Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
The North American
The North American was an American newspaper published in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1839, though it could claim a lineage back to 1771, and published until 1925, the North American, a daily newspaper in Philadelphia, was first published on March 26,1839, by S. C. Later that year, the paper was acquired by C. G, childs and J. Reese Fry, along with the Commercial Herald. In October 1845, the paper was acquired by George R. Graham, well known as the publisher of Grahams Magazine, and Alexander Cummings, the Daily Advertiser suffix was dropped. Cummings soon departed over differences, and Morton McMichael joined Graham as publisher in January 1847. At that point, it was an influential Whig newspaper, in July of that year and playwright Robert Montgomery Bird was brought in as a one-third owner, and the paper was merged with the United States Gazette, another Whig paper in town. The paper was redubbed as the North American and United States Gazette, Graham left the paper in 1848, and McMichael and Bird became the driving forces in making the paper a journalistic and financial success.
After Bird died in 1854, McMichael continued as the owner until his death in 1879. The paper was a supporter of Abraham Lincoln, as it developed to become a supporter of the Republican party. The United States Gazette suffix was dropped from the name in 1876. McMichaels two sons assumed control of the paper in his years, his son Clayton assuming chief editorial duties. In 1899, the paper was acquired by Thomas B, in 1925, Cyrus Curtis, owner of the Public Ledger, acquired the North American from Thomas B. Wanamakers estate as part of his bid to grow the Ledger by shutting down some of its competitors, the Ledger adopted the official title Public Ledger and North American, until late 1927
Christopher Looby is an American literary critic specializing in 18th and 19th century American literature. He is a Professor of English at UCLA, Looby received his B. A. from Washington University in St. Louis in 1979 and his Ph. D. from Columbia University in 1989. Sheppard Lee, Written By Himself by Robert Montgomery Bird, New York, New York Review of Books,2008. The Complete Civil War Journal and Selected Letters of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Univ. of Chicago Press,2000. Voicing America, Literary Form, and the Origins of the United States, Univ. of Chicago Press,1996. Official website - UCLA Christopher Looby in the New York Review of Books
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of universal access to all knowledge. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes, in addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 150 billion web captures, the Archive oversees one of the worlds largest book digitization projects. Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501 nonprofit operating in the United States. It has a budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources, revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, donations. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, where about 30 of its 200 employees work, Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities, San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond, the Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium and was officially designated as a library by the State of California in 2007.
Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at around the time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities, the archived content wasnt available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, Now the Internet Archive includes texts, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of projects, the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It. According to its web site, Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture, without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form, the Archives mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers and scholars. In August 2012, the Archive announced that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, on November 6,2013, the Internet Archives headquarters in San Franciscos Richmond District caught fire, destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.
The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage, in November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in the country of Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build an archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump. Kahle was quoted as saying that on November 9th in America and it was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and it means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks. It was founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library, most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books. The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, as of 3 October 2015, Project Gutenberg reached 50,000 items in its collection. The releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional, Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts. Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence, Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, obtained access to a Xerox Sigma V mainframe computer in the universitys Materials Research Lab.
Through friendly operators, he received an account with an unlimited amount of computer time. Hart has said he wanted to back this gift by doing something that could be considered to be of great value. His initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge and this particular computer was one of the 15 nodes on ARPANET, the computer network that would become the Internet. Hart believed that computers would one day be accessible to the general public and he used a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, and this became the first Project Gutenberg e-text. He named the project after Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the movable type printing press revolution, by the mid-1990s, Hart was running Project Gutenberg from Illinois Benedictine College. More volunteers had joined the effort, all of the text was entered manually until 1989 when image scanners and optical character recognition software improved and became more widely available, which made book scanning more feasible.
Hart came to an arrangement with Carnegie Mellon University, which agreed to administer Project Gutenbergs finances, as the volume of e-texts increased, volunteers began to take over the projects day-to-day operations that Hart had run. Starting in 2004, an online catalog made Project Gutenberg content easier to browse, access. Project Gutenberg is now hosted by ibiblio at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Italian volunteer Pietro Di Miceli developed and administered the first Project Gutenberg website and started the development of the Project online Catalog. In his ten years in this role, the Project web pages won a number of awards, often being featured in best of the Web listings, Hart died on 6 September 2011 at his home in Urbana, Illinois at the age of 64. In 2000, a corporation, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Long-time Project Gutenberg volunteer Gregory Newby became the foundations first CEO, in 2000, Charles Franks founded Distributed Proofreaders, which allowed the proofreading of scanned texts to be distributed among many volunteers over the Internet
Germantown Academy, informally known as GA and originally known as the Union School, is the oldest nonsectarian day school in the United States. The school was founded on December 6,1759, by a group of prominent Germantown citizens in the Green Tree Tavern on the Germantown Road, Germantown Academy ranks within the nations top 100 private and public schools that send the most students to the Ivy Leagues. The original campus is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the school shares the oldest continuous high school football rivalry with the William Penn Charter School. The academy recently completed the first two phases of a rebuilding plan. The Union School was founded on the evening of December 6,1759, the school was founded by prominent members of the Germantown community who wished to provide a country school for their children. As some of the founders and residents of Germantown were of German descent, the founders chose David James Dove to head the English department and Hilarius Becker of Bernheim, Germany, to head the German school.
In 1761, land was given to the school by trustee Charles Bensell, the school found itself in the crossroads of early American history. In 1777, the Battle of Germantown was fought on the front lawn of trustee Benjamin Chew at his home Cliveden less than a mile from campus, during the American Revolution, the school served as a hospital and camp for British soldiers. Legend says that the British officers played the first game of cricket in America on the Academys front lawn, after the war, the school was visited by President George Washington. Washington sent his adopted step-grandson George Washington Parke Custis to the Academy during the 1793 yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, the school was visited by the Marquis de Lafayette on his 1825 visit to America and hosted Fernando, the adopted son of South American liberator Simón Bolívar. In 1830, Amos Bronson Alcott, father of Louisa May Alcott, was appointed headmaster, after the Civil War, the school was in decline, with a small student body and outdated facilities.
In 1877, Dr. William Kershaw was appointed headmaster, during his headmastership, GA graduated a future University of Pennsylvania president, a Supreme Court justice, and a primate of the Episcopal Church. In 1915, Dr. Kershaw retired and Dr. Samuel E. Osbourn was appointed headmaster, under Dr. Osbourns leadership, the school increased in size, focused on scholarship and continued to produce some of Philadelphias finest citizens. Under Osbourn, GA established the eighth oldest Cum Laude Society chapter in the nation, after the World Wars, GA was led by headmaster Donald Miller who was instrumental in the move from Germantown to the current Fort Washington campus. By the 1960s, GA families had left Germantown for nearby suburbs, in five years, The Miracle of Fort Washington occurred as the school moved from city to suburb. In this transition, GA coeducated, accepting girls in 1961 with the first co-ed class graduating in 1968, the school colors are red and blue. Originally, red and blue, the white was changed to black upon the death of Abraham Lincoln in 1865.
GA/PC Day is a tradition where GA plays against its rival William Penn Charter School in football, field hockey, cross country, girls tennis, water polo
Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google Books Partner Program, or by Googles library partners, through the Library Project. Additionally, Google has partnered with a number of publishers to digitize their archives. The Publisher Program was first known as Google Print when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004, the Google Books Library Project, which scans works in the collections of library partners and adds them to the digital inventory, was announced in December 2004. But it has criticized for potential copyright violations. As of October 2015, the number of scanned book titles was over 25 million, Google estimated in 2010 that there were about 130 million distinct titles in the world, and stated that it intended to scan all of them. Results from Google Books show up in both the universal Google Search as well as in the dedicated Google Books search website, if Google believes the book is still under copyright, a user sees snippets of text around the queried search terms.
All instances of the terms in the book text appear with a yellow highlight. The four access levels used on Google Books are, Full view, Books in the domain are available for full view. In-print books acquired through the Partner Program are available for full view if the publisher has given permission, the publisher can set the percentage of the book available for preview. Users are restricted from copying, downloading or printing book previews, a watermark reading Copyrighted material appears at the bottom of pages. All books acquired through the Partner Program are available for preview and this could be because Google cannot identify the owner or the owner declined permission. If a search term appears many times in a book, Google displays no more than three snippets, thus preventing the user from viewing too much of the book. Also, Google does not display any snippets for certain reference books, such as dictionaries, Google maintains that no permission is required under copyright law to display the snippet view.
No preview, Google displays search results for books that have not been digitized, in effect, this is similar to an online library card catalog. Google stated that it would not scan any in-copyright books between August and 1 November 2005, to provide the owners with the opportunity to decide which books to exclude from the Project. It can let Google scan the book under the Library Project and it can opt out of the Library Project, in which case Google will not scan the book. If the book has already been scanned, Google will reset its access level as No preview and this information is collated through automated methods, and sometimes data from third-party sources is used. This information provides an insight into the book, particularly useful when only a view is available