The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i
Jason Bourne is a fictional character created by novelist Robert Ludlum. Bourne is the antihero in a series of subsequent film adaptations, he first appeared in the novel The Bourne Identity, adapted for television in 1988. The novel was adapted in 2002 into a feature film under the same name and starred Matt Damon in the lead role; the character featured in three novels by Ludlum, released between 1980 and 1990, followed by nine novels written by Eric Van Lustbader since 2004. Along with the first feature film, The Bourne Identity, Jason Bourne appears in three sequel movies The Bourne Supremacy, The Bourne Ultimatum, Jason Bourne, with Damon again in the lead role. Jeremy Renner stars in the fourth film of the franchise, The Bourne Legacy, released in August 2012. Damon stated in interviews that he would not do another Bourne film without Paul Greengrass, who had directed the second and third installments. Greengrass agreed to direct Damon in the fifth installment in Jason Bourne. Greengrass jointly wrote the screenplay with editor Christopher Rouse.
Jason Bourne is but one of many aliases used by David Webb, a career Force Reconnaissance Marine Captain, Foreign Service Officer and a specialist in Far Eastern affairs. Before the events in The Bourne Identity, Webb had a Thai wife named Dao and two children named Joshua and Alyssa in Phnom Penh. Webb's wife and two children were inadvertently killed during the Vietnam War when a fighter plane strayed into Cambodia, dropped two bombs, strafed a spot near the Mekong River. However, unknown to Bourne, Joshua survived. Due to Cambodia's neutrality in the war, every nation disclaimed the plane, therefore, no one took responsibility for the incident. Infuriated by both the utter injustice and randomness of his loss, Webb went to Saigon and, under the careful guidance of friend and CIA officer Alexander Conklin, ended up training for an elite Top Secret Special Forces unit called Medusa. Within that select organization Webb was known only by Delta One. An assassination team or death squad, Medusa was created to infiltrate Northern Vietnam and assassinate members of the Viet Cong and its collaborators.
Its members were criminals. He became well known for his ruthlessness, his disregard for orders, his disturbing success rate on his missions, resulting in the kidnapping of Webb's brother, U. S. Army Lieutenant Gordon Webb, during his tour of duty in Saigon. During the mission to save David Webb's brother, an original "Medusa" team member named Jason Charles Bourne was discovered to be a double agent who alerted a large number of North Vietnamese soldiers to their whereabouts; when Delta found Bourne after killing his way through the North Vietnamese, he executed Bourne in the jungles of Tam Quan. Bourne's murder was never exposed due to the Top Secret status of Medusa. Years a black ops arm of the CIA was formed to eliminate the notorious Carlos the Jackal and called Treadstone Seventy-One, named after a building on New York's Seventy-First Street, Webb was called up by the creator of Treadstone and Medusa, David Abbott, nicknamed The Monk, to be its principal agent. At this point, Webb takes the identity of Jason Bourne due to the actual Bourne's status as MIA in the war as well as the fact that Bourne was in reality a ruthless killer with a long criminal record.
The point of all this was to turn Jason Bourne into something more than he was, a contract assassin who would be known all over the world for terminating the lives of just about anyone. The assassin's alias was Cain; the reasoning for creating such a myth was to create competition for the well-known assassin named Carlos, or Carlos the Jackal who at that time was considered the world's best and most famous assassin. The name Cain was chosen. During Vietnam, Cain was used instead of Charlie in the phonetic alphabet because Charlie became synonymous with Viet Cong. So Delta dropped back one letter to Cain. In Spanish, Charlie is Carlos; the myth of Cain was created by having Cain take credit for any well-publicized killings that took place in Asia, in Europe, regardless of the circumstances. By creating this myth, Cain was to drive the reclusive Carlos out in the open "long enough to put a bullet in his head". To add insult to Carlos's name, Cain stole the credit for Carlos's kills when Cain had no part in them.
In the film series, Jason Bourne was born as David Webb on September 13, 1970 in Missouri. He joined the United States Army and was selected for Delta Force in 1998, his father, Richard Webb, a senior CIA analyst, created the Treadstone program, a black ops project intended to train and deploy elite assassins. He was monitored by the CIA, which murdered his father with a car bomb in Beirut in a bid to recruit Webb; the ploy worked. He was brought into a secret recruitment center in New York City, where Hirsch ordered him tortured for days — via waterboarding and sleep deprivation — to break his spirit and allow him to be molded into an assassin, he was accepted when he murdered an unidentified man without questioning. Afte
Rachel Hannah Weisz is a British-American actress. She is the recipient of an Academy Award, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award. Born in Westminster, she began her acting career in the early 1990s, appearing in British television series such as Inspector Morse and Scarlet and Black, she made her film debut in Death Machine. Weisz's Hollywood breakthrough was in the blockbuster action films The Mummy and The Mummy Returns, in which she portrayed Evelyn Carnahan, the female lead, she starred in a string of films throughout the 2000s, including Enemy at the Gates, About a Boy, The Fountain, The Lovely Bones. In 2005, for her supporting role in the drama thriller The Constant Gardener, she received an Academy Award, a Golden Globe, a Screen Actors Guild Award. In 2011, Weisz starred in Terence Davies's The Deep Blue Sea, for which she earned a Golden Globe nomination; the following year, she starred based on the series of books by Robert Ludlum. In 2013, she appeared as the main antagonist in Oz the Great and Powerful, based on the series of children's books by L. Frank Baum.
Weisz portrayed Deborah Lipstadt in Denial, directed by Mick Jackson. In 2017, she starred as the titular character in a film adaptation of My Cousin Rachel, based on the novel of the same name by Daphne du Maurier; that year, Weisz's production company, LC6 Productions, released its first feature film, starring Weisz and Rachel McAdams. In 2018, she garnered critical acclaim for her portrayal of Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, in Yorgos Lanthimos's The Favourite, winning both a BAFTA and a British Independent Film Award. Weisz garnered her second Academy Award nomination for this performance. Weisz has performed on stage throughout her career, her stage breakthrough was the 1994 revival of Noël Coward's play Design for Living, which earned her a London Critics' Circle Award for Most Promising Newcomer. She starred in the 1999 Donmar Warehouse production of Tennessee Williams' Suddenly, Last Summer, their 2009 revival of A Streetcar Named Desire, her portrayal of Blanche DuBois in the latter play earned her the Olivier Award for Best Actress.
In 2006, Weisz received the BAFTA Britannia Award for British Artist of the Year. In 2018, she received a Jury Award at the Gotham Independent Film Awards for her work as part of the ensemble of The Favourite, in addition to a Tribute Award for her career, she received a Critics Choice Award as part of the ensemble for The Favourite. Weisz was engaged to filmmaker Darren Aronofsky from 2005 to 2010, she married actor Daniel Craig in 2011. She became a naturalised U. S. citizen that same year. Weisz was born on 7 March 1970 in Westminster and grew up in Hampstead Garden Suburb, her father, George Weisz, is a Hungarian-born mechanical engineer. Her mother, Edith Ruth, was a teacher-turned-psychotherapist from Vienna, her parents both emigrated to the United Kingdom as children around 1938, prior to the outbreak of World War II, in order to escape the Nazis. George Weisz was from a Jewish family. Edith Weisz's paternal ancestry was Austrian Jewish; the scholar and social activist James Parkes helped her mother's family to leave Austria for England.
Weisz's mother was raised in the Catholic church, formally converted to Judaism upon marrying Weisz's father. Weisz's maternal grandfather was Alexander Teich, a Jewish activist, a secretary of the World Union of Jewish Students, her younger sister, Minnie Weisz, is a visual artist. Weisz's parents valued the arts. Weisz left North London Collegiate School and attended Benenden School for one year, completing A-levels at St Paul's Girls School. Known for being a so-called "English rose", Weisz began modelling at the age of 14. In 1984, she gained public attention when she turned down an offer to star in King David with Richard Gere. Weisz's education concluded at Trinity Hall, where she graduated with a second-class honours, upper division Bachelor of Arts degree in English. During her university years, where she was a contemporary of Sacha Baron Cohen, Alexander Armstrong, Sue Perkins, Mel Giedroyc, Richard Osman, Ben Miller, she appeared in various student dramatic productions, co-founding a student drama group called Cambridge Talking Tongues.
The group won a Guardian Student Drama Award at the 1991 Edinburgh Festival Fringe for an improvised piece called Slight Possession, directed by David Farr. In 1992, Weisz appeared in the television film Advocates II, followed by roles in the Inspector Morse episode "Twilight of the Gods", the BBC's steamy period drama Scarlet and Black, alongside Ewan McGregor. Dirty Something, a BBC Screen Two, hour-long television film made in 1992, was Weisz's first film, in which she played Becca, who met and fell in love with a traveller, Dog, at the end of Glastonbury Festival; the opening scenes were filmed at the festival. Starring as an older fellow traveller and sage was Larry. Weisz started her film career with a minor role in the 1994 film Death Machine, but her first major role came in the 1996 film Chain Reaction, which starred Keanu Reeves and Morgan Freeman. While the film received negative reviews–it holds a 16% rating on Rotten Tomatoes-it was a minor financial success, she next appeared as Miranda Fox in Stealing Beauty, directed by Bernardo Bertolucci, where she was first labelled an "English rose".
Following this, W
George Richard Chamberlain is an American stage and screen actor and singer, who became a teen idol in the title role of the television show Dr. Kildare. Since he has appeared in several mini-series such as Shōgun and The Thorn Birds, many successful films such as The Bourne Identity being the first man to play Jason Bourne, he has performed classical stage roles and worked in musical theatre. Chamberlain was born in 1934 in Beverly Hills, the son of Elsa Winnifred and Charles Axiom Chamberlain, a salesman. In 1952, Chamberlain graduated from Beverly Hills High School and attended Pomona College. Chamberlain co-founded a Los Angeles–based theatre group, Company of Angels, began appearing in television series in the 1950s, he was cast as Lt. Dave Winslow in "Chicota Landing", a 1960 episode of the NBC western series, Riverboat. In the storyline, Juan Cortilla, a Mexican bandit played by Joe De Santis, is stormed from jail. Chamberlain, as United States Army Lieutenant Winslow, asks Grey Holden to transport Cortilla and his men to a military garrison.
Instead, Cortilla takes over Holden's vessel, the Enterprise, its gunpowder. Connie Hines appears with Chamberlain as Lucy Bridges, Ted de Corsia is cast as another bandit. Less than a year in 1961, Chamberlain gained widespread fame as the young intern, Dr. Kildare, in the NBC/MGM television series of the same name, co-starring with Raymond Massey. Chamberlain's singing ability led to some hit singles in the early 1960s, including the "Theme from Dr. Kildare" entitled "Three Stars Will Shine Tonight", which struck No. 10 according to the Billboard Hot 100 Charts. Dr. Kildare ended in 1966. In 1966, he was cast opposite Mary Tyler Moore in the ill-fated Broadway musical Breakfast at Tiffany's, co-starring Priscilla Lopez, after an out-of-town tryout period, closed after only four previews. Decades he returned to Broadway in revivals of My Fair Lady and The Sound of Music. At the end of the 1960s, Chamberlain spent a period of time in England where he played in repertory theatre and in the BBC's Portrait of a Lady adaptation, becoming recognized as a serious actor.
In 1969, he starred opposite Katharine Hepburn in the film The Madwoman of Chaillot. While in England, he took vocal coaching and in 1969 performed the title role in Hamlet for the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, becoming the first American to play the role there since John Barrymore in 1925, he received excellent notices and reprised the role for television in 1970 for the Hallmark Hall of Fame. In the 1970s, Chamberlain enjoyed success as a leading man in films: The Music Lovers, Lady Caroline Lamb, The Three Musketeers, The Lady's Not for Burning, The Towering Inferno, The Count of Monte Cristo. In The Slipper and the Rose, a musical version of the Cinderella story, co-starring Gemma Craven, he displayed his vocal talents. A television film, William Bast's The Man in the Iron Mask, followed; that same year, he starred in Peter Weir's film The Last Wave. Chamberlain appeared in several popular television mini-series, including Centennial, Shōgun, The Thorn Birds as Father Ralph de Bricassart with Rachel Ward and Barbara Stanwyck co-starring.
In the 1980s, he appeared as leading man with King Solomon's Mines opposite newcomer Sharon Stone, played Jason Bourne/David Webb in the television film version of The Bourne Identity. Since the 1990s, Chamberlain has appeared in television movies, on stage, as a guest star on such series as ABC's The Drew Carey Show and Will & Grace, he starred as Henry Higgins in the 1993–1994 Broadway revival of My Fair Lady. In the fall of 2005, Chamberlain appeared in the title role of Ebenezer Scrooge in the Broadway National Tour of Scrooge: The Musical. In 2006, Chamberlain guest-starred in an episode of the British drama series Hustle as well as season 4 of Nip/Tuck. In 2007, Chamberlain guest-starred in episode 80 of Desperate Housewives as Glen Wingfield, Lynette Scavo's stepfather. In 2008 and 2009, he appeared as King Arthur in the national tour of Monty Python's Spamalot. In 2010, he appeared as Archie Leach in season 3, episode 3 of the series Leverage, as well as two episodes of season 4 of Chuck where he played a villain known only as The Belgian.
Chamberlain has appeared in several episodes of Brothers & Sisters, playing an old friend and love-interest of Saul's. He appeared in the independent film We Are the Hartmans in 2011. In 2012, Chamberlain appeared on stage in the Pasadena Playhouse as Dr. Sloper in the play, The Heiress. Chamberlain was romantically involved with television actor Wesley Eure in the early 1970s. In 1977, he met actor-writer-producer Martin Rabbett; this led to a civil union in the state of Hawaii, where the couple resided from 1986 to 2010 and during which time Chamberlain adopted Rabbett to protect his future estate. Rabbett and Chamberlain starred together in, among others, Allan Quatermain and the Lost City of Gold, in which they played brothers Allan and Robeson Quatermain. In the spring of 2010 Chamberlain returned to Los Angeles to pursue career opportunities, leaving Rabbett in Hawaii, at least temporarily. Chamberlain was outed as a gay man at the age of 55 by the French women's magazine Nous Deux in December 1989, but it was not until 2003 that he confirmed his homosexuality in h
David Samuel Peckinpah was an American film director and screenwriter who achieved prominence following the release of the Western epic The Wild Bunch. He was known for the visually innovative and explicit depiction of action and violence as well as his revisionist approach to the Western genre. Peckinpah's films deal with the conflict between values and ideals, as well as the corruption and violence in human society, his characters are loners or losers who desire to be honorable, but are forced to compromise in order to survive in a world of nihilism and brutality. He was given the nickname "Bloody Sam" owing to the violence in his films. Peckinpah's combative personality, marked by years of alcohol and drug abuse, affected his professional legacy. Many of his films were noted for behind-the-scenes battles with producers and crew members, damaging his reputation and career during his lifetime; some of his films, including Major Dundee, Straw Dogs, The Getaway, Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia and Cross of Iron, remain controversial.
The Peckinpahs originated from the Frisian Islands in the northwest of Europe. Both sides of Peckinpah's family migrated to the American West by covered wagon in the mid-19th century. Peckinpah and several relatives claimed Native American ancestry, but this has been denied by surviving family members. Peckinpah's great-grandfather, Rice Peckinpaugh, a merchant and farmer in Indiana, moved to Humboldt County, California, in the 1850s, working in the logging business, changed the spelling of the family name to "Peckinpah". Peckinpah Meadow and Peckinpah Creek, where the family ran a lumber mill on a mountain in the High Sierra north of Coarsegold, have been named on U. S. geographical maps. Peckinpah's maternal grandfather was Denver S. Church, a cattle rancher, Superior Court judge and United States Congressman of a California district including Fresno County. Sam Peckinpah's nephew is David Peckinpah, a television producer and director, as well as a screenplay writer. Peckinpah's parents were David Edward Peckinpah and Fern Louise Church, he is a cousin of former New York Yankees shortstop Roger Peckinpaugh.
David Samuel Peckinpah was born February 21, 1925, in Fresno, where he attended both grammar school and high school. He spent much time skipping classes with his brother to engage in cowboy activities on their grandfather Denver Church's ranch, including trapping and shooting. During the 1930s and 1940s, Coarsegold and Bass Lake were still populated with descendants of the miners and ranchers of the 19th century. Many of these descendants worked on Church's ranch. At that time, it was a rural area undergoing extreme change, this exposure is believed to have affected Peckinpah's Western films in life, he played on the junior varsity football team while at Fresno High School, but frequent fighting and discipline problems caused his parents to enroll him in the San Rafael Military Academy for his senior year. In 1943, he joined the United States Marine Corps. Within two years, his battalion was sent to China with the task of disarming Japanese soldiers and repatriating them following World War II.
While his duty did not include combat, he claims to have witnessed acts of war between Chinese and Japanese soldiers. According to friends, these included several acts of torture and the murder of a laborer by sniper fire; the American Marines were not permitted to intervene. Peckinpah claimed he was shot during an attack by Communist forces. During his final weeks as a Marine, he applied for discharge in Peking, so he could marry a local woman, but was refused, his experiences in China deeply affected Peckinpah, may have influenced his depictions of violence in his films. After being discharged in Los Angeles, he attended California State University, where he studied history. While a student, he met and married his first wife, Marie Selland, in 1947. A drama major, Selland introduced Peckinpah to the theater department and he became interested in directing for the first time. During his senior year, he adapted and directed a one-hour version of Tennessee Williams' The Glass Menagerie. After graduation in 1948, Peckinpah enrolled in graduate studies in drama at University of Southern California.
He spent two seasons as the director in residence at Huntington Park Civic Theatre near Los Angeles before obtaining his master's degree. He was asked to stay another year, but Peckinpah began working as a stagehand at KLAC-TV in the belief that television experience would lead to work in films. During this early stage of his career, Peckinpah was developing a combative streak, he was kicked off the set of The Liberace Show for not wearing a tie, he refused to cue a car salesman during a live feed because of his attitude towards stagehands. In 1954, Peckinpah was hired as a dialogue coach for the film Riot in Cell Block 11, his job entailed acting as an assistant for Don Siegel. The film was shot on location at Folsom Prison; the warden was reluctant to allow the filmmakers to work at the prison until he was introduced to Peckinpah. The warden knew his family from Fresno and was cooperative. Siegel's location work and his use of actual prisoners as extras in the film made a lasting impression on Peckinpah.
He worked as a dialogue coach on four additional Siegel films: Private Hell 36, An Annapolis Story, Invasion of the Body Snatchers and Crime in the Streets. Invasion of the Body Snatchers, in which Peckinpah appeared as Charlie the meter reader, starred Kevin McCarthy and Dana Wynter, it became o
Cheshire Academy is a selective, co-educational college preparatory school located in Cheshire, United States. Founded in 1794 as the Episcopal Academy of Connecticut, it is the tenth oldest boarding school in the United States. In 1917, the school was renamed The Roxbury School, trained young men for the purpose of attending nearby Yale University. Known as Cheshire Academy, the school was the first private academic institution to accept international students dating back to the 1850s, it is the only independent school to offer the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in the state of Connecticut; the Academy enrolls 362 students from 30 countries and 13 states in grades 9 through 12 plus a postgraduate year. The campus of 104 acres is located in the center of the town of Cheshire; the campus includes five residential dormitories and facilities including the John J. White'38 Science & Technology Center and the Humanities Building. All areas of campus are equipped with wireless access and fiber optic network with 30 mb access to the internet.
In the fall of 2011, Cheshire Academy saw the dedication of field. The town of Cheshire, established in 1780, was known for its lighting industry, copper mining, agricultural productivity. Samuel Seabury, the first Episcopal Bishop of Connecticut, established the Episcopal Academy in 1794, which would endure several incarnations as The Cheshire School, The Roxbury School in 1917, Cheshire Academy in 1937. Under the first headmaster, Rev. John Bowden, the school became renowned not only for training young men for the clergy, but for educating students in the fields of English and Greek, philosophy and the sciences taught by leading colleges in the country at the time. Erected in 1796, Bowden Hall, the oldest schoolhouse still in continuous use in the state of Connecticut and tenth oldest schoolhouse in the United States, became an all-Cheshire community project, with funds to build the school donated by both churches and local proprietors. In 1806, Dr. Tillotson Bronson was elected as headmaster.
During his twenty-year term at the school, Bronson deemed that young women would be admitted to this once all-male institution, a rare allowance for women at the time. For this reason, many young women were sent to attend the school from distant townships in order to take advantage of such a unique educational opportunity. Another liberal tenet of the school at this time, as drafted in the school's constitution, was that students were allowed the freedom to practice the religion of their family's choice, regardless of the school's Episcopal affiliation; as stated in the ninth article of the constitution of the Episcopal Academy, "No Bye Laws of the Academy shall compel the Students to attend Public worship, but at such place or places as their respective Parents or Guardians shall direct."In 1917 the school was purchased by the Roxbury Training Center, the institution was no longer open to both men and women. The Roxbury School operated with the sole purpose of training young men to enter Yale University.
An existing military aspect of the school was abolished, the school focused now on rigorous academic preparation. Under long-standing headmaster Arthur Sheriff, the school became Cheshire Academy in 1937, it was not until 1969 that the school returned to its co-ed beginnings, allowing both young men and women to attend classes together. High School Mathematical Modeling Contest - In 2007-08, Cheshire Academy entered a team in the Consortium for Mathematics and its Applications annual math modeling contest; the CA team's 60-page model was judged to be in the top 4 out of the 270 teams competing and they were awarded the designation of National Outstanding. Software award - In 2008, five students were awarded Ars Technica's Best Indie Software Award after exhibiting in the Macworld expo. NEPSAC Bowl Championship - In 2011, the Cheshire Academy boys varsity football team finished off an undefeated season, taking both the Colonial League and NEPSAC championship titles. Roxbury Academic Support Program - An optional, fee-based program for students in need of additional academic assistance with a trained member of the faculty.
International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme - Cheshire Academy began to offer the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme during the 2011-2012 academic year. Arts Major Program - Advanced art students may take a year-long art major class; the class is designed to develop an artist’s passion in their chosen medium while providing a personal studio space to create their portfolios. The Goizueta Foundation Scholars Fund, created by Roberto Goizueta'49, provides an annual scholarship for a student of Hispanic background; the Town Scholar Program, established in 1937, provides a full, four-year scholarship to a resident of Cheshire entering the ninth grade. The school is accredited by the Connecticut Association of Independent Schools, New England Association of Schools and Colleges, The Association of Boarding Schools. Additionally it holds memberships in the National Association of Independent Schools, the Secondary School Admission Test Board, and the IB Diploma Programme Eric Bloom, Blue Öyster Cult.
Chester Bowles, 78th Connecticut Governor, Ambassador to India. Peter M. Brant, CEO of White Birch Paper, 2007 Commencement speaker. J. Kenneth Campbell film and television actor cast in over 80 roles Alberto Díaz, Jr. Rear Admiral, United States Navy. Geoffrey Cheney Ferris, Second Lieutenant, United States Army, awarded the Distinguished Service Cross during World War II. Andrew Hull Foote, Civil War Admiral in the United States Navy. Fred Friendly, Presid
Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college in Middletown, Connecticut. Founded in 1831, Wesleyan is a baccalaureate college that emphasizes undergraduate instruction in the arts and sciences, grants research master's degrees in many academic disciplines, grants PhD degrees in biology, chemistry and computer science, molecular biology and biochemistry and physics. Along with Amherst College and Williams College, Wesleyan is a member of the Little Three colleges. In the 2016 Forbes ranking of American colleges, which combines national research universities, liberal arts colleges and military academies in a single survey, Wesleyan University is ranked 9th overall. Founded under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church and with the support of prominent residents of Middletown, the now-secular university was the first institution of higher education to be named after John Wesley, the founder of Methodism. About 20 unrelated colleges and universities were subsequently named after Wesley.
Since its inception, Wesleyan University has graduated 13 Pulitzer Prize winners—including playwright and Hamilton creator Lin-Manuel Miranda—14 Rhodes Scholars, 3 Truman Scholars, 3 Guggenheim Fellows, 7 MacArthur Fellows, 156 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 4 Nobel Laureates have been associated with the university: T. S. Eliot, Satoshi Omura, V. S. Naipaul, US President Woodrow Wilson. Wesleyan was twice named a top producer of Fulbright scholars for the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 school years. Other prominent alumni include 34 members of United States Congress, 16 US Cabinet members, 11 US Governors, 6 US Agency directors and heads, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies, 2 Attorneys General of the United States. Three histories of Wesleyan have been published, Wesleyan's First Century by Carl F. Price in 1932, another in 1999, Wesleyan University, 1831–1910: Collegiate Enterprise in New England and Wesleyan University, 1910-1970, Academic Ambition and Middle-Class America, released in May 2015, both authored by David B.
Potts. Wesleyan was founded as an all-male Methodist college in 1831; the university, established as an independent institution under the auspices of the Methodist conference, was led by Willbur Fisk, its first president. Despite its name, Wesleyan was never a denominational seminary, it remained a leader in educational progress throughout its history and erected one of the earliest comprehensive science buildings devoted to undergraduate science instruction on any American college or university campus, Judd Hall. It has maintained a larger library collection than institutions comparable in size; the Wesleyan student body numbered about 300 in 1910 and had grown to 800 in 1960, the latter being a figure that Time described as "small". Although Wesleyan developed into a peer of Amherst and Williams, Wesleyan was always decidedly the smallest of the Little Three institutions until the 1970s, when it grew to become larger than the other two. In 1872, the university became one of the first U. S. colleges to attempt coeducation by allowing a small number of female students to attend, a venture known as the "Wesleyan Experiment".
"In 1909, the board of trustees voted to stop admitting women as undergraduates, fearing that the school was losing its masculine image and that women would not be able to contribute to the college financially after graduation the way men could." Given that concern, Wesleyan ceased to admit women, from 1912 to 1970 Wesleyan operated again as an all-male college. Wesleyan became independent of the Methodist church in 1937, although in 2000, the university was designated as a historic Methodist site. Beginning in the late 1950s, president Victor Lloyd Butterfield began an ambitious program to reorganize the university according to Butterfield's "College Plan" somewhat similar to Harvard's House system or Yale's colleges, where undergraduate study would be divided into seven smaller residential colleges with their own faculty and centralized graduate studies, including doctoral programs and a Center for Advanced Studies; the building program begun under this system created three residential colleges on Foss Hill and three more residential colleges.
Although the facilities were created, only four of the academic programs were begun, only two of those continue today: the College of Letters and the College of Social Studies. Fund raising proved effective and by 1960 Wesleyan had the largest endowment, per student, of any college or university in America, a student-faculty ratio of 7:1. Butterfield's successors, Edwin Deacon Etherington and Colin Goetze Campbell, completed many of the innovations begun during Butterfield's administration, including the return of women in numbers equal to men; the university and several of its admissions deans were featured in Jacques Steinberg's 2002 book The Gatekeepers: Inside The Admissions Process of a Premier College. In the fall 2007 semester, Michael S. Roth, a 1978 graduate of Wesleyan and former president of the California College of the Arts, was inaugurated as the university's 16th president. Wesleyan occupies a 360-acre campus, with over 340 buildings, including the five-building College Row.