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Robert Mugabe

Robert Gabriel Mugabe was a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and as President from 1987 to 2017. He served as Leader of the Zimbabwe African National Union from 1975 to 1980 and led its successor political party, the ZANU – Patriotic Front, from 1980 to 2017. Ideologically an African nationalist, during the 1970s and 1980s he identified as a Marxist–Leninist, as a socialist after the 1990s, his policies have been described as Mugabeism. Mugabe was born to a poor Shona family in Southern Rhodesia. Educated at Kutama College and the University of Fort Hare, he worked as a school teacher in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, Ghana. Angered by white minority rule of his homeland within the British Empire, Mugabe embraced Marxism and joined African nationalists calling for an independent state controlled by the black majority. After making anti-government comments, he was convicted of sedition and imprisoned between 1964 and 1974.

On release, he fled to Mozambique, established his leadership of ZANU, oversaw its role in the Rhodesian Bush War, fighting Ian Smith's predominately white government. He reluctantly participated in peace talks in the United Kingdom that resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement, putting an end to the war. In the 1980 general election, Mugabe led ZANU-PF to victory; as Prime Minister of the newly renamed Zimbabwe, Mugabe's administration expanded healthcare and education and—despite his professed desire for a socialist society—adhered to mainstream, conservative economic policies. Mugabe's calls for racial reconciliation failed to stem growing white emigration, while relations with Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union deteriorated. In the Gukurahundi of 1982–1987, Mugabe's Fifth Brigade crushed ZAPU-linked opposition in Matabeleland in a campaign that killed at least 10,000 people Ndebele civilians. Internationally he sent troops into the Second Congo War and chaired the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organisation of African Unity, the African Union.

Pursuing decolonisation, Mugabe emphasised the redistribution of land controlled by white farmers to landless blacks on a "willing seller–willing buyer" basis. Frustrated at the slow rate of redistribution, from 2000 he encouraged black Zimbabweans to violently seize white-owned farms. Food production was impacted, leading to famine, economic decline, Western sanctions. Opposition to Mugabe grew, but he was re-elected in 2002, 2008, 2013 through campaigns dominated by violence, electoral fraud, nationalistic appeals to his rural Shona voter base. In 2017, members of his own party ousted him in a coup, replacing him with former vice president Emmerson Mnangagwa. Having dominated Zimbabwe's politics for nearly four decades, Mugabe was a controversial figure, he was praised as a revolutionary hero of the African liberation struggle who helped free Zimbabwe from British colonialism and white minority rule. Critics accused Mugabe of being a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement, widespread corruption in Zimbabwe, anti-white racism, human rights abuses, crimes against humanity.

Robert Gabriel Mugabe was born on 21 February 1924 at the Kutama Mission village in Southern Rhodesia's Zvimba District. His father, Gabriel Matibiri, was a carpenter while his mother Bona was a Christian catechist for the village children, they had been trained in their professions by the Jesuits, the Roman Catholic religious order which had established the mission. Bona and Gabriel had six children: Miteri, Robert, Dhonandhe and Bridgette, they belonged to one of the smallest branches of the Shona tribe. Mugabe's paternal grandfather was Chief Constantine Karigamombe, alias "Matibiri", a powerful figure who served King Lobengula in the 19th century. Through his father, he claimed membership of the chieftaincy family that has provided the hereditary rulers of Zvimba for generations; the Jesuits were strict disciplinarians and under their influence Mugabe developed an intense self-discipline, while becoming a devout Catholic. Mugabe excelled at school, where he was a secretive and solitary child, preferring to read, rather than playing sports or socialising with other children.

He was taunted by many of the other children, who regarded him as a mother's boy. In about 1930 Gabriel had an argument with one of the Jesuits, as a result the Mugabe family was expelled from the mission village by its French leader, Father Jean-Baptiste Loubière; the family settled in a village about 11 kilometres away. Around the same time, Robert's older brother Raphael died of diarrhoea. In early 1934, Robert's other older brother, Michael died, after consuming poisoned maize; that year, Gabriel left his family in search of employment in Bulawayo. He subsequently abandoned Bona and their six children and established a relationship with another woman, with whom he had three further offspring. Loubière died shortly after and was replaced by an Irishman, Father Jerome O'Hea, who welcomed the return of the Mugabe family to Kutama. In contrast to the racism that permeated Southern Rhodesian society, under O'Hea's leadership the Kutama Mission preached an ethos of racial equality. O'Hea nurtured the young Mugabe.

As well as helping provide Mugabe with a Christian education, O'Hea taught him about the Irish War

2014 Asian Junior Badminton Championships – Boys doubles

The Boys' Doubles tournament of the 2014 Asian Junior Badminton Championships was held from February 19–23 in Taipei, Taiwan. The defending champion of the last edition were Liu Yuchen. Last year finalist Huang Kaixiang / Zheng Siwei who standing in the first seeded this year, emerge as the champion after beat the South Korean pair the second seeded Kim Jae-hwan / Kim Jung-ho in the finals with the score 21–16, 21–14. Japanese pairs Kenya Mitsuhashi / Yuta Watanabe and Hashiru Shimono / Kanta Tsuneyama finished in the semi-finals round, settle for the bronze medal. Main Draw

Aydıncık Islands

Aydıncık Islands are two small Mediterranean islands in Turkey. Their former name was Gilindire, which comes from the name of the former Roman port Kelenderis, now Aydıncık, they face Aydıncık ilçe center in Mersin Province. Their distance to Aydıncık is about 2 kilometres; the nearest point on the mainland is a rock cape to the east about 600 metres away. The length of the bigger island at about 36°08′21″N 33°20′55″E is 250 metres and the length of the smaller island at 36°08′27″N 33°20′59″E is 100 metres; the distance between the two is 50 metres. British admiral Francis Beaufort in his book Caramania points out that no ancient geographer has mentioned these islands The uninhabited islands are known to be the breeding ground of the Audouin's gull