes. On 19 June 2015, Simon Armitage was elected as Geoffrey Hill’s successor. Oxford Professor of Poetry English Faculty site for Prof of Poetry
New College, Oxford
New College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1379 by William of Wykeham, the full name of the college is St Mary's College of Winchester in Oxford; the name "New College", soon came to be used following its completion in 1386 to distinguish it from the older existing college of St. Mary, now known as Oriel College. In 2017, the college ranked first in the Norrington Table, a table assessing the relative performance of Oxford's undergraduates in final examinations, it has been ranked highly. It has the 3rd highest average Norrington Table ranking over the previous decade; the college is between Holywell Street and New College Lane, next to All Souls College, Harris Manchester College, Hertford College, The Queen's College and St Edmund Hall. The college's sister college is Cambridge; the college is one of the main choral foundations of the University of Oxford. The college choir is regarded as one of the leading choirs of the world, has recorded over one hundred albums.
Like many of Oxford's colleges, New College admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after six centuries as an institution for men only. New College is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford University; as of July 2017, it had a financial endowment of £ net assets of £ 308 million. Despite its name, New College is one of the oldest of the Oxford colleges. In 1379 William of Wykeham had purchased land in Oxford and was able to apply to King Richard II for a charter to allow the foundation of a college de novo. In his own charter of foundation, Wykeham declared the college to consist of a warden and seventy scholars; the site on which the college would be built was acquired from several sources, including the City of Oxford, Merton College and Queen's College. This land had been the City Ditch, a haunt of thieves, had been used for burials during the Black Death. New College was founded in conjunction with Winchester College, envisaged as a feeder to the Oxford college, the two institutions have striking architectural similarities: both were the work of master mason William Wynford.
On 5 March 1380, the first stone of New College was laid. By 14 April 1386, the college entered formal possession of the buildings. Wykeham set to drawing up the statutes of the college, with a first draft presented in 1390; the statutes were not completed until the year. The coat of arms of the college is one adopted by William Wykeham, it features two black chevrons, one said to have been added when he became a bishop and the other representing his skill with architecture. Winchester College uses the same arms; the grand collection of buildings is a testament to William's experience in administering both ecclesiastical and civil institutions as the Bishop of Winchester and High Chancellor of England. Both Winchester College and New College were established for the education of priests, there being a shortage of properly educated clergy after the Black Death. William of Wykeham ordained that there were to be ten chaplains, three clerks and 16 choristers on the foundation of the college; the original choristers were accommodated within the walls of the college under one schoolmaster.
Since the school has expanded and in 1903 moved to New College School in Savile Road. As well as being the first Oxford college for undergraduates and the first to have senior members of the college give tutorials, New College was the first college in Oxford to be deliberately designed around a main quadrangle. Students at New College were until 1834 exempt from taking the university's examinations for the BA and the MA degrees, were ineligible for honours, though they still had to take the college's own tests; this contributed to the college's old reputation for "Golden scholars, silver bachelors, leaden masters and wooden doctors." In August 1651, New College was fortified by the Parliamentarian forces and the cloister was used for musketry training. In 1685, Monmouth's rebellion involved Robert Sewster, a fellow of the college, who commanded a company of university volunteers; these volunteers were of New College and exercised in the Bowling Green. The college's motto, created by William of Wykeham, is "Manners Makyth Man".
The motto was in many respects revolutionary. First, it was written in English, rather than Latin, which makes it unusual in Oxford, is revolutionary considering the college's age. Secondly, the motto makes a social statement. Wykeham's motto is reminiscent of the insight found in Aristotle's Ethics: that a man or a woman is what he or she does, what we do is what we are. Admiring William of Wykeham's achievements in creating his twinned institutions, King Henry VI modelled the establishment of his own new colleges, King's College and Eton College, upon Wykeham's foundations of New College and Winchester College. Indeed, the link that King's College and Eton College share is a direct copy of William of Wykeham's link between New College and Winchester College. New College has formal ties with Winchester College, Eton College, King's College, dating back to 1444, a four-way relationship known as the Amicabilis Concordi
Isaiah was the 8th-century BC Jewish prophet for whom the Book of Isaiah is named. Within the text of the Book of Isaiah, Isaiah himself is referred to as "the prophet", but the exact relationship between the Book of Isaiah and any such historical Isaiah is complicated; the traditional view is that all 66 chapters of the book of Isaiah were written by one man, Isaiah in two periods between 740 BCE and c. 686 BCE, separated by 15 years, includes dramatic prophetic declarations of Cyrus the Great in the Bible, acting to restore the nation of Israel from Babylonian captivity. Another widely-held view is that parts of the first half of the book originated with the historical prophet, interspersed with prose commentaries written in the time of King Josiah a hundred years and that the remainder of the book dates from before and after the end of the exile in Babylon two centuries after the time of the historic prophet; the first verse of the Book of Isaiah states that Isaiah prophesied during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham and Hezekiah, the kings of Judah.
Uzziah's reign was 52 years in the middle of the 8th century BCE, Isaiah must have begun his ministry a few years before Uzziah's death in the 740s BCE. Isaiah lived until the fourteenth year of Hezekiah's reign, he may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh. Thus Isaiah may have prophesied for as long as 64 years. According to some modern interpretations, Isaiah's wife was called "the prophetess", either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah and Huldah, or because she was the "wife of the prophet", they had three sons, naming the eldest Shear-jashub, meaning "A remnant shall return", the next Immanuel, meaning "God is with us", the youngest, Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz, meaning, "Spoil plunder speedily". Soon after this, Shalmaneser V determined to subdue the kingdom of Israel, taking over and destroying Samaria. So long as Ahaz reigned, the kingdom of Judah was untouched by the Assyrian power, but when Hezekiah gained the throne, he was encouraged to rebel "against the king of Assyria", entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt.
The king of Assyria threatened the king of Judah, at length invaded the land. Sennacherib led a powerful army into Judah. Hezekiah was reduced to despair, submitted to the Assyrians, but after a brief interval, war broke out again. Again Sennacherib led an army into one detachment of which threatened Jerusalem. Isaiah on that occasion encouraged Hezekiah to resist the Assyrians, whereupon Sennacherib sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah, which he "spread before the LORD". Isaiah the son of Amoz sent unto Hezekiah, saying: "Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Whereas thou hast prayed to Me against Sennacherib king of Assyria, this is the word which the LORD hath spoken concerning him: The virgin daughter of Zion hath despised thee and laughed thee to scorn. Whom hast thou taunted and blasphemed? And against whom hast thou exalted thy voice? Yea, thou hast lifted up thine eyes on high against the Holy One of Israel!" According to the account in 2 Kings 19 an angel of God fell on the Assyrian army and 185,000 of its men were killed in one night.
"Like Xerxes in Greece, Sennacherib never recovered from the shock of the disaster in Judah. He made no more expeditions against either the Southern Levant or Egypt."The remaining years of Hezekiah's reign were peaceful. Isaiah lived to its close, into the reign of Manasseh; the time and manner of his death are not specified in either the Bible or other primary sources. The Talmud says. According to rabbinic literature, Isaiah was the maternal grandfather of Manasseh; some writers assert that Isaiah was a vegetarian, on the basis of passages in the Book of Isaiah that extol nonviolence and reverence for life, such as Isaiah 1:11, 11:6-9, 65:25, 66:3. Some of these writers refer to "the vegetarian Isaiah", "the notorious vegetarian Isaiah", "Isaiah, the vegetarian prophet"; the book of Isaiah, along with the book of Jeremiah, is distinctive in the Hebrew bible for its direct portrayal of the "wrath of the Lord" as presented, for example, in Isaiah 9:19 stating, "Through the wrath of the Lord of hosts is the land darkened, the people shall be as the fuel of the fire."
The Ascension of Isaiah, a pseudepigraphical Christian text dated to sometime between the end of the 1st century to the beginning of the 3rd, gives a detailed story of Isaiah confronting an evil false prophet and ending with Isaiah being martyred – none of, attested in the original Biblical account. Gregory of Nyssa, believed that the Prophet Isaiah "knew more than all others the mystery of the religion of the Gospel". Jerome lauds the Prophet Isaiah, saying, "He was more of an Evangelist than a Prophet, because he described all of the Mysteries of the Church of Christ so vividly that you would assume he was not prophesying about the future, but rather was composing a history of past events." Of specific note are the songs of the Suffering Servant, which Christians say are a direct prophetic revelation of the nature and detail of the death of Jesus Christ. The Book of Isaiah is quoted many times by New Testament writers. Ten of those references are about the Suffering Servant, how he
Bishop of London
The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers 458 km2 of 17 boroughs of Greater London north of the River Thames and a small part of the County of Surrey; the see is in the City of London where the seat is St Paul's Cathedral, founded as a cathedral in 604 and was rebuilt from 1675 following the Great Fire of London. Third in seniority in the Church of England after the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the bishop is one of five senior bishops who sit as of right as one of the 26 Lords Spiritual in the House of Lords; the other four senior bishops are the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of Durham and the Bishop of Winchester. The bishop's residence is The Dean's Court, City of London. For over 1000 years, Fulham Palace was the residence and from the 18th century the bishop had chambers at London House next to the Bishop's Chapel in Aldersgate Street; the current Bishop of London is Sarah Mullally.
She was confirmed on 8 March 2018 after acting in post after her canonical election on 25 January 2018. The diocesan bishop of London has had direct episcopal oversight in the Two Cities area since the institution of the London area scheme in 1979. According to a 12th-century list, which may be recorded by Jocelyne of Furness, there had been 14 "archbishops" of London, claiming London's Christian community was founded in the 2nd century under the legendary King Lucius and his missionary saints Fagan, Deruvian and Medwin. None of, considered credible by modern historians but, although the surviving text is problematic, either Bishop Restitutus or Adelphius at the 314 Council of Arles seems to have come from Londinium. However, according to sources, there had been 16 Romano-British "bishops" of London; the location of Londinium's original cathedral is uncertain. The present structure of St Peter upon Cornhill was designed by Christopher Wren following the Great Fire in 1666 but it stands upon the highest point in the area of old Londinium and medieval legends tied it to the city's earliest Christian community.
In 1995, however, a large and ornate 4th-century church was discovered on Tower Hill, which seems to have mimicked St Ambrose's cathedral in the imperial capital at Milan on a still-larger scale. This possible cathedral was built between 350 and 400 out of stone taken from other buildings, including its veneer of black marble, it was burnt down in the early 5th century. Following the establishment of the archdiocese of Canterbury by the Gregorian mission, its leader St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Saxon kingdom of Essex. Bede records that Augustine's patron, King Æthelberht of Kent, built a cathedral for his nephew King Sæberht of Essex as part of this mission; this cathedral was dedicated to St Paul. Although it's not clear whether Lundenwic or Lundenburh was intended, it is assumed the church was located in the same place occupied by the present St Paul's Cathedral atop Ludgate Hill in London. Renaissance rumours that the cathedral had been erected over a Roman temple of the goddess Diana are no longer credited: during his rebuilding of the cathedral following the Great Fire of 1666, Christopher Wren reported discovering no trace of such a structure.
Because the bishop's diocese includes the royal palaces and the seat of government at Westminster, he has been regarded as the "King's bishop" and has had considerable influence with members of the Royal Family and leading politicians of the day. Since 1748 it has been customary to appoint the Bishop of London to the post of Dean of the Chapel Royal, which has the amusing effect of putting under the bishop's jurisdiction, as dean, several chapels which are geographically in the Diocese of London but, as royal peculiars, are outside the bishop's jurisdiction as bishop; the Bishop of London had responsibility for the church in the British colonies in North America, although after the American Revolution of 1776, all that remained under his jurisdiction were the islands of the British West Indies. The diocese was further reduced in 1846, when the counties of Essex and Hertfordshire were ceded to the Diocese of Rochester; the dates and names of these early bishops are uncertain. Diocese of London website Bishop of London refuses to ban gay Bishop from church service The papers of the Bishops of London covering 1423–1945 are held at Lambeth Palace Library
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Seventh-day Adventist Church
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination, distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming of Jesus Christ. The denomination grew out of the Millerite movement in the United States during the mid-19th century and it was formally established in 1863. Among its founders was Ellen G. White, whose extensive writings are still held in high regard by the church. Much of the theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church corresponds to common Protestant Christian teachings, such as the Trinity and the infallibility of Scripture. Distinctive teachings include the unconscious state of the dead and the doctrine of an investigative judgment; the church is known for its emphasis on diet and health, its "holistic" understanding of the person, its promotion of religious liberty, its conservative principles and lifestyle. The world church is governed by a General Conference, with smaller regions administered by divisions, union conferences, local conferences.
It has a worldwide baptized membership of over 20 million people, 25 million adherents. As of May 2007, it was the twelfth-largest religious body in the world, the sixth-largest international religious body, it is ethnically and culturally diverse, maintains a missionary presence in over 215 countries and territories. The church operates over 7,500 schools including over 100 post-secondary institutions, numerous hospitals, publishing houses worldwide, as well as a humanitarian aid organization known as the Adventist Development and Relief Agency; the Seventh-day Adventist Church is the largest of several Adventist groups which arose from the Millerite movement of the 1840s in upstate New York, a phase of the Second Great Awakening. William Miller predicted on the basis of Daniel 8:14–16 and the "day-year principle" that Jesus Christ would return to Earth between the spring of 1843 and the spring of 1844. In the summer of 1844, Millerites came to believe that Jesus would return on October 22, 1844, understood to be the biblical Day of Atonement for that year.
Miller's failed prediction became known as the "Great Disappointment". Hiram Edson and other Millerites came to believe that Miller's calculations were correct, but that his interpretation of Daniel 8:14 was flawed as he assumed Christ would come to cleanse the world; these Adventists came to the conviction that Daniel 8:14 foretold Christ's entrance into the Most Holy Place of the heavenly sanctuary rather than his Second Coming. Over the next few decades this understanding of a sanctuary in heaven developed into the doctrine of the investigative judgment, an eschatological process that commenced in 1844, in which every person would be judged to verify their eligibility for salvation and God's justice will be confirmed before the universe; this group of Adventists continued to believe that Christ's Second Coming would continue to be imminent, however they resisted setting further dates for the event, citing Revelation 10:6, "that there should be time no longer." As the early Adventist movement consolidated its beliefs, the question of the biblical day of rest and worship was raised.
The foremost proponent of Sabbath-keeping among early Adventists was Joseph Bates. Bates was introduced to the Sabbath doctrine through a tract written by Millerite preacher Thomas M. Preble, who in turn had been influenced by Rachel Oakes Preston, a young Seventh Day Baptist; this message was accepted and formed the topic of the first edition of the church publication The Present Truth, which appeared in July 1849. For about 20 years, the Adventist movement consisted of a small, loosely knit group of people who came from many churches and whose primary means of connection and interaction was through James White's periodical The Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, they embraced the doctrines of the Sabbath, the heavenly sanctuary interpretation of Daniel 8:14, conditional immortality, the expectation of Christ's premillennial return. Among its most prominent figures were Joseph Bates, James White, Ellen G. White. Ellen White came to occupy a central role; the church was formally established in Battle Creek, Michigan, on May 21, 1863, with a membership of 3,500.
The denominational headquarters were moved from Battle Creek to Takoma Park, where they remained until 1989. The General Conference headquarters moved to its current location in Silver Spring, Maryland; the denomination in the 1870s turned to missionary work and revivals, tripling its membership to 16,000 by 1880 and establishing a presence beyond North America during the late 19th century. Rapid growth continued, with 75,000 members in 1901. By this time the denomination operated two colleges, a medical school, a dozen academies, 27 hospitals, 13 publishing houses. By 1945, the church reported 210,000 members in the US and Canada, 360,000 elsewhere; the church's beliefs and doctrines were first published in 1872 in Battle Creek Michigan as a brief statement called "A Synopsis of our Faith". The church experienced challenges as it formed its core beliefs and doctrines as a number of the early Adventist leaders came from churches that held to some form of Arianism. This, along with some of the movement's other theological views, led to a consensus among conservative evangelical Protestants to regard it as a cult.
The teachings and writings of White proved influential in shifting the church from semi-Arian roots tow