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Robert Walpole

Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British politician, regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. Although the exact dates of Walpole's dominance, dubbed the "Robinocracy", are a matter of scholarly debate, the period 1721–1742 is used, he dominated the Walpole–Townshend ministry, as well as the subsequent Walpole ministry, holds the record as the longest-serving British prime minister in history. W. A. Speck wrote that Walpole's uninterrupted run of 20 years as Prime Minister "is rightly regarded as one of the major feats of British political history... Explanations are offered in terms of his expert handling of the political system after 1720, his unique blending of the surviving powers of the crown with the increasing influence of the Commons". Walpole was a Whig from the gentry class, first elected to Parliament in 1701 and held many senior positions, he looked to country gentlemen for his political base. Historian Frank O'Gorman says his leadership in Parliament reflected his "reasonable and persuasive oratory, his ability to move both the emotions as well as the minds of men, above all, his extraordinary self-confidence".

Hoppit says Walpole's policies sought moderation: he worked for peace, lower taxes and growing exports and allowed a little more tolerance for Protestant Dissenters. He avoided controversy and high-intensity disputes as his middle way attracted moderates from both the Whig and Tory camps, but his appointment to Chancellor of the Exchequer after the South Sea Bubble stock-market crisis drew attention to a perceived protection of political allies by Walpole. H. T. Dickinson sums up his historical role by saying that "Walpole was one of the greatest politicians in British history, he played a significant role in sustaining the Whig party, safeguarding the Hanoverian succession, defending the principles of the Glorious Revolution.... He established a stable political supremacy for the Whig party and taught succeeding ministers how best to establish an effective working relationship between Crown and Parliament". Scholars rank him among all British prime ministers. Walpole was born in Houghton, Norfolk in 1676.

One of 19 children, he was the third son and fifth child of Robert Walpole, a member of the local gentry and a Whig politician who represented the borough of Castle Rising in the House of Commons, his wife Mary Walpole, the daughter and heiress of Sir Geoffrey Burwell of Rougham, Suffolk. Horatio Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole was his younger brother; as a child, Walpole attended a private school at Norfolk. Walpole entered Eton College in 1690 where he was considered "an excellent scholar", he matriculated at King's College, Cambridge on the same day. On 25 May 1698, he left Cambridge after the death of his only remaining elder brother, Edward, so that he could help his father administer the family estate to which he had become the heir. Walpole had planned to become a clergyman but as he was now the eldest surviving son in the family, he abandoned the idea. In November 1700 his father died, Robert succeeded to inherit the Walpole estate. A paper in his father's handwriting, dated 9 June 1700, shows the family estate in Norfolk and Suffolk to have been nine manors in Norfolk and one in Suffolk.

As a young man, Walpole had bought shares in the South Sea Company, which monopolized trade with Spain, the Caribbean and South America. The speculative market for slaves and mahogany spawned a frenzy that had ramifications throughout Europe when it collapsed. However, Walpole had bought at the bottom and sold at the top, adding to his inherited wealth and allowing him to create Houghton Hall as seen today. Walpole's political career began in January 1701 when he won a seat in the general election at Castle Rising, he left Castle Rising in 1702 so that he could represent the neighbouring borough of King's Lynn, a pocket borough that would re-elect him for the remainder of his political career. Voters and politicians nicknamed him "Robin". Like his father, Robert Walpole was a member of the Whig Party. In 1705, Walpole was appointed by Queen Anne to be a member of the council for her husband, Prince George of Denmark, Lord High Admiral. After having been singled out in a struggle between the Whigs and the government, Walpole became the intermediary for reconciling the government to the Whig leaders.

His abilities were recognised by Lord Godolphin and he was subsequently appointed to the position of Secretary at War in 1708. Despite his personal clout, Walpole could not stop Lord Godolphin and the Whigs from pressing for the prosecution of Henry Sacheverell, a minister who preached anti-Whig sermons; the trial was unpopular with much of the country, causing the Sacheverell riots, was followed by the downfall of the Duke of Marlborough and the Whig Party in the general election of 1710. The new ministry, under the leadership of the Tory Robert Harley, removed Walpole from his office of Secretary at War but he remained Treasurer of the Navy until 2 January 1711. Harley had first attempted to entice him and threatened him to join the Tories, but Walpole rejected the offers, instead becoming one of the most outspoken members of the Whig Opposition, he defended Lord Godolphin against Tory attacks in parliamentary debate, as well as in the press. In 1712, Walpole was accused of venality and corruption in the matter of two forage contracts for Scotland.

Although it was proven that he had retained none of the money, Walpole w

Cubbington Pear Tree

The Cubbington Pear Tree is a wild pear tree located near to Cubbington in Warwickshire, England. Around 250 years old, it is the second largest wild pear tree in the country and a noted local landmark. In 2015 the tree was voted England's Tree of the Year, it is due to be felled as part of the High Speed 2 railway development. The Cubbington Pear Tree was identified as a specimen of Pyrus communis var. communis, is listed as such in the Champion Tree Register. It is located on the top of a hill near to Cubbington; the tree lies near to a public footpath from which it is visible. Thought to be around 250 years old, the Cubbington Pear Tree may be the United Kingdom's oldest wild pear tree; the tree is the second largest wild pear tree in the country, measuring some 3.78 metres in girth. Despite its age the tree continues to bear fruit; the tree has been entered onto the Tree Register of the British Isle as a national champion. In 2011 the Cubbington Pear Tree was identified as under threat from the proposed High Speed 2 Phase 1 railway line between London and Birmingham, becoming one of 20 pear trees to be threatened by the scheme.

An expert from Warwickshire Museum visited the site to assess the tree. Representatives from HS2 say, they propose to plant seedlings from it nearby as a replacement. The tree trunk would be placed in the South Cubbington Wood to form a habitat for insects and plants; the removal of the tree is opposed by the Cubbington Action Group who have instead proposed that this section of the line be tunnelled beneath the tree. A petition in support of this proposal was sent to the HS2 Parliamentary select committee, but the scheme was rejected on economic grounds, with an estimated cost of £46 million. In preparation for its removal the Shuttleworth College took cuttings from the Cubbington Pear Tree by September 2017; the Cubbington Action Group led a series of walks to view the tree in April and May 2018 to see it in bloom for the "last time". Preliminary works for HS2 in this area had commenced by May 2018. In October 2019, local residents set up a protest encampment in South Cubbington Wood to protect the Cubbington Pear Tree and other nearby woodland.

The Cubbington Pear Tree was entered into the English Tree of the Year competition in 2015 along with more than 200 others. It was selected by the competition's panel of experts for the 10-strong shortlist for the public vote, it won the competition having garnered more than 10,000 votes and beating famous trees such as the Ankerwycke Yew, the Boscobel Oak and the Glastonbury Thorn. It was subsequently described by the Warwickshire Wildlife Trust as the "poster-boy for all the trees along the route of HS2... that are under threat from the project". The tree was subsequently entered into the 2016 European Tree of the Year competition where it came 8th out of 15 entries with 7,858 votes

Cambridge Junction Historic State Park

Cambridge Junction Historic State Park is a state park in Cambridge Township, three miles south of Brooklyn, Michigan. It is the site of Walker Tavern, a major stopping place for stagecoaches traveling between Detroit and Chicago in the early nineteenth century; the park restored tavern with period furnishings. A reconstructed 1840s barn has displays about barns and travelers in the nineteenth century; the tavern is open seasonally as part of the Michigan Historical Museum System. Cambridge Junction Historic State Park Michigan Department of Natural Resources Walker Tavern Area Map Michigan History Center

Mikael Mogren

Bengt Mikael Mogren, is a Swedish bishop and author. Morgen was born in a peasant family in Askersund in Örebro. For some time he worked as a prison officer, he has undergone training in antiquarian buildings in Gothenburg and studied theology in Uppsala, Tübingen and at Harvard University. In his master's thesis, he wrote about the youth movement in the Coptic Church. Mogren was ordained a priest in 1996 for the Diocese of Strängnäs by Bishop Jonas Jonson. Mogren worked, at Holy Trinity Parish in Uppsala. In 2011 he became the diocesan curate in Västerås, he received his doctorate in church science with the dissertation Den romantiska kyrkan, dealing with his views on church and state in the early 1800s. He addresses the issue of the anti-Semitic ideas present among several romantic thinkers. In 2003, he was named Teacher of the Year by the students of the Faculty of Theology in Uppsala. On May 19, 2015 he was elected bishop of the Diocese of Västerås, he was ordained a bishop in Uppsala Cathedral on September 6, 2015

Battle of White Oak Swamp

The Battle of White Oak Swamp took place on June 30, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War. As the Union Army of the Potomac retreated southeast toward the James River, its rearguard under Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin stopped Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's divisions at the White Oak Bridge crossing, resulting in an artillery duel, while the main Battle of Glendale raged two miles farther south around Frayser's Farm. White Oak Swamp is considered to be part of the larger Glendale engagement; because of this resistance from Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin's VI Corps, Jackson was prevented from joining the consolidated assault on the Union Army at Glendale, ordered by General Robert E. Lee, producing an inconclusive result, but one in which the Union Army avoided destruction and was able to assume a strong defensive position at Malvern Hill; the Seven Days Battles began with a Union attack in the minor Battle of Oak Grove on June 25, 1862, but McClellan lost the initiative as Lee began a series of attacks at Beaver Dam Creek on June 26, Gaines's Mill on June 27, the minor actions at Garnett's and Golding's Farm on June 27 and June 28, the attack on the Union rear guard at Savage's Station on June 29.

McClellan's Army of the Potomac continued its retreat toward the safety of Harrison's Landing on the James River. Most elements of McClellan's army had been able to cross White Oak Swamp Creek by noon on June 30. About one third of the army had reached the James River, but the remainder was still marching between White Oak Swamp and Glendale. Lee ordered his Army of Northern Virginia to converge on the retreating Union forces, bottlenecked on the inadequate road network. Stonewall Jackson was ordered to press the Union rear guard at the White Oak Swamp crossing while the largest part of Lee's army, some 45,000 men, would attack the Army of the Potomac in mid-retreat at Glendale, about 2 miles southwest, splitting it in two. Stonewall Jackson had acquired fame for his brilliant campaign in the Shenandoah Valley, but had performed poorly so far under Lee's command in the Seven Days. Too fatigued from his campaign and travel from the Valley, he arrived late at Mechanicsville and inexplicably ordered his men to bivouac for the night within clear earshot of the battle.

He was disoriented at Gaines's Mill. He was late again at Savage's Station; the upcoming action in support of Lee's assault at Glendale would offer him another opportunity. Jackson and Lee met on the morning of June 30 at Savage's Station and Lee's exact orders were not recorded, but they were for Jackson to march to White Oak Swamp and engage the Union forces there to prevent them from reinforcing the remainder of the rear guard at Glendale; the last Union unit to travel south through White Oak Swamp, thus Jackson's target, was the VI Corps under Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin, consisting of the divisions of Brig. Gens. William F. "Baldy" Smith and Israel B. Richardson. Jackson's men marched south on the White Oak Road with their artillery chief, Colonel Stapleton Crutchfield, at the head of the column, they marched because they were accompanied by thousands of wounded Union prisoners and many of the stores that they obtained at Savage's Station. They found that the single bridge over the swamp had been burned two hours earlier.

Jackson arrived at noon and approved Crutchfield's gun emplacement, designed to fire diagonally from a ridge across the swamp against the Union batteries and infantry positions that they saw about 300 yards away. At 2 p.m. on June 30, seven Confederate batteries of 31 guns opened fire, catching the Union troops by surprise and disabling several of their cannons. After ordering his engineers to begin rebuilding the bridge, Jackson directed Col. Thomas T. Munford's 2nd Virginia Cavalry to cross the swamp and capture some of the Union guns abandoned during the bombardment; as the men and horses waded through water, belly deep and fouled with debris and Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill crossed the river to perform a personal reconnaissance. A Union artillery shell exploded only a few feet away from the generals mounted on horseback, although neither was injured. Jackson saw that Union artillery and infantry was reinforcing the position, that Federal sharpshooters would play havoc with his engineers on the bridge.

He realized. Munford reported that he found a ford a quarter of a mile downstream that would be suitable for the infantry to cross. Brig. Gen. Wade Hampton found a closer point. Jackson ordered him to build the bridge, but took no specific action to cross the swamp, having decided that it was infeasible to attack if he could not cross his artillery. While the artillery duel across the swamp escalated to over 40 guns, while the battle at Glendale raged less than 3 miles away, Jackson sat beneath a large oak tree and fell asleep for over an hour. Jackson's inaction allowed some units to be detached from Franklin's corps in late afternoon to reinforce the Union troops at Glendale. Jackson did not inform Lee of his situation and Lee did not send anyone to find Jackson until it was too late to make a difference. Although Jackson's wing of the Army and Franklin's corps comprised tens of thousands of men, the action at White Oak Swamp included no infantry activity and was limited to an artillery duel.

The Confederates lost 3 artillerymen killed and 12 wounded, but there is no exact record of the number of Union casualties.

Deutsche Postbank

Postbank – eine Niederlassung der DB Privat- und Firmenkundenbank AG is a German retail bank, formed from the demerger of the postal savings division of Deutsche Bundespost in 1990. Since May 2018, it operates as a brand of Deutsche Bank's retail arm, it serves 13 million customers in 700 advisory centers. The Postscheckdienst was introduced in 1909 by the German Reich establishing accounts for payment transactions by mail and linking postal and banking services in German states. In 1990, following the German Postal Services Restructuring Act of 1989, the German Postal Service was divided into three companies, Deutsche Post, Deutsche Telekom and Postbank; that year, Deutsche Post Postbank of the former East Germany was merged with Postbank. From 1990 to 1997, Dr. Guenter Schneider was chairman of the board; the first board of Postbank consisted of Rudolf Bauer and Bernhard Zurhorst. On 1 January 1995, following the new postal reform legislation of 1994, Postbank became an independent, joint stock company.

Postbank extended operations, engaged in loans and homes savings. In 1999, Deutsche Post became the owner of Postbank. In that same year, Postbank acquired DSL Bank by the sale of the government's shares. Postbank subsidiary easytrade began offering on-line brokerage services in 2000. Postbank purchased BHF Holdings Inc. in 2001. By 2003, Postbank had 11.5 million customers, more than any other bank in Germany. On 1 January 2004 the postal bank took over the transaction banking of the Deutsche Bank and the Dresdner Bank. From on Postbank executed the clearing and settlement of Deutsche Bank and Dresdner Bank's payment transactions; this agreement strengthened the bank’s new business field "Transaction Bank" in the apron of the announced Initial Public Offering. The IPO of Postbank on 23 June 2004 was the largest stock market launch in Germany for the past 2 years. Deutsche Post retained a controlling stake of 50% plus one share. On 25 October 2005 Postbank announced its intention to acquire a 76.4 percent stake of the home financing specialist, Beamten-Heimstättenwerk.

With the acquisition of BHW Deutsche Postbank became Germany’s leading financial services provider for retail customers. On 1 January 2006 the purchase of BHW Holding by Deutsche Postbank was concluded. Beyond that Deutsche Postbank took over 850 branches from Deutsche Post. Along with the change in ownership, around 9,600 employees switched employer, bringing Postbank's workforce to over 25,000 employees. In September 2008, 30% of Postbank was sold to Deutsche Bank for €2.8 billion. In October 2010, Postbank put its Indian finance business up for sale. Deutsche Bank gained a majority stake in the firm through a tender offer completed in December 2010, exercised its option to acquire the remainder of Deutsche Post's holding in 2012. In the end, the total purchase cost Deutsche Bank €6 billion. Since May 2018, Postbank has been merged with the DB Privat- und Firmenkundenbank as a subsidiary of Deutsche Bank. Official website Useful information about the Deutsche Postbank in English