Karel Čapek was a Czech writer and critic. He has become best known for his science fiction, including his novel War with the Newts and play R. U. R. which introduced the word robot. He wrote many politically charged works dealing with the social turmoil of his time. Influenced by American pragmatic liberalism, he campaigned in favor of free expression and opposed the rise of both fascism and communism in Europe. Though nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature seven times, Čapek never received it. However, several awards commemorate his name, such as the Karel Čapek Prize, awarded every other year by the Czech PEN Club for literary work that contributes to reinforcing or maintaining democratic and humanist values in society, he played a key role in establishing the Czechoslovak PEN Club as a part of International PEN.Čapek died on the brink of World War II as the result of a lifelong medical condition, but his legacy as a literary figure became well established after the war. Karel Čapek was born in 1890 in the Bohemian mountain village of Malé Svatoňovice.
However, six months after his birth, the Čapek family moved to their own house in Úpice. His father, Antonín Čapek, worked as a doctor at the local textile factory. Antonín was a energetic person. Despite opposing his father's materialist and positivist views, Karel Čapek loved and admired his father calling him “a good example... of the generation of national awakeners.” Karel's mother, Božena Čapková, was a homemaker. Unlike her husband she did not like life in the country and she suffered from long-term depressions. Despite that, she assiduously collected and recorded local folklore, such as legends, songs or stories. Karel was the youngest of three siblings, he would maintain an close relationship with his brother Josef, a successful painter and working with him throughout his adult life. His sister, was a talented pianist who become a writer and published several memoirs about Karel and Josef. After finishing elementary school in Úpice, he moved with his grandmother to Hradec Králové, where he attended high school.
Two years he was expelled for taking part in an illegal students' club. Čapek described the club as a “very non-murderous anarchist society.” After this incident he moved to Brno with his sister and attempted to finish high school there, but two years he moved again, to Prague, where he finished high school at the Academic Grammar School in 1909. During his teenage years Čapek became enamored with the visual arts Cubism, which influenced his writing. After graduating from high school, he studied philosophy and aesthetics in Prague at Charles University, but he spent some time at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin and at the Sorbonne in Paris. While he was still a university student, he wrote some works on contemporary literature, he graduated with a doctorate of philosophy in 1915. Exempted from military service due to the spinal problems that would haunt him his whole life, Čapek observed World War I from Prague, his political views were affected by the war, as a budding journalist he began to write on topics like nationalism and consumerism.
Through social circles, the young author developed close relationships with many of the political leaders of the nascent Czechoslovak state, including Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Czechoslovak patriot and the first President of Czechoslovakia, his son Jan, who would become foreign secretary. T. G. Masaryk was a regular guest at Čapek's "Friday Men" garden parties for leading Czech intellectuals. Čapek was a member of Masaryk's Hrad political network. Their frequent conversations on various topics served as the basis for Čapek's Talks with T. G. Masaryk. Čapek began his writing career as a journalist. With his brother Josef, he worked as an editor for the Czech paper Národní listy from October 1917 to April 1921. Upon leaving, he and Josef joined the staff of Lidové noviny in April 1921.Čapek's early attempts at fiction were short stories and plays for the most part written with his brother Josef. Čapek's first international success was R. U. R. A dystopian work about a bad day at a factory populated with sentient androids.
The play was translated into English in 1922, was being performed in the UK and America by 1923. Throughout the 1920s, Čapek worked in many writing genres, producing both fiction and non-fiction, but worked as a journalist. In the 1930s, Čapek's work focused on the threat of brutal national socialist and fascist dictatorships, he became a member of International PEN and established, was the first president of, the Czechoslovak PEN Club. In 1935 Karel Čapek married actress Olga Scheinpflugová, after a long acquaintance. In 1938 it became clear that the Western allies, namely France and the United Kingdom, would fail to fulfil the pre-war agreements, they refused to defend Czechoslovakia against Nazi Germany. Although offered the chance to go to exile in England, Čapek refused to leave his country – though the Nazi Gestapo had named him "public enemy number two". While repairing flood damage to his family's summer house in Stará Huť, he contracted a common cold; as he had suffered all his life from spondyloarthritis and was a heavy smoker, Karel Čapek died of pneumonia, on 25 December 1938.
The Gestapo was not aware of his death. Several months just after the German invasion of Czechoslovakia, Nazi age
Three-player chess is a family of chess variants specially designed for three players. Many variations of three-player chess have been devised, they use a non-standard board, for example, a hexagonal or three-sided board that connects the center cells in a special way. The three armies are differentiated by color. Three-player chess variants are the hardest to design since the imbalance created when two players gang up against one is too great for the defending player to withstand; some versions attempt to avoid this "petty diplomacy" problem by determining the victor as the player who first delivers checkmate, with the third player losing in addition to the checkmated player. Other solutions have been tried as well; some variants use a board with hexagonal cells. Three bishops per side are included, to cover all cells of the hex playing field. Pieces move as in one of the versions of hexagonal chess. Chesh: Played on a 169-cell regular hexagon board. By D. R. Hofstadter. Chexs: By Stephen P. Kennedy.
Echexs: By Jean-Louis Cazaux. HEXChess: Commercial chess variant by HEXchess Inc. Three-Way Chess: Played by three players on a hexagonal board. By Richard Harshman; some variants use a hexagonal-shaped board with quadrilateral cells. Trichess: Features a "non-aggression" rule whereby a player in inferiority is immune from capture in his home portion by a numerically superior opponent, unless the capture gives check. A pawn that reaches the back rank of an opponent is exchanged for any captured friendly piece. Played on a 96-cell board. By Chistophe Langronier. ThreeChess: Checkmate does not end the game—the first player to capture an enemy king wins. A player may not move into check. Played on a 96-cell board. By the ThreeChess Team. Chess for three: By Jacek Filek. Three-Man Chess: Pawns reaching the 5th rank gain multi-direction capability; the first player to give checkmate wins. Played on a 96-cell board. By George Dekle Sr.. Trio-Chess: Played on a 96-cell board, a center triangle splits the central files.
By Van der Laken and G. J. Buijtendorp. Three-Player Chess: Played on a 96-cell board, the patent for this game provides suggested rules whereby kings are captured, the player with the last-remaining king wins; the pieces of an eliminated player may be captured. A player may move into check; the patent describes a variant whereby the army of an eliminated player is appropriated by the capturer. By Robert Zubrin. Self's Three-Handed Chess: Played on a 144-cell board. By Hency J. Self. Waidder's Three-Handed Chess: Played on a 126-cell board. By S. Waidder; some variants have used other board shapes with quadrilateral cells. III-Color-Schach: can be used with three-colored boards. Megachess: Uses a triangular board with 130 squares. Pawns have multi-direction capability. Players manage the first-mated player's army according to one of three options; the last surviving player wins. By Mega Games/Danny McWilliams. Mad Threeparty Chess: Play starts on an empty 10×10 board with players placing their pieces including an extra king per side.
Kings are designated. By V. R. Parton. Triple Chess: Uses a chessboard unbalanced by 8×3 extensions on three sides. A player must stalemate both opponents to win, using only pieces of his color. By Philip Marinelli. Triangular cells not on the perimeter have three cells obliquely adjacent, three cells adjacent at points. A variant patented in 2008 by Russian Ilshat Tagiev uses a hexagonal board with triangular cells. Armies are set up in the corners of the hexagon. Play order is clockwise around the board. All pieces adapted to the triangular boardcell geometry. Adjacent cells of the same color form the board's "diagonals". Pawns can move in any direction on horizontal lines. Pawns do not promote. A special "Rule of Neutrality" addresses the petty diplomacy problem while maintaining the possibility of cooperation: The player whose turn it is to move, can capture an enemy man only if the third player did not capture a man of that enemy on the previous move, or if that enemy captured a man of the player.
Circular boards have three - or four-sided cells, but not quadrilateral. 3 Man Chess: Uses a circular board. Some variants incorporate fairy chess pieces in addition to standard chess pieces. Orwell Chess: Uses a cylindrical board with quadrilateral cells. Armies consist of fairy pieces gryphon, pao, etc. By Glenn E. Overby. Tri-Chess: A three-player variant using an irregular hexagon board with triangular cells. Chancellors and cardinals replace queens. By George Dekle Sr.. The introduction of a third player drastically alters the style of play when standard pieces are used. Many chess openings are useless due to third player; each player must think twice as far ahead—anticipating the moves of both opponents, with the added complexity that the next player may move to attack either opponent. If a player trades off pieces with a second player, the third player benefits. Hence, players will be more reluctant to make trades. Players avoid such trades so as to carry out other strategies; the introduction of the'ext
The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a fuel for electricity production and hydrogen vehicles. The hydrogen economy is proposed as being a part of the future low-carbon economy. In order for human society to move away from the hydrocarbon economy, hydrogen is considered as its combustion only releases clean water, no CO2 to the atmosphere. Hydrogen gas itself can therefore be considered a clean fuel. Hydrogen gas, does not occur in convenient reservoirs. Steam methane reforming is the dominant method of doing so. Around 96% of the hydrogen produced annually today is produced by this process; the purpose of the current production of this hydrogen is as an industrial feedstock for the production of ammonia and petroleum refining. Around 96% of the worlds hydrogen is produced from natural gas steam reforming; the remainder is produced as a byproduct from electrolysis processes such as chlor-alkali. Small amounts of hydrogen are produced by the dedicated production of hydrogen from water; the production of hydrogen from both the natural gas steam reforming process and the dedicated water electrolysis process are hampered by unavoidable efficiency issues.
Using fossil based electricity to produce hydrogen from electrolysis, subsequently using that hydrogen in a fuel cell has a negligible effect on CO2 emissions. The production of large amounts of clean electricity must therefore first be effected, before hydrogen can become an effective energy carrier. A hydrogen economy was proposed by the University of Michigan to solve some of the negative effects of using hydrocarbon fuels where the carbon is released to the atmosphere. Modern interest in the hydrogen economy can be traced to a 1970 technical report by Lawrence W. Jones of the University of Michigan. In the current hydrocarbon economy, transportation is fueled by petroleum and heating by natural gas. Burning of hydrocarbon fuels emits other pollutants; the demand for energy is increasing in China and other developing countries. Proponents of a world-scale hydrogen economy argue that hydrogen can be an environmentally cleaner source of energy to end-users, without release of pollutants such as particulates or carbon dioxide.
A 2004 analysis asserted that "most of the hydrogen supply chain pathways would release less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than would gasoline used in hybrid electric vehicles" and that significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions would be possible if carbon capture or carbon sequestration methods were utilized at the site of energy or hydrogen production. Hydrogen has a low energy density by volume; when compressed or liquified, the energy density by volume is only 1/4 that of gasoline, although the energy density by weight is three times that of gasoline or natural gas. An Otto cycle internal-combustion engine running on hydrogen is said to have a maximum efficiency of about 38%, 8% higher than a gasoline internal-combustion engine; the combination of the fuel cell and electric motor is 2-3 times more efficient than an internal-combustion engine. Capital costs of fuel cells have reduced over recent years, with a modeled cost of $50/kW cited by the Department of Energy. Previous technical obstacles have included hydrogen storage issues and the purity requirement of hydrogen used in fuel cells, as with current technology, an operating fuel cell requires the purity of hydrogen to be as high as 99.999%.
Hydrogen engine conversion technology could be considered more economical than fuel cells. The term hydrogen economy was coined by John Bockris during a talk he gave in 1970 at General Motors Technical Center; the concept was proposed earlier by geneticist J. B. S. Haldane. A spike in attention for the concept during the 2000s was described as hype by some critics and proponents of alternative technologies. İnterest in the energy carrier resurged in the 2010s, notably by the forming of the Hydrogen Council in 2017. Several manufacturers released hydrogen fuel cell cars commercially, with manufacturers such as Toyota and industry groups in China planning to increase numbers of the cars into the hundreds of thousands over the next decade. Hydrogen production is a large and growing industry, as of 2004. Globally, some 57 million metric tons of hydrogen, equal to about 170 million tons of oil equivalent, were produced in 2004; the growth rate is around 10% per year. Within the United States, 2004 production was about 11 million metric tons, an average power flow of 48 gigawatts.
As of 2005, the economic value of all hydrogen produced worldwide is about $135 billion per year. There are two primary uses for hydrogen today. About half is used in the Haber process to produce ammonia, used directly or indirectly as fertilizer; because both the world population and the intensive agriculture used to support it are growing, ammonia demand is growing. Ammonia can be used as a easier indirect method of transporting hydrogen. Transported ammonia can be converted back to hydrogen at the bowser by a membrane technology; the other half of current hydrogen production is used to convert heavy petroleum sources into lighter fractions suitable for use as fuels. This latter process is known as hydrocracking. Hydrocracking represents an larger growth area, since rising oil prices
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system an offshoot of a larger group. Although the term was a classification for religious separated groups, it can now refer to any organization that breaks away from a larger one to follow a different set of rules and principles. In an Indian context, sect refers to an organized tradition; the word sect comes from the Latin noun secta, meaning "a way, road", figuratively a way, mode, or manner, hence metonymously, a discipline or school of thought as defined by a set of methods and doctrines. The present gamut of meanings of sect has been influenced by confusion with the homonymous Latin word secta. There are descriptions for the term. Among the first to define them were Max Weber and Ernst Troeltsch. In the church-sect typology they are described as newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their parent religion, their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination.
The American sociologists Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge assert that "sects claim to be authentic purged, refurbished version of the faith from which they split". They further assert that sects have, in contrast to churches, a high degree of tension with the surrounding society. Other sociologists of religion such as Fred Kniss have asserted that sectarianism is best described with regard to what a sect is in tension with; some religious groups exist in tension only with co-religious groups of different ethnicities, or exist in tension with the whole of society rather than the church which the sect originated from. Sectarianism is sometimes defined in the sociology of religion as a worldview that emphasizes the unique legitimacy of believers' creed and practices and that heightens tension with the larger society by engaging in boundary-maintaining practices; the English sociologist Roy Wallis argues that a sect is characterized by "epistemological authoritarianism": sects possess some authoritative locus for the legitimate attribution of heresy.
According to Wallis, "sects lay a claim to possess unique and privileged access to the truth or salvation" and "their committed adherents regard all those outside the confines of the collectivity as'in error'". He contrasts this with a cult that he described as characterized by "epistemological individualism" by which he means that "the cult has no clear locus of final authority beyond the individual member." The corresponding words for "sect" in European languages other than English – Sekte, secta, sectă, sekta, sekte, szekta, секта, σέχτα – refer to a harmful religious sect and translate into English as "cult". In France, since the 1970s, secte has a specific meaning, different from the English word; the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Religion distinguishes three types of classification of Buddhism, separated into "Movements", "Nikāyas" and "Doctrinal schools": Schools: Theravada in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Mahāyāna in East Asia. Vajrayāna in Tibet, Nepal, India and the Russian republic of Kalmykia.
Nikāyas, or monastic fraternities, three of which survive at the present day: Theravāda, in Southeast Asia and South Asia Dharmaguptaka, in China and Vietnam Mūlasarvāstivāda, in the Tibetan tradition While the historical usage of the term "sect" in Christendom has had pejorative connotations, referring to a group or movement with heretical beliefs or practices that deviate from those of groups considered orthodox, its primary meaning is to indicate a community which has separated itself in some way from the larger body from which its members came and to which they may or may not still adhere. The term remains valid for this purpose. There are many groups outside the Roman Catholic Church which regard themselves as Catholic, such as the Community of the Lady of All Nations, the Palmarian Catholic Church, the Philippine Independent Church, the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God, Most Holy Family Monastery, others; the Indologist Axel Michaels writes in his book about Hinduism that in an Indian context the word "sect does not denote a split or excluded community, but rather an organized tradition established by founder with ascetic practices."
According to Michaels, "Indian sects do not focus on heresy, since the lack of a center or a compulsory center makes this impossible – instead, the focus is on adherents and followers." The ancient schools of fiqh or sharia in Islam are known as "madhhabs." In the beginning Islam was classically divided into three major sects. These political divisions are well known as Shia Islam and Khariji Islam; each sect developed several distinct jurisprudence systems reflecting their own understanding of the Islamic law during the course of the history of Islam. For instance, Sunnis are separated into five sub-sects, Hanafi, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Ẓāhirī; the Shia, on the other hand, first developed Kaysanism, which in turn divided into three major groupings known as Fivers and Twelvers. The Zaydis separated first; the non-Zaydis are c
Exploration of Mars
The planet Mars has been explored remotely by spacecraft. Probes sent from Earth, beginning in the late 20th century, have yielded a large increase in knowledge about the Martian system, focused on understanding its geology and habitability potential. Engineering interplanetary journeys is complicated and the exploration of Mars has experienced a high failure rate the early attempts. Sixty percent of all spacecraft destined for Mars failed before completing their missions and some failed before their observations could begin; some missions have met with unexpected success, such as the twin Mars Exploration Rovers, which operated for years beyond their specification. On June 10, 2018, Opportunity rover fell silent, leaving Curiosity of the Mars Science Laboratory mission with six orbiters surveying the planet: Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Orbiter Mission, MAVEN, the Trace Gas Orbiter, which have contributed massive amounts of information about Mars; the stationary lander InSight is investigating the deep interior of Mars.
No sample return missions have been attempted for Mars and an attempted return mission for Mars' moon Phobos failed in 2011. Five more missions are in the late stages of development and fabrication, will be launched between 2020 and 2021; these include the ExoMars Rosalind Franklin rover by Russia and ESA, NASA's Mars 2020 rover, the 2020 Chinese Mars Mission, the Hope Mars Mission by the United Arab Emirates, India's Mars Orbiter Mission 2. Mars has long been the subject of human interest. Early telescopic observations revealed color changes on the surface that were attributed to seasonal vegetation and apparent linear features were ascribed to intelligent design. Further telescopic observations found two moons and Deimos, polar ice caps and the feature now known as Olympus Mons, the solar system's tallest mountain; the discoveries piqued further interest in the exploration of the red planet. Mars is a rocky planet, like Earth, that formed around the same time, yet with only half the diameter of Earth, a far thinner atmosphere.
One way the surface of Mars has been categorized, is by thirty "quadrangles", with each quadrangle named for a prominent physiographic feature within that quadrangle. The minimum-energy launch windows for a Martian expedition occur at intervals of two years and two months. In addition, the lowest available transfer energy varies on a 16-year cycle. For example, a minimum occurred in the 1969 and 1971 launch windows, rising to a peak in the late 1970s, hitting another low in 1986 and 1988. Starting in 1960, the Soviets launched a series of probes to Mars including the first intended flybys and hard landing; the first successful fly-by of Mars was on 14–15 July 1965, by NASA's Mariner 4. On November 14, 1971 Mariner 9 became the first space probe to orbit another planet when it entered into orbit around Mars; the amount of data returned by probes increased as technology improved. The first to contact the surface were two Soviet probes: Mars 2 lander on November 27 and Mars 3 lander on December 2, 1971—Mars 2 failed during descent and Mars 3 about twenty seconds after the first Martian soft landing.
Mars 6 failed during descent but did return some corrupted atmospheric data in 1974. The 1975 NASA launches of the Viking program consisted of two orbiters, each with a lander that soft landed in 1976. Viking 1 remained operational for Viking 2 for three; the Viking landers relayed the first color panoramas of Mars. The Soviet probes Phobos 1 and 2 were sent to Mars in 1988 to study Mars and its two moons, with a focus on Phobos. Phobos 1 lost contact on the way to Mars. Phobos 2, while photographing Mars and Phobos, failed before it was set to release two landers to the surface of Phobos. Two-thirds of all spacecraft destined for Mars have failed without completing their missions, it has a reputation as a difficult space exploration target. Missions that ended prematurely after Phobos 1 and 2 include: Mars Observer Mars 96 Mars Climate Orbiter Mars Polar Lander with Deep Space 2 Nozomi Beagle 2 Fobos-Grunt with Yinghuo-1 Schiaparelli lander Following the 1993 failure of the Mars Observer orbiter, the NASA Mars Global Surveyor achieved Mars orbit in 1997.
This mission was a complete success, having finished its primary mapping mission in early 2001. Contact was lost with the probe in November 2006 during its third extended program, spending 10 operational years in space; the NASA Mars Pathfinder, carrying a robotic exploration vehicle Sojourner, landed in the Ares Vallis on Mars in the summer of 1997, returning many images. Phoenix landed on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008, its robotic arm dug into the Martian soil and the presence of water ice was confirmed on June 20, 2008. The mission concluded on November 2008 after contact was lost. In 2008, the price of transporting material from the surface of Earth to the surface of Mars was US$309,000 per kilogram. Rosetta came within 250 km of Mars during its 2007 flyby. Dawn flew by Mars in February 2009 for a gravity assist on its way to investigate Ceres. NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter entered Mars orbit in 2001. Odyssey's Gamma Ray Spectrometer detected significant amounts of hydrogen in the upper metre or so of regolith on Mars.
This hydrogen is thought to be contained in large deposits of water ice. The Mars Express mission of the European Space Agency reached Mars in 2003, it carried the Beagle 2 lander
University of Washington
The University of Washington is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1861, Washington was first established in downtown Seattle a decade after the city's founding to aid its economic development. Today, the university's 703-acre main Seattle campus is situated in the University District above the Montlake Cut, within the urban Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest; the university has two additional campuses in Bothell. Overall, UW encompasses over 500 buildings and over 20 million gross square footage of space, including one of the largest library systems in the world with over 26 university libraries, as well as the UW Tower, lecture halls, art centers, laboratories and conference centers; the university offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees through 140 departments in various colleges and schools, sees about 46,000 in total student enrollment every year, functions on a quarter system. Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and classified as an R1 Doctoral Research University classification under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
It is cited as a leading university in the world for scientific performance and research output by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the CWTS Leiden Ranking. In the 2015 fiscal year, the UW received nearly $1.2 billion in research funding, the 3rd largest among all universities in the United States. As the flagship institution of the six public universities in Washington State, it is known for its research in medicine, science, as well as its highly-competitive computer science and engineering programs. Additionally, Washington continues to benefit from its deep historical ties and major collaborations with numerous technology giants in the region, such as Amazon, Boeing and Microsoft. Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates and others spent significant time at Washington computer labs for a prior venture before founding Microsoft, its 22 varsity sports teams are highly competitive, competing as the Huskies in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA Division I, representing the United States at the Olympic Games, other major competitions.
The University has been affiliated with many notable alumni and faculty, including 20 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, as well as members of other distinguished institutions. In 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in the Washington Territory. Prominent Seattle-area residents, including Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley, saw this as a chance to add to the city's potential and prestige. Bagley learned of a law that allowed United States territories to sell land to raise money in support of public schools. At the time, Arthur A. Denny, an early founder of Seattle and member of the territorial legislature, aimed to increase the city's importance by moving the territory's capital from Olympia to Seattle. However, Bagley convinced Denny that the establishment of a university would assist more in the development of Seattle's economy. Two universities were chartered, but the decision was repealed in favor of a single university in Lewis County provided that locally donated land was available.
When no site emerged, Denny petitioned the legislature to reconsider Seattle as a location in 1858. In 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres site in Seattle to serve as a new university campus. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, while fellow pioneers Edward Lander, Charlie and Mary Terry, donated two acres on Denny's Knoll in downtown Seattle. More this tract was bounded by 4th Avenue to the west, 6th Avenue to the east, Union Street to the north, Seneca Streets to the south. John Pike, for whom Pike Street is named was the builder. On November 4, 1861, the university opened as the Territorial University of Washington; the legislature passed articles incorporating the University, establishing its Board of Regents in 1862. The school struggled, closing three times: in 1863 for low enrollment and again in 1867 and 1876 due to funds shortage. Washington awarded its first graduate Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt in 1876, with a bachelor's degree in science. By the time Washington State entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially.
Washington's total undergraduate enrollment increased from 30 to nearly 300 students, the campus's relative isolation in downtown Seattle faced encroaching development. A special legislative committee, headed by UW graduate Edmond Meany, was created to find a new campus to better serve the growing student population and faculty; the committee selected a site on the northeast of downtown Seattle called Union Bay, the land of the Duwamish, the legislature appropriated funds for its purchase and construction. In 1895, the University relocated to the new campus by moving into the newly built Denny Hall; the University Regents tried and failed to sell the old campus settling with leasing the area. This would become one of the University's most valuable pieces of real estate in modern-day Seattle, generating millions in annual revenue with what is now called the Metropolitan Tract; the original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908, its former site now houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel.
The sole-surviving remnants of Washington's first building are four 24-foot, hand-fluted cedar, Ionic columns. They were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany, one of the University's first graduates and former head of its history dep
Satire is a genre of literature, sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"—but parody, exaggeration, comparison and double entendre are all used in satirical speech and writing; this "militant" irony or sarcasm professes to approve of the things the satirist wishes to attack. Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, plays, television shows, media such as lyrics; the word satire comes from the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".
The word satura as used by Quintilian, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin, he was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius. To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes: As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; the odd result is. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus. Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, in England, by the 16th century, it was written'satyre.'
The word satire derives from satura, its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time. Laughter is not an essential component of satire. Conversely, not all humour on such topics as politics, religion or art is "satirical" when it uses the satirical tools of irony and burlesque. Light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, make them think". Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study, they provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.
Satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power, by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse. For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions; the satiric impulse, its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations. Satire is a diverse genre, complex to classif