Anna Reuss of Köstritz

Princess Anna Elizabeth Reuss of Köstritz, was a princess of Reuss by birth and by marriage countess, after 1890 princess, of Stolberg-Wernigerode. Anna was the daughter of Prince Henry LXIII, Prince Reuss of Köstritz and his second wife Countess Caroline of Stolberg-Wernigerode. Anna spent her childhood at Staniszów Castle in Silesia, she was artistically talented and in 1862 she went to Berlin, where she received painting and music lessons and met Count Otto of Stolberg-Wernigerode, whom she married on 22 August 1863 at Staniszów Castle. In 1890 her husband was raise to Prince of Stolberg-Wernigerode, his political rise allowed a major expansion of Wernigerode Castle, which lasted from 1862 to 1893. The castle was restructured in a historicistic style, she and her daughters and daughters-in-law created the eight large tapestries in the Castle Church. Anna wrote numerous plays and poems; the best known among these are "Jagd am Hubertustag" and "Holtemme". From her marriage to Otto, Anna had 7 children: Christian Ernest, Prince of Stolberg-Wernigerodemarried in 1891 Countess Marie of Castell-Rüdenhausen Elizabeth married in 1885 Count Constantin of Stolberg-Wernigerode Hermann married in 1910 princess Dorothea of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich, daughter of Hermann of Solms-Hohensolms-LichWilliam married in 1910 Princess Elizabeth of Erbach-Schönberg Henry Marie married in 1902 Count William of Solms-Laubach Emma married in 1894 Prince Charles of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich Konrad Breitenborn: Graf Otto zu Stolberg-Wernigerode: Deutscher Standesherr und Politiker der Bismarckzeit.

Ausgewählte Dokumente, Jüttners Buchhandlung, Wernigerode, 1993, ISBN 3-910157-01-7 Konrad Breitenborn: Die Lebenserinnerungen des Fürsten Otto zu Stolberg-Wernigerode, Jüttners Buchhandlung, Wernigerode 1996, ISBN 3-910157-03-3 Sunhild Minkner: Bemerkenswerte Frauen, Wernigerode 1999

Phrygian cap

The Phrygian cap or liberty cap is a soft conical cap with the apex bent over, associated in antiquity with several peoples in Eastern Europe and Anatolia, including Phrygia and the Balkans. During the French Revolution it came to signify freedom and the pursuit of liberty, although Phrygian caps did not function as liberty caps; the original cap of liberty was the Roman pileus, the felt cap of manumitted slaves of ancient Rome, an attribute of Libertas, the Roman goddess of liberty. In the 16th century, the Roman iconography of liberty was revived in emblem books and numismatic handbooks where the figure of Libertas is depicted with a pileus; the most extensive use of a headgear as a symbol of freedom in the first two centuries after the revival of the Roman iconography was made in the Netherlands, where the cap of liberty was adopted in the form of a contemporary hat. In the 18th century, the traditional liberty cap was used in English prints and from 1789 on in French prints, too, it is used in the coat of arms of certain republics or of republican state institutions in the place where otherwise a crown would be used.

It thus came to be identified as a symbol of the republican form of government. A number of national personifications, in particular France's Marianne, are depicted wearing the Phrygian cap. By the 4th century BC the Phrygian cap was associated with Phrygian Attis, the consort of Cybele, the cult of which had by become graecified. At around the same time, the cap appears in depictions of the legendary king Midas and other Phrygians in Greek vase-paintings and sculpture; such images predate the earliest surviving literary references to the cap. By extension, the Phrygian cap came to be applied to several other non-Greek-speaking peoples as well. Most notable of these extended senses of "Phrygian" were the Trojans and other western Anatolian peoples, who in Greek perception were synonymous with the Phrygians, whose heroes Paris and Ganymede were all depicted with a Phrygian cap. Other Greek earthenware of antiquity depict Amazons and so-called "Scythian" archers with Phrygian caps. Although these are military depictions, the headgear is distinguished from "Phrygian helmets" by long ear flaps, the figures are identified as "barbarians" by their trousers.

The headgear appears in 2nd-century BC Boeotian Tanagra figurines of an effeminate Eros, in various 1st-century BC statuary of the Commagene, in eastern Anatolia. Greek representations of Thracians regularly appear with Phrygian caps, most notably Bendis, the Thracian goddess of the moon and the hunt, Orpheus, a legendary Thracian poet and musician. While the Phrygian cap was of wool or soft leather, in pre-Hellenistic times the Greeks had developed a military helmet that had a characteristic flipped-over tip; these so-called "Phrygian helmets" were of bronze and in prominent use in Thrace, Magna Graecia and the rest of the Hellenistic world from the 5th century BC up to Roman times. Due to their superficial similarity, the cap and helmet are difficult to distinguish in Greek art unless the headgear is identified as a soft flexible cap by long earflaps or a long neck flap. Confusingly similar are the depictions of the helmets used by cavalry and light infantry, whose headgear – aside from the traditional alopekis caps of fox skin – included stiff leather helmets in imitation of the bronze ones.

The Greek concept passed to the Romans in its extended sense, thus encompassed not only to Phrygians or Trojans, but the other near-neighbours of the Greeks. On Trajan's Column, which commemorated Trajan's epic wars with the Dacians, the Phrygian cap adorns the heads of Trajan's Dacian prisoners; the prisoner, accompanying Trajan in the monumental, 3 m tall statue of Trajan in the ancient Turkish city of Laodicea, is wearing a Phrygian Cap. Parthians appear with Phrygian caps in the 2nd-century Arch of Septimius Severus, which commemorates Roman victories over the Parthian Empire. With Phrygians caps, but for Gauls, appear in 2nd-century friezes built into the 4th century Arch of Constantine; the Phrygian cap reappears in figures related to the first to fourth century religion Mithraism. This astrology-centric Roman mystery cult projected itself with pseudo-Oriental trappings in order to distinguish itself from both traditional Roman religion and from the other mystery cults. In the artwork of the cult, the figures of the god Mithras as well as those of his helpers Cautes and Cautopates are depicted with a Phrygian cap.

The function of the Phrygian cap in the cult are unknown, but it is conventionally identified as an accessory of its perserie. Early Christian art build on the same Greco-Roman perceptions of Zoroaster and his "Magi" as experts in the arts of astrology and magic, depict the "three wise men" with Phrygian caps. In late Republican Rome, a soft felt cap called the pileus served as a symbol of freemen, was symbolically given to slaves upon manumission, thereby granting them not only their personal liberty, but libertas— freedom as citizens, with the right to vote. Following the as