A photographer is a person who makes photographs. As in other arts, the definitions of amateur and professional are not categorical. An amateur photographer takes snapshots for pleasure to remember events, places or friends with no intention of selling the images to others. A professional photographer is to take photographs for a session and image purchase fee, by salary or through the display, resale or use of those photographs. A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a particular planned event such as a wedding or graduation, or to illustrate an advertisement. Others, like fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making an image and licensing or making printed copies of it for sale or display; some workers, such as crime scene photographers, estate agents and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, depending on the commercial context.
The term professional may imply preparation, for example, by academic study or apprenticeship by the photographer in pursuit of photographic skills. A hallmark of a professional is that they invest in continuing education through associations. Many associations offer the opportunity to test and exhibit acumen in order to attain credentials such as Certified Professional Photographer or Master Photographer. While there is no compulsory registration requirement for professional photographer status, operating a business requires having a business license in most cities and counties. Having commercial insurance is required by most venues if photographing a wedding or a public event. Photographers who operate a legitimate business can provide these items. Photographers can be categorized based on the subjects; some photographers explore subjects typical of paintings such as landscape, still life, portraiture. Other photographers specialize in subjects unique to photography, including street photography, documentary photography, fashion photography, wedding photography, war photography, aviation photography and commercial photography.
It is worth noting that the type of work commissioned will have pricing associated with the image's usage. The exclusive right of photographers to copy and use their products is protected by copyright. Countless industries purchase photographs on products; the photographs seen on magazine covers, in television advertising, on greeting cards or calendars, on websites, or on products and packages, have been purchased for this use, either directly from the photographer or through an agency that represents the photographer. A photographer uses a contract to sell the "license" or use of his or her photograph with exact controls regarding how the photograph will be used, in what territory it will be used, for which products; this is referred to as usage fee and is used to distinguish from production fees. An additional contract and royalty would apply for each additional use of the photograph; the contract may be for other duration. The photographer charges a royalty as well as a one-time fee, depending on the terms of the contract.
The contract may be for exclusive use of the photograph. The contract can stipulate that the photographer is entitled to audit the company for determination of royalty payments. Royalties vary depending on the industry buying the photograph and the use, for example, royalties for a photograph used on a poster or in television advertising may be higher than for use on a limited run of brochures. A royalty is often based on the size at which the photo will be used in a magazine or book, cover photos command higher fees than photos used elsewhere in a book or magazine. Photos taken by a photographer while working on assignment are work for hire belonging to the company or publication unless stipulated otherwise by contract. Professional portrait and wedding photographers stipulate by contract that they retain the copyright of their photos, so that only they can sell further prints of the photographs to the consumer, rather than the customer reproducing the photos by other means. If the customer wishes to be able to reproduce the photos themselves, they may discuss an alternative contract with the photographer in advance before the pictures are taken, in which a larger up front fee may be paid in exchange for reprint rights passing to the customer.
There are major companies who have maintained catalogues of stock photography and images for decades, such as Getty Images and others. Since the turn of the 21st century many online stock photography catalogues have appeared that invite photographers to sell their photos online and but for little money, without a royalty, without control over the use of the photo, the market it will be used in, the products it will be used on, time duration, etc. Commercial photographers may promote their work to advertising and editorial art buyers via printed and online marketing vehicles. Many people upload their photographs to social networking websites and other websites, in order to share them with a particular group or with the general public; those interested in legal precision may expl
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the display of art from the museum's own collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or have restrictions in place. Although concerned with visual art, art galleries are used as a venue for other cultural exchanges and artistic activities, such as performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Art museums frequently host themed temporary exhibitions which include items on loan from other collections. In distinction to a commercial art gallery, run by an art dealer, the primary purpose of an art museum is not the sale of the items on show. Throughout history and expensive works of art have been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as an early form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects donated their collections to temples.
It is unclear. In Europe, from the Late Medieval period onwards, areas in royal palaces and large country houses of the social elite were made accessible to sections of the public, where art collections could be viewed. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to people wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside; the treasuries of cathedrals and large churches, or parts of them, were set out for public display. Many of the grander English country houses could be toured by the respectable for a tip to the housekeeper, during the long periods when the family were not in residence. Special arrangements were made to allow the public to see many royal or private collections placed in galleries, as with most of the paintings of the Orleans Collection, which were housed in a wing of the Palais-Royal in Paris and could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy, the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry from the 18th century onwards, cities made efforts to make their key works accessible.
The Capitoline Museums began in 1471 with a donation of classical sculpture to the city of Rome by the Papacy, while the Vatican Museums, whose collections are still owned by the Pope, trace their foundation to 1506, when the discovered Laocoön and His Sons was put on public display. A series of museums on different subjects were opened over subsequent centuries, many of the buildings of the Vatican were purpose-built as galleries. An early royal treasury opened to the public was the Grünes Gewölbe of the Kingdom of Saxony in the 1720s. Established museums open to the public began to be established from the 17th century onwards based around a collection of the cabinet of curiosities type; the first such museum was the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, opened in 1683 to house and display the artefacts of Elias Ashmole that were given to Oxford University in a bequest. In the second half of the eighteenth century, many private collections of art were opened to the public, during and after the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars many royal collections were nationalized where the monarchy remained in place, as in Spain and Bavaria.
In 1753, the British Museum was established and the Old Royal Library collection of manuscripts was donated to it for public viewing. In 1777, a proposal to the British government was put forward by MP John Wilkes to buy the art collection of the late Sir Robert Walpole who had amassed one of the greatest such collections in Europe, house it in a specially built wing of the British Museum for public viewing. After much debate, the idea was abandoned due to the great expense, twenty years the collection was bought by Tsaritsa Catherine the Great of Russia and housed in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg; the Bavarian royal collection was opened to the public in 1779 and the Medici collection in Florence around 1789. The opening of the Musée du Louvre during the French Revolution in 1793 as a public museum for much of the former French royal collection marked an important stage in the development of public access to art by transferring the ownership to a republican state; the building now occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built before the French Revolution for the public display of parts of the royal art collection, similar royal galleries were opened to the public in Vienna and other capitals.
In Great Britain, the corresponding Royal Collection remained in the private hands of the monarch and the first purpose-built national art galleries were the Dulwich Picture Gallery, founded in 1814 and the National Gallery opened to the public a decade in 1824. University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities; this phenomenon exists in the East, making it a global practice. Although overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in the US alone; this number, compared to other kinds of art museums, makes university art museums the largest category of art museums in the country. While the first of these collections can be traced to learning collections developed in art academies in Western Europe, they are now associated with and housed in centers of higher education of all types; the word gallery being an archite
Harris Glenn Milstead, better known by his stage name Divine, was an American actor and drag queen. Associated with the independent filmmaker John Waters, Divine was a character actor performing female roles in cinematic and theatrical productions, adopted a female drag persona for his music career. Born in Baltimore, Maryland to a conservative middle-class family, Milstead developed an early interest in drag while working as a women's hairdresser. By the mid-1960s he had embraced the city's countercultural scene and befriended Waters, who gave him the name "Divine" and the tagline of "the most beautiful woman in the world, almost." Along with his friend David Lochary, Divine joined Waters' acting troupe, the Dreamlanders, adopted female roles for their experimental short films Roman Candles, Eat Your Makeup, The Diane Linkletter Story. Again in drag, he took a lead role in both of Waters' early full-length movies, Mondo Trasho and Multiple Maniacs, the latter of which began to attract press attention for the group.
Divine next starred in Waters' Pink Flamingos, which proved a hit on the U. S. midnight movie circuit, became a cult classic, established Divine's fame within the American counterculture. After starring as the lead role in Waters' next film, Female Trouble, Divine moved on to theater, appearing in several avant-garde performances alongside San Francisco drag collective, The Cockettes, he followed this with a performance in Tom Eyen's play Women Behind Bars and its sequel, The Neon Woman. Continuing his cinematic work, he starred in two more of Waters' films and Hairspray, the latter of which represented his breakthrough into mainstream cinema. Independent of Waters, he appeared in a number of other films, such as Lust in the Dust and Trouble in Mind, seeking to diversify his repertoire by playing male roles. In 1981, Divine embarked on a career in the disco industry by producing a number of Hi-NRG tracks, most of which were written by Bobby Orlando, he achieved international chart success with hits like "You Think You're a Man", "I'm So Beautiful", "Walk Like a Man", all of which were performed in drag.
Having struggled with obesity throughout his life, he died from cardiomegaly. Described by People magazine as the "Drag Queen of the Century", Divine has remained a cult figure within the LGBT community, has provided the inspiration for fictional characters and songs. Various books and documentary films devoted to his life have been produced, including Divine Trash and I Am Divine. Harris Glenn Milstead was born on October 1945, at the Women's Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, his father, Harris Bernard Milstead, after whom he was named, had been one of seven children born in Towson, Maryland to a plumber who worked for the Baltimore City Water Department. Divine's mother, Frances Milstead, was one of fifteen children born to an impoverished Serb immigrant couple who had grown up near Zagreb before moving to the United States in 1891; when she was 16, Frances moved to Baltimore where she worked at a diner in Towson, here meeting Harris, a regular customer. Entering into a relationship, they were married in 1938 before both gaining employment working at the Black & Decker factory in Towson.
Due to his problems with muscular dystrophy, Harris was not required to fight for the U. S. armed forces in the Second World War, instead Harris and Frances worked throughout the war in what they saw as "good jobs". Attempting to conceive a child, Frances suffered two miscarriages in 1940 and 1943. By the time of Divine's birth in 1945, the Milsteads were wealthy and conservative Baptists. Describing his upbringing, Divine would recollect: "I was an only child in, I guess, your upper middle-class American family. I was your American spoiled brat." His parents lavished anything that he wanted upon him, including food, he became overweight, a condition he lived with for the rest of his life. Divine preferred to use his middle name, Glenn, to distinguish himself from his father, was referred to as such by his parents and friends. At age 12, Divine and his parents moved to Lutherville, a Baltimore suburb, where he attended Towson High School, graduating in 1963. Bullied because of his weight and perceived effeminacy, he reminisced that he "wasn't rough and tough" but instead "loved painting and I always loved flowers and things."
Due to this horticultural interest, at 15 he took a part-time job at a local florist's shop. Several years he went on a diet that enabled him to drop in weight from 180 to 145 pounds, giving him a new sense of confidence; when he was 17, his parents sent him to a psychiatrist, where he first realized his sexual attraction to men as well as women, something taboo in conventional American society. He helped out at his parents' day care business, for instance dressing up as Santa Claus to entertain the children at Christmas time. In 1963, he began attending the Marinella Beauty School, where he learned hair styling and, after completing his studies, gained employment at a couple of local salons, specializing in the creation of beehives and other upswept hairstyles. Milstead gave up his job and for a while was financially supported by his parents, who catered to his expensive taste in clothes and cars, they reluctantly paid the many bills that he ran up financing lavish parties where he would dress up in drag as his favourite celebrity, actress Elizabeth Taylor.
Milstead built up a large collection of friends, among them David Lochary, who became an actor a
San Francisco South of Market Leather History Alley
The San Francisco South of Market Leather History Alley consists of four works of art along the Ringold Street alley in San Francisco's SOMA district honoring leather culture. Collectively titled Leather Memoir, the artworks created by landscape architect Jeffrey Miller, are: A black granite stone etched with a narrative by Gayle Rubin, an image of the "Leather David" statue by Mike Caffee, a reproduction of Chuck Arnett’s mural in a former leather bar Engraved standing stones that honor community leather institutions including the Folsom Street Fair, Leather pride flag pavement markings through which the stones emerge, Bronze bootprints along the curb honoring 28 individuals who were an important part of the leather communities of San Francisco:Jim Kane Ron Johnson Steve McEachern Cynthia Slater Tony Tavarossi Chuck Arnett Jack Haines Alexis Muir Sam Steward Terry Thompson Philip M. Turner Hank Diethelm Kerry Brown, Ken Ferguson, David Delay Alan Selby Peter Hartman Robert Opel Anthony F. DeBlase Marcus Hernandez John Embry Geoff Mains Mark Thompson Thom Gunn Paul Mariah Robert Davolt Jim Meko Alexis Sorel Bert Herman T. Michael "Lurch" Sutton Ringold Alley Miller Company Landscape Architects Black Leather Wings
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Dorothy Chandler Pavilion
The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion is one of the halls in the Los Angeles Music Center. The Music Center's other halls include the Mark Taper Forum, Ahmanson Theatre, Walt Disney Concert Hall; the Pavilion has 3,156 seats spread over four tiers, with chandeliers, wide curving stairways and rich décor. The auditorium's sections are the Orchestra, Loge, as well as Balcony. Construction started on March 9, 1962, it was dedicated September 27, 1964; the Pavilion was named for Dorothy Buffum Chandler who “led effort to build a suitable home for the Los Angeles Philharmonic and rejuvenate the performing arts in Los Angeles. The result was the Music Center of Los Angeles County, her tenacious nine-year campaign on behalf of the Music Center produced more than $19 million in private donations” noted Albert Greenstein in 1999. The building was designed by architect Welton Becket; the project was an example of his firm's approach of total design, in which he managed all aspects including design, construction and interior finishes to achieve a coherent whole.
In order to receive approval for construction from the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, Mrs. Chandler promised Kenneth Hahn that the building would be open free for the public for one day a year; the result was the Los Angeles County Holiday Celebration, a Christmas Eve tradition sponsored by the Board of Supervisors. The program is broadcast on KCET-TV and an edited version of the prior year's show is syndicated to public television stations via PBS; the opening concert was held on December 6, 1964 with Zubin Mehta conducting the Los Angeles Philharmonic with soloist Jascha Heifetz. The program included Fanfare by Richard Strauss, American Festival Overture by William Schuman, Roman Festivals by Ottorino Respighi, Beethoven's Violin Concerto; the Los Angeles Master Chorale, under Music Director Roger Wagner, was the other founding resident company at the Pavilion. Before creation of the Los Angeles Opera company, the New York City Opera came on tour and performed in the Pavilion. One such tour, in 1967, consisted of two performances of Madama Butterfly, one of La Traviata, two of Ginastera's Don Rodrigo, each with Plácido Domingo singing the main tenor role.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences held its annual Academy Awards in the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion from 1969 to 1987, 1990, 1992 to 1994, 1996, 1999. Since the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra and Los Angeles Master Chorale have moved to the newly constructed and adjacent Disney Hall which opened in October 2003, the Pavilion is home of the Los Angeles Opera and Glorya Kaufman Presents Dance at the Music Center; the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion is featured in the 2008 video game Midnight Club: Los Angeles. The site was used as the location for an avant-garde perfume ad directed by Spike Jonze. Since 1964, a Christmas Eve tradition for the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion is the annual free Holiday Celebration funded by Los Angeles County, it is six hours of dance by groups from all around Los Angeles county. The performances are broadcast on the KCET public television station with a one-hour version broadcast on PBS since 2002. Los Angeles Opera List of opera houses Toland, James W; the Music Center Story: a Decade of Achievement 1964–1974, The Music Center Foundation, Los Angeles, 1974.
Los Angeles Music Center's page on the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion Homepage of the Los Angeles Opera company
Jack Haley Jr.
John Joseph Haley Jr. was an American film director and writer, twice winner of the Emmy Award. Haley was born in the son of actor/comedian Jack Haley and his wife Florence, he was best known as the director of the 1974 compilation film That's Entertainment! and as the second husband of Liza Minnelli, daughter of Judy Garland, who had starred with his father in The Wizard of Oz. Haley's other credits include executive producer of Academy Awards presentation shows, he directed the 1971 film The Love Machine. As a producer, Haley was responsible for compilations and documentaries about film history, including Hollywood and the Stars, That's Entertainment!, That's Dancing! and The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: 50 Years of Magic, narrated by Angela Lansbury. Haley died on April 21, 2001, in Santa Monica, California, he is buried in Culver City's Holy Cross Cemetery. Jack Haley Jr. on IMDb