Robert Moog

Robert Arthur Moog was an American engineer and pioneer of electronic music. He was the founder of Moog Music and the inventor of the first commercial synthesizer, the Moog synthesizer, debuted in 1964; this was followed in 1970 by a more portable model, the Minimoog, described as the most famous and influential synthesizer in history. Moog created fundamental synthesizer concepts such as the pitch wheel, envelope generation, voltage control, he is credited for helping bring synthesizers to a wider audience and influencing the development of popular music. His only patent was on his filter design. In 1971, he sold Moog Music to Norlin Musical Instruments, where he remained as a designer until 1977. In 1978, he founded the company Big Briar, in 2002 renamed it Moog Music after buying back the rights to the name. In his years, Moog taught at the University of North Carolina at Asheville, worked on designs for further instruments. Robert Moog was born in New York City on May 23, 1934, grew up in Flushing, Queens.

He graduated from the Bronx High School of Science in 1952. As a boy, Moog's parents forced him to study the piano, but he preferred his time in the workroom of his father, a Consolidated Edison engineer, he became fascinated by the theremin, an electronic instrument controlled by moving the hands over radio antennae. In 1949, aged 14, he built a theremin from plans printed in Electronics World. Moog completed a bachelor's degree in physics from Queens College and a master's degree in electrical engineering from Columbia University before earning a Ph. D. in engineering physics from Cornell University in 1965. In 1953, Moog produced his own theremin design, the following year he published an article on the theremin in Radio and Television News. In the same year, he founded RA Moog, selling theremins and theremin kits by mail order from his home. One of his customers, Raymond Scott, rewired Moog's theremin for control by keyboard, creating the Clavivox. At Cornell, Moog began work on his first synthesizer modules with composer Herb Deutsch.

At the time, synthesizers were room-filling instruments. He believed that affordability were the most important parameters. In 1964, Moog began creating the Moog synthesizer; the synthesizer was composed of separate modules which created and shaped sounds, connected by patch cords. One innovative feature was its envelope, which controlled how notes fade. Moog debuted the instrument at the 1964 Audio Engineering Society convention in New York, it was much smaller than other synthesizers, such as the RCA Synthesizer introduced a decade earlier, much cheaper, at $10,000USD compared to the six-figure sums of other synthesizers. Whereas the RCA Synthesizer was programmed with punchcards, Moog's synthesizer could be played via keyboard, making it attractive to musicians. New Scientist described it as the first commercial synthesizer. Moog's development was driven by requests and suggestions from musicians including Richard Teitelbaum, Herb Deutsch, Vladimir Ussachevsky, Wendy Carlos, his other early customers included composer John Cage.

Moog described himself as a toolmaker. Universities established electronic music laboratories with Moog synthesizers; the synthesizer was followed in 1970 by a more portable model, the Minimoog, described as the most famous and influential synthesizer in history. Though commentators have praised Moog's engineering abilities, they described him as a poor businessman, he only patented his filter design. According to Sound on Sound, if Moog had created a monopoly on other synthesizer ideas he created, such as modularity, envelope generation, voltage control, "it's the synth industry as we know it today would never have happened". In 1971, following a recession, Moog Music took on investors, merged with another company, moved to "less than ideal" premises in Buffalo. Moog sold the company to Norlin Musical Instruments, where he remained employed as a designer until 1977, he said he would have left earlier if his contract had not required him to remain employed there for four years to cash his stock.

By the end of the decade, Moog Music was facing competition from cheaper, easier-to-use instruments by competitors including Arp, Roland and E-mu. In 1978, Moog founded a new electronic instrument company, Big Briar, he worked as a consultant and vice president for new product research at Kurzweil Music Systems from 1984 to 1988. In the early 1990s, he was a research professor of music at the University of North Carolina at Asheville. In 2002, he renamed Big Briar to Moog Music after buying back the rights to the name. In years, he designed electronic instruments including a piano operated by touchscreen. Moog was diagnosed with a glioblastoma multiforme brain tumor on April 28, 2005, he died on August 2005 at the age of 71 in Asheville, North Carolina. Moog's first marriage, to Shirleigh Moog, ended in divorce in 1994, he was survived by his second wife, four children, one stepdaughter, five grandchildren. Moog has had a lasting influence on music; the BBC describes him as a pioneer of synthesized sound.

According to the Guardian, his inventions "changed the complexion of the pop and classical music worlds". Moog's name became so associate

List of data deficient amphibians

As of July 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature lists 1567 data deficient amphibian species. 24% of all evaluated amphibian species are listed as data deficient. No subpopulations of amphibians have been evaluated by the IUCN; this is a complete list of data deficient amphibian species and subspecies as evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN. There are 56 salamander species assessed as data deficient. Ambystoma rivulare Durango salamander Hypselotriton chenggongensis There are 1396 frog species assessed as data deficient. Includes tree frog species and their allies. There are 115 species in the order Gymnophiona assessed as data deficient. Lists of IUCN Red List data deficient species List of least concern amphibians List of near threatened amphibians List of vulnerable amphibians List of endangered amphibians List of critically endangered amphibians List of extinct amphibians

2009 Pacific League Climax Series

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