Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, was an Australian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1966. He played a central role in the creation of the Liberal Party of Australia, defining its policies and its broad outreach, he is Australia's longest-serving prime minister, serving over 18 years in total. Menzies became one of Melbourne's leading lawyers, he was Deputy Premier of Victoria from 1932 to 1934, transferred to federal parliament, subsequently becoming Attorney-General and Minister for Industry in the government of Joseph Lyons. In April 1939, following Lyons's death, Menzies was elected leader of the United Australia Party and sworn in as prime minister, he authorised Australia's entry into World War II in September 1939, in 1941 spent four months in England to participate in meetings of Churchill's war cabinet. On his return to Australia in August 1941, Menzies found that he had lost the support of his party and resigned as prime minister.
He subsequently helped to create the new Liberal Party, was elected its inaugural leader in August 1945. At the 1949 federal election, Menzies led the Liberal–Country coalition to victory and returned as prime minister, his appeal to the home and family, promoted via reassuring radio talks, matched the national mood as the economy grew and middle-class values prevailed. After 1955, his government received support from the Democratic Labour Party, a breakaway group from the Labor Party. Menzies won seven consecutive elections during his second term retiring as prime minister in January 1966, his legacy has been debated, but his government is remembered today for its development of Canberra, its expanded post-war immigration scheme, its emphasis on higher education, its national security policies, which saw Australia contribute troops to the Korean War, the Malayan Emergency, the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, the Vietnam War. Robert Gordon Menzies was born on 20 December 1894 at his parents' home in Victoria.
He was the fourth of five children born to James Menzies. Menzies was the first Australian prime minister to have two Australian-born parents: his father was born in Ballarat and his mother in Creswick, his grandparents on both sides had been drawn to Australia by the Victorian gold rush. His maternal grandparents were born in Cornwall, his paternal grandfather named Robert Menzies, was born in Renfrewshire and arrived in Melbourne in 1854. The following year he married the daughter of a cobbler from Fife. Menzies was proud of his Scottish heritage, preferred his surname to be pronounced in the traditional Scottish manner rather than as it is spelled; this gave rise to his nickname "Ming", expanded to "Ming the Merciless" after the comic strip character. His middle name was given in honour of Charles George Gordon; the Menzies family had moved to Jeparit, a small Wimmera township, in the year before Robert's birth. At the 1891 census, the settlement had a population of just 55 people, his elder siblings had been born in Ballarat, where his father was a locomotive painter at the Phoenix Foundry.
Seeking a new start, he moved the family to Jeparit to take over the general store, which "survived rather than prospered". During Menzies's childhood, three of his close relatives were elected to parliament, his uncle Hugh was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly in 1902, followed by his father in 1911, while another uncle, Sydney Sampson, was elected to the federal House of Representatives in 1906. Each of the three represented rural constituencies, were defeated after a few terms. Menzies's maternal grandfather John Sampson was active in the trade union movement, he was the inaugural president of the Creswick Miners' Association, which he co-founded with future Labor MP William Spence, was prominent in the Amalgamated Miners' Association. Growing up, Menzies and his siblings "had the normal enjoyments and camaraderies of a small country town", he began his formal education in 1899 at a single-teacher one-room school. When he was about eleven, he and his sister were sent to Ballarat to live with his paternal grandmother.
In 1906, Menzies began attending the Humffray Street State School in Bakery Hill. The following year, aged 13, he ranked first in the state-wide scholarship examinations; this feat financed the entirety of his secondary education, which had to be undertaken at private schools, as Victoria did not yet have a system of public secondary schools. In 1908 and 1909, Menzies attended a small private school in Ballarat Central, he and his family moved to Melbourne in 1910. Menzies was "not interested in and incompetent at sport", but excelled academically. In his third and final year at Wesley he won a £40 exhibition for university study, one of 25 awarded by the state government. In 1913, Menzies entered the Melbourne Law School, he won a variety of prizes and scholarships during his time as a student, graduating as a Bachelor of Laws in 1916 and a Master of Laws in 1918. He did, fail Latin in his first year. One of his prize-winning essays, The Rule of Law During the War, was published as a brochure with an introduction by Harrison Moore, the law school dean.
In 1916, Menzies was elected president of the Student Representatives' Council and editor of the Melbourne University Ma
Robert James Gronkowski, nicknamed "Gronk", is a former American football tight end, a football analyst for Fox Sports. He played his entire professional career for the New England Patriots of the National Football League until his retirement in March 2019, he is a three-time Super Bowl champion, a five-time Pro Bowl selection, four-time First Team All-Pro selection, was selected in the NFL's 100th Anniversary All-Time Team. Gronkowski played college football at the University of Arizona, winning several awards, including being named a Sporting News and Rivals.com Freshman All-American. Despite only playing two collegiate seasons, his 18.8 yards per reception average and 1,197 receiving yards were a team record for his position. The Patriots drafted Gronkowski in the second round of the 2010 NFL Draft with the 42nd pick, after missing his junior year due to back surgery. Notable for being a skilled receiver and talented blocker, Gronkowski has set several NFL records, including being the only one of his position to lead the league in receiving touchdowns in 2011.
He has the most career postseason receiving yards by a tight end – the only tight end in NFL history to reach 1,000 or more yards. He has the most career postseason receiving touchdowns for his position with 12, as well as the most combined receptions and receiving yards by a tight end in Super Bowl history, he is ranked first in average receiving yards per game, average yards per target, average touchdowns per game among tight ends. Gronkowski is one of football's most popular players, with a larger-than-life personality on and off the field. With his numerous accomplishments and accolades, he is regarded by many sports analysts and peers not only as one of his era's best players, but the greatest tight end to play the game. Gronkowski was born in Amherst, New York, on May 14, 1989, was raised in Williamsville, he is the second youngest son of Gordon Gronkowski and Diane Walters, is of Polish descent through his father. His father is a former college football guard for Syracuse University who founded a high-end fitness equipment business.
He is a great-grandson of Ignatius Gronkowski who represented the United States in cycling at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris and held five world records in the sport. Gronkowski's parents divorced in 2008, his four brothers – Gordie, Dan and Glenn – all played collegiate sports, played professionally. Gronkowski played hockey until he was 14, he attended Williamsville North High School for three years, playing tight end and defensive end, center in basketball, first baseman in baseball for the Spartans athletic teams. As a junior playing football, he recorded 36 receptions for 648 yards and seven touchdowns on offense, 73 tackles and six sacks on defense, he was named an All-Western New York first-team and All-State second-team player. Academically, Gronkowski was in the National Honor Society, citing math as his best subject, English the worst. In 2006, Gronkowski moved to suburban Pittsburgh, where he attended Woodland Hills High School as a senior. Ruled ineligible by the Western Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic League because of his transfer, he recorded eight receptions for 152 yards and four touchdowns at Woodland Hills after the ruling of ineligibility was overturned.
He was named a SuperPrep All-American, PrepStar All-American, Associated Press Class 4-A all-state, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette "Fabulous 22", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette first-team all-conference, The Patriot-News "Platinum 33", a Pittsburgh Tribune-Review "Terrific 25" player. He was recruited by Kentucky, Clemson, Maryland, Ohio State, Syracuse. Gronkowski graduated from high school with a 3.75 1560 SAT score. After graduating from high school, Gronkowski attended the University of Arizona as a Pre-Business major and played for the Arizona Wildcats football team from 2007 to 2009 under head coach Mike Stoops; as a freshman in 2007, he recorded 28 receptions for six touchdowns. His 18.8 yards per reception average was the best on the team and his receiving yards were a school record for a tight end. He was named The Sporting News freshman All-American, Rivals.com freshman All-American, The Sporting News freshman Pac-10, All-Pac-10 honorable mention player. Gronkowski missed the first three games of the 2008 season, but recorded 47 receptions for 672 yards and a team-best ten touchdowns.
Five of his touchdowns were scored in his first two games against Washington. He was twice named the John Mackey National Tight End of the Week, including his performance in a failed comeback bid against Oregon, when he caught 12 passes for 143 yards, he set the school records for a tight end for single-game, single-season, career receptions and touchdowns. Gronkowski was named an Associated Press third-team All-American and All-Pac-10 first-team tight end. Prior to the 2009 season, Gronkowski was placed on the watchlist for the Lombardi Award, awarded to the most outstanding college football lineman or linebacker, he missed his junior season in 2009 due to back surgery. Gronkowski was drafted by the New England Patriots in the second round of the 2010 NFL Draft, after a draft day trade with the Oakland Raiders, he signed a four-year contract on July 25, 2010. The deal was worth $4.4 million, with a $1.76 million signing bonus. During
Robert Faulknor the younger was an 18th-century Royal Navy officer, part of the Faulknor naval dynasty. He was died in an action off Guadeloupe in the eastern Caribbean Sea, he was born in Northampton, the eldest of the two sons of Robert Faulknor the elder and Elizabeth. Sometime after that the family moved to Dijon, where they stayed until Robert the elder died there on 9 May 1769, when his widow and the children returned to Northampton. Robert and his brother were enrolled in a grammar school, with Robert entering the Royal Naval Academy, Portsmouth, in 1774, aged eleven. Robert completed his term at the Academy in March 1777 and joined HMS Isis, under the Hon. William Cornwallis, stationed in North America, he followed Cornwallis to HMS Bristol and HMS Lion, seeing many engagements in 1779/80. From December 1780 to March 1783 Robert served in HMS Princess Royal and HMS Britannia, leading Rear-Admiral Sir Joshua Rowley to call him "a young man of great merit." After the American War of Independence, Robert Faulknor was one of a lucky few officers to gain peacetime commissions and was put in command of the sloop HMS Merlin after Britannia's paying-off in March 1783 and from December 1783, to HMS Daphne.
He was appointed to serve in HMS Impregnable during the Nootka Sound crisis in May 1790 and six months he was promoted to commander, although it was April 1791 before he got his first command at that rank. That command ended in September 1791, after which he remained on half pay until the outbreak of the War of the First Coalition against France in 1793. After the outbreak of war, he was given the sloop HMS Zebra, in June 1793, stationed in the English Channel and - through his mother's lobbying of Lord Chatham - attached to Sir John Jervis's expedition to the West Indies. There, in the February 1794 attack on Martinique, HMS Zebra and HMS Asia were ordered to give covering fire for the landing of ground troops and seamen by anchoring close under the walls of Fort St Louis, but - when Asia failed to reach her allotted position - Faulknor instead took Zebra closer to the fort, scaled its walls at the head of his men and had a lucky escape when a wooden cartouche box strapped to his waist was struck by grapeshot but left him unharmed.
Riou and Nugent's force had already entered the fort by this point, but Jervis witnessed Faulknor's action, publicly praised him for it and promoted him captain of the frigate HMS Rose. He took command of the heavier frigate HMS Blanche several months later. On 21 April he led a party of his seamen during the attack on Fort Fleur d'Epée on Guadeloupe, he was lost his sword and knocked to the ground. Midshipman John Maitland fought off the French and Faulknor was rescued by his own men. During the attack on Guadeloupe, Faulknor became involved in an angry altercation with an engineer who had criticised the battery erected by Faulknor's men, during which he ran through a quartermaster of HMS Boyne, with his sword for making some form of contemptuous comment, killing him instantly. Faulknor's own seamen working on the battery refused to serve under him. A mutiny was only averted by the intercession of other officers and by Faulknor's immediate court martial, at which he was acquitted. Faulknor was remorseful, but maintained that he had been provoked, for the rest of his life he was morose and restless, pacing his cabin at night.
Waiting for his court martial, he wrote to Lieutenant Hill of Zebra that he was less concerned "for my own fate, than that of being accessory to the death of any human being not the natural enemy of myself or my country... the hasty and sudden punishment I unhappily inflicted on the spot will be a source of lasting affliction to my mind." Blanche was detached in December 1794 to cruise off the island of Desirade. That island was held by the French and on 4 January 1795, Blanche's crew discovered the French frigate Pique off Pointe à Pitre, Guadeloupe; the French ship at first seemed to be trying to avoid an action, but the two ships came to close quarters in the early hours of 5 January, in an engagement of over 3¾ hours in which Blanche lost her main and mizzen masts. One and a quarter hours in, Pique ran her bow on board Blanche, making her unable to bring any of her guns to bear on Blanche and unable to manoeuvre. Faulknor was wounded, but not fatally, continued to direct the action until two musket shots killed him.
Lieutenant Frederick Watkins took over command. Two hours Pique surrendered. Faulknor was buried the day after his death on the Isles des Saintes and following news of his death, he was commemorated with a memorial in St Paul's Cathedral, London. DNB Tracy, Nicholas. Who's who in Nelson's Navy: 200 Naval Heroes. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 1-86176-244-5; the Gentleman's Magazine. F. Jefferies. 1837