Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles – Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, Venice on the south; the Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736. Due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century; the city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism. The Santa Monica Pier and Pacific Park remain popular destinations. Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language; the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the city's name came to be.
One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, but her feast day is May 4. Another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety. In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. Following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848. In the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, a wharf out into the bay; the first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building a beer hall, now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure. By 1885, the town's first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel. Amusement piers became enormously popular in the first decades of the 20th century and the extensive Pacific Electric Railroad brought people to the city's beaches from across the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica and Venice; the two ethnic minorities were viewed differently by White Americans who were well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an integral economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community. Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, were greeted on their return September 23, 1924, by a crowd of 200,000; the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply. One report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000.
Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt. In the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica; the federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall. The main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects. Douglas's business grew astronomically with the onset of World War II, employing as many as 44,000 people in 1943. To defend against air attack, set designers from the Warner Brothers Studios prepared elaborate camouflage that disguised the factory and airfield; the RAND Corporation began as a project of the Douglas Company in 1945, spun off into an independent think tank on May 14, 1948. RAND acquired a 15-acre campus between the Civic Center and the pier entrance; the completion of the Santa Monica Freeway in 1966 brought the promise of new prosperity, though at the cost of decimating the Pico neighborhood, a leading African American enclave on the Westside. Beach volleyball is believed to have been developed by Duke Kahanamoku in Santa Monica during the 1920s.
The Santa Monica Looff Hippodrome is a National Historic Landmark. It sits on the Santa Monica Pier, built in 1909; the La Monica Ballroom on the pier was once the largest ballroom in the US and the source for many New Year's Eve national network broadcasts. The Santa Monica Civic Auditorium was an important music venue for several decades and hosted the Academy Awards in the 1960s. McCabe's Guitar Shop is a leading acoustic performance space as well as retail outlet. Bergamot Station is a city-owned art gallery compound; the city is home to the California Heritage Museum and the Angels Attic dollhouse and toy museum. The New West Symphony is the resident orchestra of Barnum Hall, they are resident orchestra of the Oxnard Performing Arts Center and the Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Plaza. Santa Monica has three main shopping districts: Montana Avenue on the north side, the Downtown District in the city's core, Main Street on the south end; each has personality. Montana Avenue is a stretch of luxury boutique stores and small offices that features more upscale shopping.
The Main Street district offers an eclectic mix of clothing and other specialty retail. The Downtown District is the home of the Third Street Promenade, a major outdoor pedestrian-on
Louis Isadore Kahn was an American architect, based in Philadelphia. After working in various capacities for several firms in Philadelphia, he founded his own atelier in 1935. While continuing his private practice, he served as a design critic and professor of architecture at Yale School of Architecture from 1947 to 1957. From 1957 until his death, he was a professor of architecture at the School of Design at the University of Pennsylvania. Kahn created a style, monumental and monolithic. Famous for his meticulously-built works, his provocative proposals that remained unbuilt, his teaching, Kahn was one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century, he was awarded the RIBA Gold Medal. At the time of his death he was considered by some as "America's foremost living architect." Louis Kahn, whose original name was Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky, was born into a poor Jewish family in Pärnu in Russian Empire, but now in Estonia. He spent his early childhood in Kuressaare on the island of Saaremaa part of the Russian Empire's Livonian Governorate.
At the age of three, he was captivated by the light of the coal. He put the coal in his apron, which burned his face, he carried these scars for the rest of his life. In 1906, his family emigrated to the United States, as they feared that his father would be recalled into the military during the Russo-Japanese War, his birth year may have been inaccurately recorded in the process of immigration. According to his son's 2003 documentary film, the family could not afford pencils, they made their own charcoal sticks from burnt twigs so that Louis could earn a little money from drawings. He earned money by playing piano to accompany silent movies in theaters, he became a naturalized citizen on May 15, 1914. His father changed their name to Kahn in 1915. Kahn was trained at the University of Pennsylvania in a rigorous Beaux-Arts tradition, with its emphasis on drawing. After completing his Bachelor of Architecture in 1924, Kahn worked as senior draftsman in the office of the city architect, John Molitor.
He worked on the designs for the 1926 Sesquicentennial Exposition. In 1928, Kahn made a European tour, he was interested in the medieval walled city of Carcassonne and the castles of Scotland, rather than any of the strongholds of classicism or modernism. After returning to the United States in 1929, Kahn worked in the offices of Paul Philippe Cret, his former studio critic at the University of Pennsylvania, with Zantzinger and Medary in Philadelphia. In 1932, Kahn and Dominique Berninger founded the Architectural Research Group, whose members were interested in the populist social agenda and new aesthetics of the European avant-gardes. Among the projects Kahn worked on during this collaboration are schemes for public housing that he had presented to the Public Works Administration, which supported some similar projects during the Great Depression, they remained unbuilt. Among the more important of Kahn's early collaborations was one with George Howe. Kahn worked with Howe in the late 1930s on projects for the Philadelphia Housing Authority and again in 1940, along with German-born architect Oscar Stonorov, for the design of housing developments in other parts of Pennsylvania.
A formal architectural office partnership between Kahn and Oscar Stonorov began in February 1942 and ended in March 1947, which produced fifty-four documented projects and buildings. Kahn did not arrive at his distinctive architectural style. Working in a orthodox version of the International Style, he was influenced vitally by a stay as Architect in Residence at the American Academy in Rome during 1950, which marked a turning point in his career. After visiting the ruins of ancient buildings in Italy and Egypt, he adopted a back-to-the-basics approach, he developed his own style as influenced by earlier modern movements, but not limited by their sometimes-dogmatic ideologies. In 1961 he received a grant from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts to study traffic movement in Philadelphia and to create a proposal for a viaduct system, he described this proposal at a lecture given in 1962 at the International Design Conference in Aspen, Colorado: In the center of town the streets should become buildings.
This should be interplayed with a sense of movement which does not tax local streets for non-local traffic. There should be a system of viaducts which encase an area which can reclaim the local streets for their own use, it should be made so this viaduct has a ground floor of shops and usable area. A model which I did for the Graham Foundation and which I presented to Mr. Entenza, showed the scheme. Kahn's teaching career began at Yale University in 1947, he was named as the Albert F. Bemis Professor of Architecture and Planning at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1956. Kahn returned to Philadelphia to teach at the University of Pennsylvania from 1957 until his death, becoming the Paul Philippe Cret Professor of Architecture, he was a visiting lecturer at Princeton University School of Architecture from 1961 to 1967. Kahn was elected a Fellow in the American Institute of Architects in 1953, he was made a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1964. He was awarded the Frank P. Brown Medal in 1964.
In 1965 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate Academician. He was made a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1968 and awarded the AIA Gold Medal, th
Guild House (Philadelphia)
Guild House is a residential building in Philadelphia, an important and influential work of 20th-century architecture and was the first major work by Robert Venturi. Along with the Vanna Venturi House it is considered to be one of the earliest expressions of Postmodern architecture, helped establish Venturi as one of the leading architects of the 20th century; the building, which houses apartments for low-income senior citizens, was commissioned by a local Quaker organization, Friends Rehabilitation Program, Inc. and completed in 1963. Employing a combination of nondescript commercial architecture and ironic historical references, Guild House represented a conscious rejection of Modernist ideals and was cited in the subsequent development of the Postmodern movement. Guild House was commissioned by the Friends Neighborhood Guild, a subsidiary of Friends Rehabilitation Program, Inc. as low-income housing for the elderly and built in 1960–63. It was designed by Venturi and Rauch in collaboration with Cope and Lippincott, another Philadelphia firm.
In 2004, the building was added to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places despite being 40 years old at the time. The building's architecture combines historical forms with "banal" 20th-century commercialism, hiding a "slyly intellectual agenda" behind its "apparent ordinariness"; as Venturi wrote, "Economy dictated not ` conventional' ones. We did not resist this." The architects used red clay brick and "inelegant" double-hung windows to recall existing public housing projects and express "kinship with neighboring inner-city structures", along with a subtle use of ironic ornamental details "intended in some way to express the lives of the elderly."Guild House is a six-story building with a symmetrical facade that steps outward to a monumental, classically ordered entrance pavilion. The facade is anchored by a thick column of polished black granite and crowned with a large arched window opening onto the building's upstairs common area; the ground floor entrance is highlighted with white glazed brick, while a "perfunctory" string course in the middle of the fifth floor terminates the facade.
According to Venturi, the combination of the latter two elements "sets up a new and larger scale of three stories, juxtaposed on the other smaller scale of six stories demarked by the layer of windows." A large block-letter sign above the entrance spells the name of the building, while the roof was crowned with an oversize, nonfunctional television antenna serving as both an abstract sculptural element and a literal representation of the inhabitants' chief pastime. Venturi explained the architecture of Guild House in the context of his "decorated shed" philosophy: In Guild House the ornamental-symbolic elements are more or less appliqué... The symbolism of the decoration happens to be ugly and ordinary with a dash of ironic heroic and original, the shed is straight ugly and ordinary, though in its brick and windows it is symbolic too; the building contains 91 apartment units. The stepped organization of the facade allowed most of the units to have south-, east-, or west-facing windows, giving the inhabitants sunlight and a view of the street below.
Winding interior corridors were intended to create a more informal space. Many of the Apartment units have access to more sunlight, by having windows on more than one wall
Remment Lucas "Rem" Koolhaas is a Dutch architect, architectural theorist and Professor in Practice of Architecture and Urban Design at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University. Koolhaas studied at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London and at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Koolhaas is the founding partner of OMA, of its research-oriented counterpart AMO based in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. In 2005, he co-founded Volume Magazine together with Ole Bouman, he is regarded as one of the most important architectural thinkers and urbanists of his generation. In 2000, Rem Koolhaas won the Pritzker Prize. In 2008, Time put him in their top 100 of The World's Most Influential People. Remment Koolhaas abbreviated to Rem Koolhaas, was born on 17 November 1944 in Rotterdam, Netherlands, to Anton Koolhaas and Selinde Pietertje Roosenburg, his father was a novelist and screenwriter. Two documentary films by Bert Haanstra for which his father wrote the scenarios were nominated for an Academy Award for Documentary Feature, one won a Golden Bear for Short Film.
His maternal grandfather, Dirk Roosenburg, was a modernist architect who worked for Hendrik Petrus Berlage, before opening his own practice. Rem Koolhaas has a brother, a sister, Annabel, his paternal cousin was urban planner Teun Koolhaas. The family lived consecutively in Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Amsterdam, his father supported the Indonesian cause for autonomy from the colonial Dutch in his writing. When the war of independence was won, he was invited over to run a cultural programme for three years and the family moved to Jakarta in 1952. "It was a important age for me," Koolhaas recalls "and I lived as an Asian."In 1969, Koolhaas co-wrote The White Slave, a Dutch film noir, wrote an unproduced script for American soft-porn king Russ Meyer. He was a journalist for the Haagse Post before starting studies, in 1968, in architecture at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, followed, in 1972, by further studies with Oswald Mathias Ungers at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, followed by studies at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York City.
Koolhaas first came to public and critical attention with OMA, the office he founded in 1975 together with architects Elia Zenghelis, Zoe Zenghelis and Madelon Vriesendorp in London. They were joined by one of Koolhaas's students, Zaha Hadid – who would soon go on to achieve success in her own right. An early work which would mark their difference from the dominant postmodern classicism of the late 1970s, was their contribution to the Venice Biennale of 1980, curated by Italian architect Paolo Portoghesi, titled "Presence of the Past"; each architect had to design a stage-like "frontage" to a Potemkin-type internal street. Other early critically received projects included the Parc de la Villette and the residence for the Prime Minister of Ireland, as well as the Kunsthal in Rotterdam; these schemes would attempt to put into practice many of the findings Koolhaas made in his book Delirious New York, written while he was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York, directed by Peter Eisenman.
In September 2006, Rem Koolhaas was commissioned to develop 111 First Street in Jersey City across the Hudson River from Manhattan, working with real estate developer Louis Dubin. In October 2008, Rem Koolhaas was invited for a European "group of the wise" under the chairmanship of former Spanish prime minister Felipe González to help'design' the future European Union. Other members include Nokia chairman Jorma Ollila, former European Commissioner Mario Monti and former president of Poland Lech Wałęsa. Koolhaas's book Delirious. Koolhaas celebrates the "chance-like" nature of city life: "The City is an addictive machine from which there is no escape" "Rem Koolhaas...defined the city as a collection of “red hot spots.”. As Koolhaas himself has acknowledged, this approach had been evident in the Japanese Metabolist Movement in the 1960s and early 1970s. A key aspect of architecture that Koolhaas interrogates is the "Program": with the rise of modernism in the 20th century the "Program" became the key theme of architectural design.
The notion of the Program involves "an act to edit function and human activities" as the pretext of architectural design: epitomised in the maxim Form follows function, first popularised by architect Louis Sullivan at the beginning of the 20th century. The notion was first questioned in Delirious New York, in his analysis of high-rise architecture in Manhattan. An early design method derived from such thinking was "cross-programming", introducing unexpected functions in room programmes, such as running tracks in skyscrapers. More Koolhaas unsuccessfully proposed the inclusion of hospital units for the homeless into the Seattle Public Library project; the next landmark publication by Koolhaas was S,M,L,XL, together with Bruce Mau, Jennifer Sigler, Hans Werlemann, a 1376-page tome combining essays, diaries, fiction and meditations on the contemporary city. The layout of the huge book transformed architectural publishing, such books—full-colour graphics and dense texts—have since become common.
Bloomfield Hills, Michigan
Bloomfield Hills is a city located in Metro Detroit's northern suburbs in Oakland County in the U. S. state of Michigan, 20.2 miles northwest of downtown Detroit. The city is completely surrounded by Bloomfield Township; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 3,869. On June 28, 1820, Oakland County was divided into two townships: Pontiac Township and Bloomfield Township, the latter covering the southern part of the county that would include West Bloomfield Township, Royal Oak and Southfield. What is now Bloomfield Hills was a farming area until the turn of the 20th century when wealthy Detroit residents bought up the land; the settlement became a village in 1927, in 1932 residents voted to become a city to avoid being incorporated into growing Birmingham. Bloomfield Hills is the location of the National Historic Landmark Cranbrook Educational Community and other historic sites listed on the national register of historic places. In popular culture, Bloomfield Hills was the setting for the 2005 film The Upside of Anger.
In the 2002 film 8 Mile, Eminem mentions Cranbrook Kingswood while making fun of "Doc" because he attended Cranbrook, not considered cool or impressive in the atmosphere portrayed in the film. Bloomfield Hills is the hometown of Trance; some scenes in Out of Sight with Jennifer Lopez and George Clooney were filmed at a private residence in Bloomfield Hills. Jimmy Hoffa was last seen at the former Machus Red Fox restaurant in adjacent Bloomfield Township; the novel Gilda Joyce: The Ladies of the Lake is set in a private school in Bloomfield. The area is the home of landmark churches including Kirk in the Hills Presbyterian on Long Lake Rd and Christ Church Cranbrook Episcopal, consecrated in 1928 as part of George Booth's plan for the Cranbrook Educational Community; the Congregational Church of Birmingham United Church of Christ was founded in Birmingham but moved to its present location in at 1000 Cranbrook Road in Bloomfield Hills in 1966. St. Hugo of the Hills Roman Catholic Church' was funded by Theodore F. MacManus and his wife in memory of their deceased children and Hubert.
St. Hugo of the Hills Catholic Church was built from 1931–1936, with approval from Bishop Michael J. Gallagher, was designed by Arthur DesRossiers. Other churches include St. George Greek Orthodox, Bloomfield Hills Baptist, Beautiful Savior Lutheran Church on Adams Road, Detroit Michigan Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Birmingham Unitarian Church on Woodward Avenue. Acme Group, consisting of Acme Mills, Great Lakes Filters, Fairway Products, is headquartered in Bloomfield Hills. Other companies headquartered in Bloomfield Hills, MI include TriMas Corp.. Larson Realty Group, Princeton Enterprises, PulteGroup, Inc. TIP Capital, Bloomfield Hills Bancorp, BlackEagle Partners, Gregory J. Schwartz & Co. Inc. Alidade Capital, O2 Investment Partners. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.04 square miles, of which 4.96 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water. As of the 2005–2009 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, there were 3,774 people, 1,570 households, about 1,382 families residing in the city.
The population density was 796.4 per square mile. There were 1,628 housing units at an average density of 329.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.1% White, 5.4% Asian, 4.3% Black, 0.8% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,869 people, 1,489 households, 1,116 families residing in the city; the population density was 780.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,659 housing units at an average density of 334.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.3% White, 6.7% Asian, 4.1% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.3% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 1,489 households of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.7% were married couples living together, 4.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 25.1% were non-families.
21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age in the city was 54.1 years. 19.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, There were 1,520 households out of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.9% were married couples living together, 3.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.2% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.7% under the age of 18, 3.8% from 18 to 24, 13.8% from 25 to 44, 39.0% from 45 to 64, 23.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males. The median income for a househo
Toulouse is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie. The city is on the banks of the River Garonne, 150 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea, 230 km from the Atlantic Ocean and 680 km from Paris, it is the fourth-largest city in France, with 466,297 inhabitants as of January 2014. In France, Toulouse is called the "Pink City"; the Toulouse Metro area, with 1,312,304 inhabitants as of 2014, is France's fourth-largest metropolitan area, after Paris and Marseille, ahead of Lille and Bordeaux. Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, ATR and the Aerospace Valley, it hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNES's Toulouse Space Centre, the largest space centre in Europe. Thales Alenia Space, ATR, SAFRAN, Liebherr-Aerospace and Astrium Satellites have a significant presence in Toulouse; the University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe and, with more than 103,000 students, it is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the universities of Paris and Lille.
The air route between Toulouse–Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014. According to the rankings of L'Express and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city; the city was the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom in the 5th century and the capital of the province of Languedoc in the Late Middle Ages and early modern period, making it the unofficial capital of the cultural region of Occitania. It is now the capital of the second largest region in Metropolitan France. A city with unique architecture made of pinkish terracotta bricks, which earned it the nickname la Ville Rose, Toulouse counts two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Canal du Midi, the Basilica of St. Sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
The city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne and Hers-Mort. Toulouse has a humid subtropical climate, with too much precipitation in the summer months preventing the city from being classified as a Mediterranean climate zone; the Garonne Valley was a central point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa, it is of unknown meaning or origin from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, but has been connected to the name of the Gaulish Volcae Tectosages. Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its major cities, in the early 6th century serving as its capital, before it fell to the Franks under Clovis in 507. From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm. In 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse.
Odo's victory was a small obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe, Muslims occupied a large territory including Poitiers. Charles Martel, a decade won the Battle of Tours called the Battle of Poitiers; the Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th century. The Battle of Toulouse of 844, pitting Charles the Bald against Pepin II of Aquitaine, was key in the Carolingian Civil War. During the Carolingian era, the town rose in status. In the 12th century, consuls took over the running of the town and these proved to be difficult years. In particular, it was a time of religious turmoil. In Toulouse, the Cathars tried to set up a community here, but were routed by Simon de Montfort's troops; the Dominican Order was founded in Toulouse in 1215 by Saint Dominic in this context of struggle against the Cathar heresy. The subsequent arrival of the Inquisition led to a period of religious fervour during which time the Dominican Couvent des Jacobins was founded.
Governed by Raimond II and a group of city nobles, Toulouse's urban boundaries stretched beyond its walls to the north and as far south as Saint Michel. In the Treaty of Paris of 1229, Toulouse formally submitted to the crown of France; the county's sole heiress Joan was engaged to Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, a younger brother of Louis IX of France. The marriage became legal in 1241, but it remained childless so that after Joan's death the county fell to the crown of France by inheritance. In 1229, University of Toulouse was established after the Parisian model, intended as a means to dissolve the heretic movement. Various monastic orders, like the congregation of the order of frères prêcheurs, were started, they found home in Les Jacobins. In parallel, a long period of inquisition began inside the Toulouse walls; the fear of repression obliged the notabilities to convert themselves. The inquisition lasted nearly 4
In architecture, functionalism is the principle that buildings should be designed based on the purpose and function of the building. This principle is less self-evident than it first appears, is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession in regard to modern architecture; the theoretical articulation of functionalism in buildings can be traced back to the Vitruvian triad, where'utilitas' stands alongside'venustas' and'firmitas' as one of three classic goals of architecture. Functionalist views were typical of some gothic revival architects. In particular, Augustus Welby Pugin wrote that "there should be no features about a building which are not necessary for convenience, construction, or propriety" and "all ornament should consist of enrichment of the essential construction of the building"; the debate about functionalism and aesthetics is framed as a mutually exclusive choice, when in fact there are architects, like Will Bruder, James Polshek and Ken Yeang, who attempt to satisfy all three Vitruvian goals.
In the wake of World War I, an international functionalist architecture movement emerged as part of the wave of Modernism. The ideas were inspired by the need to build a new and better world for the people, as broadly and expressed by the social and political movements of Europe after the devastating world war. In this respect, functionalist architecture is linked with the ideas of socialism and modern humanism. A new slight addition to this new wave of functionalism was that not only should buildings and houses be designed around the purpose of functionality, architecture should be used as a means to physically create a better world and a better life for people in the broadest sense; this new functionalist architecture had the strongest impact in Czechoslovakia, Poland, the USSR and the Netherlands, from the 1930s in Scandinavia and Finland. In 1896, Chicago architect Louis Sullivan coined the phrase'form follows function', however this aphorism does not relate to a contemporary understanding of the term ‘function’ as utility or the satisfaction of user needs.
In the mid-1930s, functionalism began to be discussed as an aesthetic approach rather than a matter of design integrity. The idea of functionalism was conflated with lack of ornamentation, a different matter, it became a pejorative term associated with the most bald and brutal ways to cover space, like cheap commercial buildings and sheds finally used, for example in academic criticism of Buckminster Fuller's geodesic domes as a synonym for'gauche'. For 70 years the influential American architect Philip Johnson held that the profession has no functional responsibility whatsoever, this is one of the many views today; the position of postmodern architect Peter Eisenman is based on a user-hostile theoretical basis and more extreme: "I don't do function." Popular notions of modern architecture are influenced by the work of the Franco-Swiss architect Le Corbusier and the German architect Mies van der Rohe. Both were functionalists at least to the extent that their buildings were radical simplifications of previous styles.
In 1923 Mies van der Rohe was working in Weimar Germany, had begun his career of producing radically simplified, lovingly detailed structures that achieved Sullivan's goal of inherent architectural beauty. Le Corbusier famously said "a house is a machine for living in". Functionalist architecture is abundant in Eastern Europe, it came a little late to Scandinavia, developed some slight variations in that region. In Scandinavia, the international movement and ideas of modernist architecture became known among architects at the 1930 Stockholm Exhibition, under the guidance of director and Swedish architect Gunnar Asplund. Enthusiastic architects collected their ideas and inspirations in the manifesto acceptera! and in the years thereafter, a functionalist architecture emerged throughout Scandinavia. The genre involves some peculiar features unique to Scandinavia and it is referred to as "funkis", to distinguish it from functionalism in general; some of the common features are flat roofing, stuccoed walls, architectural glazing and well-lit rooms, an industrial expression and nautical inspired details, including round windows.
The global stock market crisis and economic meltdown in 1929, instigated the needs to use affordable materials, such as brick and concrete, to build and efficiently. These needs became another signature of the Nordic version of functionalist architecture, in particular in buildings from the 1930s, carried over into modernist architecture when industrial serial production became much more prevalent after World War II; as most architectural styles, Nordic funkis was international in its scope and several architects designed Nordic funkis buildings throughout the region. Some of the most active architects working internationally with this style, includes Edvard Heiberg, Arne Jacobsen and Alvar Aalto. Nordic funkis features prominently in Scandinavian urban architecture, as the need for urban housing and new institutions for the growing welfare states exploded after World War II. Funkis had its heyday in the 1930s and 1940s, but functionalist architecture continued to be built long into the 1960s.
These structures, tends to be categorized as modernism in a Nordic context. Vil