Robert Edward Rubin is an American lawyer, former cabinet member, retired banking executive. He served as the 70th United States Secretary of the Treasury during the Clinton administration. Before his government service, he spent 26 years at Goldman Sachs serving as a member of the board and co-chairman from 1990 to 1992. During the Clinton administration, Rubin oversaw the loosening of financial industry underwriting guidelines, in place since the 1930s, his most prominent post-government role was as director and senior counselor of Citigroup, where he performed advisory and representational roles for the firm. From November to December 2007, he served temporarily as chairman of Citigroup and resigned from the company on January 9, 2009, he received more than $126 million in cash and stock during his tenure at Citigroup, up through and including Citigroup's bailout by the U. S. Treasury, he is engaged as a founder of The Hamilton Project, an economic policy think tank that produces research and proposals on how to create a growing economy that benefits more Americans.
He is co-chairman emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations, is a member of the Africa Progress Panel, a group of ten distinguished individuals who advocate at the highest levels for equitable and sustainable development in Africa. Rubin serves as chairman of the board of the Local Initiatives Support Corporation, the nation's leading community development support organization, serves on the board of trustees of Mount Sinai-NYU Health. Additionally, Rubin serves as counselor at Centerview Partners, an investment banking advisory firm based in New York City. Rubin was born in the son of Sylvia and Alexander Rubin, a wealthy Jewish family, he graduated from Miami Beach High School. He was a member of Boy Scout Troop 35, sponsored by the American Legion, received the rank of Eagle Scout. In 1960, Rubin graduated with an A. B. summa cum laude in economics from Harvard College. He attended Harvard Law School for three days before leaving to see the world, he attended the London School of Economics and received an LL.
B. from Yale Law School in 1964. Rubin began his career as an attorney at the firm of Cleary, Steen & Hamilton in New York City, he joined Goldman Sachs in 1966 as an associate in the risk arbitrage department, becoming a general partner in 1971. He joined the management committee in 1980 along with Jon Corzine. Rubin was Vice Chairman and Co-Chief Operating Officer from 1987 to 1990. From the end of 1990 to 1992, Rubin served as Co-Chairman and Co-Senior Partner along with Stephen Friedman. Rubin is married to Judith Leah Rubin, who served as the New York City Commissioner of Protocol for four years under Mayor David Dinkins; the Rubins have two grown sons, James Rubin, Philip Rubin. Jamie is married to writer Gretchen Rubin; the Rubins were long time members of Temple Beth Shalom on Miami Beach. From January 25, 1993, to January 10, 1995, Rubin served in the White House as Assistant to the President for Economic Policy. In that capacity, he directed the National Economic Council, which Bill Clinton created after winning the presidency.
The National Economic Council, or NEC, enabled the White House to coordinate the workings of the Cabinet departments and agencies on policies ranging from budget and tax to international trade and alleviating poverty. The NEC coordinated policy recommendations going into the President's office, monitored implementation of the decisions that came out. Robert S. Strauss credited Rubin with making the system work. "He's the only man or woman in America that I know who could make the NEC succeed," Strauss said in 1994. "Anyone else would have been a disruptive force, the council wouldn't have worked." In January 1995, one year after the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement and after Rubin was sworn in as Secretary of Treasury, Mexico was suffering through a financial crisis that threatened to result in it defaulting on its foreign obligations. President Bill Clinton, with the advice of Secretary Rubin and Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan, provided $20 billion in US loan guarantees to the Mexican government through the Exchange Stabilization Fund.
In 1997 and 1998, Treasury Secretary Rubin, Deputy Secretary Lawrence Summers, Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan worked with the International Monetary Fund and others to promote U. S. policy in response to financial crises in Russian and Latin American financial markets. In its February 15, 1999, Time Magazine dubbed the three policymakers "The Committee to Save the World."In 1998, Rubin received the U. S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards. Rubin was succeeded on July 1999, as Treasury Secretary by his deputy, Lawrence Summers. Upon Rubin's retirement, Clinton called him the "greatest secretary of the Treasury since Alexander Hamilton". On April 18, 2010, in an interview on ABC's This Week program, Clinton said Rubin was wrong in the advice he gave him not to regulate derivatives. Following the interview, Clinton's assistant Doug Band reaffirmed those statements saying Clinton still wished he had pursued legislation to regulate derivatives while confirming that he still believed he had received excellent advice on the economy and the financial system from Rubin and others during his presidency."During his tenure as Treasury Secretary", Senator Chuck Hagel said, "Bob was an ideal public servant who put p
Barlind was a 1,453 GRT cargo ship, built in 1938 as Süderau by Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau AG, Germany for German owners. She was seized by the Allies in May 1945, passed to the Ministry of War Transport and was renamed Empire Content. In 1946, she was allocated to renamed Svartnes, she was renamed Barlind. In 1971, she was sold to renamed Ikaria, she served until 1972. The ship was built as yard number 596 in 1938 by Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau AG; the ship was 260 feet 7 inches long, with a beam of a depth of 27 feet 1 inch. The ship had a GRT of 1,453 and a NRT of 713, with a DWT of 2,120; the ship was propelled by a 4-stroke Single Cycle Single Acting diesel engine, which had 12 cylinders of 11 5⁄8 inches diameter by 16 9⁄16 inches stroke. The engines were built by Kiel; the ship was propelled by a triple expansion steam engine, which had cylinders of 17 7⁄16 inches, 29 1⁄2 inches and 46 1⁄2 inches diameter by 31 1⁄2 inches stroke. The engine was built by H C Stülcken Sohn; the ship was propelled by a compound steam engine which had two cylinders of 17 11⁄16 inches and two cylinders of 37 7⁄16 inches diameter by 35 7⁄16 inches stroke.
The engine was built by Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau AG. The engine was supplied with steam by two boilers of 13 feet 3 inches diameter by 11 feet 0 inches length, giving a total heating surface of 3,744 square feet; the engine drove the propellor via a hydraulic coupling. It could propel the ship at 13 knots. Süderau was built for Hamburg, she was completed in January 1939. Her port of registry was Hamburg and she was allocated the Code Letters DJYQ. In May 1945, Süderau was seized by the Allies at Bremerhaven, she was passed to the renamed Empire Content. Her port of registry was changed to London; the Code Letters GJBK and United Kingdom Official Number 180645 were allocated. She was placed under the management of Nichol Ltd.. In 1946, Empire Content was renamed Svartnes. In 1947, she was renamed Barlind, her port of registry was Oslo and the Code Letters LLTV were allocated. She was sold in 1971 to L N Pothas and was renamed Ikaria, serving until she was scrapped in Aspropyrgos in the first quarter of 1972.
Photo of Barlind
In the post-World War II era, the technique of narcosynthesis was developed by psychiatrists as a means of treating patients who suffered from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Narcosynthesis — called sodium amytal interview, amobarbital interview, or amytal interview — uses a technique of free association as well as dream and transference material during the session as a basis for uncovering relevant topics for therapeutic discussion. Narcosynthesis procedures in the United States are extraordinarily rare today. However, they were used in the post-World War II era when only a few psychiatric treatments were available. Administered as an inpatient hospital admission and overseen by anesthesiologist - this procedure is only used in the most extreme cases in the United States. Information from outside of the US shows that, in countries such as India, Narcosynthesis has been used for the interrogation of possible suspects in criminal cases. There has been some use of barbiturate hypnosis therapy in the past.
The accuracy of the therapy's results is debated. As in frank hypnosis, repressed unconscious thought may be more to come forth rather than consciously suppressed evidence, yet there is a deficiency of the ego mechanism. In one prominent court case, a man was charged with sodomizing a disabled woman. Under hypnosis and the administration of sodium amytal, the man denied the charges, said that he and the woman had engaged in a consensual encounter; the woman, after undergoing narcosynthesis herself, gave many conflicting versions of her initial claim of sexual assault. She admitted to fabricating the story due to anger over past relationships; the judge in this case permitted for the first time the results of sodium amytal to be admitted as evidence in a federal case. He stated that although any testimony under the influence of barbiturates could not be foolproof, he found the exculpatory evidence was in this case helpful in uncovering discrepancies that lead to a not guilty verdict. Opponents of narcosynthesis argue that there is little scientific evidence to warrant its use as a reliable source of interrogation, citing misuses by the CIA and several Indian police agencies.
The CIA is said to be responsible for at least one death due to the administration of LSD as a truth serum. India is referred to as the narcoanalysis capital of the world with so-called biscuit teams using pseudoscience to back illegal interrogations. Though security agencies worldwide have shown interest, inconsistent results have proven objective truth elusive, despite increased suggestibility. In 1930, Dr. William Bleckwenn introduced narcoanalysis as a therapy for schizophrenic patients or those who suffered from catatonic mutism; these people after being administered the drug would be released from their somatic state for short periods. They could carry on conversations, partake in meals, behave as if healthy. After some hours, they returned to their prior condition. Despite these short-lived effects, the treatment was common practice in English asylums through the'40s and'50s, it was from this treatment that cathartic abreaction came into use as a treatment for soldiers following the Second World War.
The administration of short-term barbiturates caused disinhibition which facilitated the soldiers' participation in psychotherapy. Therapists worked with the soldiers to recall battle traumas, subsequently attempt to treat or reduce the effects of "shell shock" and other manifestations of psychological trauma associated with battle. By augmenting standard hypnosis with narcotics and "synthesizing" mental states through the power of hypnotic suggestion, a negative mental state could be replaced by a positive one; the efficacy of such techniques remains a source of debate among medical professionals. Psychedelic therapy Narco Analysis Truth drug William Bleckwenn William Lorenz
Basil W. Spalding was a Confederate Civil War veteran and tobacco farmer who lived in Charles County, Maryland, he was born at Pleasant Hill Plantation, in his family for two hundred years and died at Green Park nearby. A native of Maryland, Spalding fought from 1862-1865 in the American Civil War in the name of the Confederacy after escaping from school to join "the Great Adventure". After returning to his home state, he married and took on a simple lifestyle as a father to his children, husband to his wife, a farmer, he had ten children. Spalding Died in 1929, he was a Catholic. Basil Spalding was born on December 11, 1846 to John Spalding, a slave-holding tobacco plantation owner and his second wife, Mary Carroll, a great-granddaughter of Daniel Carroll, a Founding Father of the United States. Shortly after Spalding's birth, Mary Carroll died; when he was two years old, his father, John Spalding died. An orphan, Spalding was taken into the care of his relative, William Fendley Dement, a Charles County plantation owner.
Dement's wife, Mary Teresa Symphronia Green, was John Spalding's sister and therefore Spalding's aunt. At the Dement's plantation, Spalding was raised by Mary Teresa as a son; as a young adult, Spalding left to attend a private academy in northern Maryland. In early 1861, tensions between North and South were high, war seemed imminent. Although Maryland remained in the Union upon the outbreak of the Civil War, support for the Union was not all that common; the prominent Dements, like many Southern Maryland families at the time whose lifestyle was dependent on slavery, had much at risk. Ardent supporters of slavery, the Charles County elite vehemently opposed Abraham Lincoln as President and when the Confederate States of America was founded, Charles County took its side. Charles County requested the immediate secession of the state of Maryland. In June 1861, William F. Dement and one of his servants left Eutaw and crossed the Potomac into Virginia to join the Confederate Army, he founded an artillery battery, known as Dement's First Maryland Battery.
In 1862, with the war raging on, only seventeen years old, became determined to fight against what he viewed as Northern aggression and one day, he escaped from school by jumping out the window to take up arms against the Union. He joined a notorious guerrilla force known as McNeill's Rangers, a 210 man battalion-size unit, known for its brazen attacks, unpredictable behavior and relentless raids, it operated in the western counties of Virginia and West Virginia. Spalding took part in McNeill's numerous raids on Piedmont, West Virginia, Cumberland, which were aimed at destroying the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad service; the raids damaged supply routes for the Union forces and hindered their forces ability to wage war. As McNeill's Rangers used horses for swift mobility and had no known base, they caused such extensive damage that more than 25,000 troops were dispatched by Federal commanders to guard the B&O against them. Spalding lived a simple life after the war, he raised his children there.
After his second wife died in 1909, he took care of his youngest son, Francis Philip, only thirteen at the time. In 1911, Pleasant Hill, in the Spalding Family for generations and was part of Green's Inheritance, was sold. Spading lived in Green Park, where he died in 1929 after an illness of about a month. Spalding married first Elizabeth Dement, William Fendley Dement's sister, in 1871. After she died, he married again; this time being Francis B. Green's daughter, Mary Ann Elizabeth Green, she died in 1909 and Basil never remarried. He outlived his second wife by twenty years. All of Spalding's children were born at his plantation, Pleasant Hill, in Pomfret, Charles County, Maryland. Spalding and Elizabeth Dement had four children: John Carroll, Mary Genevieve, Anna Mary, Louis Joseph. One month after Louis's birth, Elizabeth Dement died, leaving Basil a single parent of four children, all under the age of 10. A few years Spalding married Mary Ann Elizabeth Green, his cousin's daughter. By Mary Ann, Basil had six children.
They were: Bernard William Green. McNeill's Rangers
Carphophis amoenus known as the worm snake, is a species of nonvenomous colubrid endemic to the eastern United States. C. amoenus can be found east of the Mississippi, from southwest Massachusetts south to southern Alabama west to Louisiana and north to Illinois. This species of snake protects a large range, prefers a moist habitat in the rocky woodlands, under rotten wood of logs and stumps. Though this snake is quite abundant over its range, it is seen because of its dormant lifestyle and where it resides; this snake is most common on the edges or in the ecotonal areas of open to thick woodlands, the borders of wetlands. It may be found in the grasslands next to woodlands; the best chance to spot it is after heavy rains, when its small size and distinct color make it easy to spot. This species prefers moist soil inhabited by earthworms, which are its main prey, so the soil needs to be sufficiently moist; the snake's skin evaporates water. C. amoenus is found under rocks and in sufficient leaf litter during the extreme daytime heat.
The worm snake is a small snake. Adults are 19 -- 28 cm in total record 34 cm, it is brown dorsally, bright pink ventrally, with the belly color including one or two dorsal scale rows. The dorsal scales are smooth, in 13 rows, it has one postocular. C. Amoenus coloration can be tan to dark brown in color, it has pinkish ventral pigmentation. The tail ends in an abrupt, spine-like scale. Females have shorter tails; the head is conical and no wider than the neck. Other small, unpatterned brownish snakes, such as earth snakes and red-bellied snakes, both have keeled body scales, but lack the spine-tipped tail. Other ways to distinguish between C. amoenus and other species is the body scales occur in 13 rows and are smooth and pitless, the anal plate is split. Another snake confused with C. amoenus is the western worm snake, which used to be considered a subspecies of C. amoenus, has the slight ventral pigmentation extending onto the third body scale row, a dark gray or gray-violet dorsum. The southeastern crowned snake has 15 midbody scale rows, a dark head, a dark collar.
Two subspecies of Carphophis amoenus are recognized: Carphophis amoenus amoenus — eastern worm snake Carphophis amoenus helenae — midwestern worm snake. C. a. amoenus is found from Rhode Island, southwestern Massachusetts, southeastern New York south to South Carolina, northern Georgia, central Alabama. It has separate prefrontal scales. No gular scales occur between the posterior chin shields; each maxilla has 9–12 small teeth. The single hemipenis has three large basal spines. Adult males have ridges on the body scales; the young of this species are always much darker than the parent. C. a. amoenus is exclusively an earthworm predator, but has been known to consume other prey, from slugs to small salamanders. Due to human activities, C. a. amoenus is becoming rare in some areas. It is protected as threatened in Massachusetts and as a species of special concern in Rhode Island, it is found in southern Connecticut, southwestern Massachusetts, southeastern New York, New Jersey, southeastern Pennsylvania, Maryland, eastern West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, northern Georgia and Alabama, in the Appalachian Mountains of Kentucky and Tennessee.
The worm snake is a burrower, is seen. Its annual activity period varies with elevation; some have found them active in every month but February on the coastal plain of South Carolina. Farther north, the worm snake is active from March–April to October- November. Few are active above ground in the summer, but a second, lesser period of activity occurs in the fall. To escape overheating or desiccation, it has adopted a fossorial lifestyle and it spends most of the year underground or in rotting logs, they are found in forests with high leaf litter and canopy cover. They remain inactive during extreme temperatures, they burrow by working their pointed heads into cracks and crevices. Activity periods begin in the late afternoon and early evenings and last more than 12 hours. C. amoenus amoenus has been seen traveling 45 m in a 24-hour period. Males travel much farther than females and their diets consist of earthworms, but may include other soft-bodied invertebrates, such as insect larvae. Predators include other snakes, American robins, barn owls, opossums.
Road traffic kills C. amoenus amoenus, flooding of the lowlands and other natural disasters have been known to affect the population. Some die as a result of human habitat destruction, insecticide poisoning kills the snake. Worm snakes release a foul-smelling liquid from their vents when handled, but they are harmless to humans and even attempt to bite. C. a. amoenus is shy and mild-mannered. The normal behavior of the snake when handled is to twist try to crawl between the fingers, probe the hand with its tail spine, emit the strong-smelling liquid. Courtship and mating occur in the spring; the developing egg
Allan Woodrow is an American author of children's literature middle grade fiction. His books include The Curse of Class Dismissed and The Pet War, his first book, the Rotten Adventures of Zachary Ruthless, debuted in 2011 and was published by HarperCollins Children's Books. Woodrow has written more than thirty books for children, he was born in Baltimore and was raised in Okemos, Michigan, a suburb of East Lansing. Allan attended the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and became an advertising copywriter in Detroit, Michigan, he continued his advertising career in St. Louis and Chicago, where he met and married the former Lauren Cohn, they reside outside Chicago and have two children. Woodrow began writing children's literature in 2009, by the end of the year had sold his first book, the Rotten Adventures of Zachary Ruthless, a graphic novel illustrated by Aaron Blecha. Allan wrote The Curse of the Werepenguin and The Liberty Falls Elementary School series which includes Field Tripped and Class Dismissed.
He is the author of The Pet War and contributed to the collection Lucky Dog: Twelve Tales of Rescued Dogs. Under the pen name Fowler DeWitt, he is the author of The Contagious Colors of Mumpley Middle School among other books. Woodrow took the pen name from two towns near where he grew up, Michigan and DeWitt, Michigan. A sequel to Mumpley Middle School, The Amazing Wilmer Dooley was released in August 2014; the Curse of the Werepenguin Field Tripped Unschooled Class Dismissed The Pet War The Rotten Adventures of Zachary Ruthless The Contagious Colors of Mumpley Middle School. As irreverent and strange as murderous, barking penguins.”Of Unschooled, Kirkus Reviews writes, "An amusing road map to bad behavior but a subtle reminder of the culpability of mere bystanders to nastiness. Of Class Dismissed, Kirkus Reviews writes, "Aimed at boys and girls, this engaging comedy offers some life lessons with a giggle. Of The Pet War, Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books writes, "This fast-paced and funny novel presents a protagonist in the tradition of Tom Sawyer, a smug but winning preteen boy beloved by his peers though regarded with suspicion and a hint of distaste by adults.
The relatable and redemptive Otto and his misadventures will fare well with those looking for a character with a smart mouth and big heart."Of The Rotten Adventures of Zachary Ruthless, Publishers Weekly writes, "If it's true that everyone loves a bad boy, Zachary should attract a sizable fan base," adding that "Blecha's high-energy cartoons add extra absurdity to this pun-studded slice of frivolity, to snare reluctant readers with a fondness for slapstick." Author Site Simon & Schuster Fowler DeWitt Bio Amazon author Page Scholastic author Page