Roberto Alemann is an Argentine lawyer, economist and academic. Alemann was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1922, his family, prominent German Argentines of Swiss extraction, had established the nation's premier German language daily, Argentinisches Tageblatt, in 1874. He graduated from the Buenos Aires National College in 1941, from the University of Buenos Aires with a Law Degree in 1947. Alemann studied Economics at the University of Bern in 1947–48, received a Doctorate in Social Sciences in 1952. Opposed to the populist policies of President Juan Perón, he joined senior policy adviser Raúl Prebisch's team following the 1955 coup against Perón, took part in negotiations leading to the first loans granted to the Argentine government by the Paris Club of multilateral creditors. Alemann co-founded the Argentine Association of Political Economy in 1957; the group prioritized dealing with structural inflation over the monetarist approach favored by more conservative policy-makers, such as Economy Minister Álvaro Alsogaray, appointed to the post in 1959 without President Arturo Frondizi's support.
Frondizi, a proponent of developmentalism, opposed Alsogaray's austerity program, which brought down inflation, though at the cost of a severe recession in 1959. Alsogaray was replaced in April 1961 by Roberto Alemann. Alemann's structuralist approach complemented unofficial Frondizi point man Rogelio Julio Frigerio's policies well, as both focused on correcting the adverse effects of financing costly machinery imports with raw material exports of declining value, though conservative and military pressure resulted in his removal in January 1962. Following his ouster, Alemann returned to the private sector as a lobbyist for Swiss banking giant UBS, was from 1964 to 1973, Professor of Economic Policy at his alma mater; the right-wing economist appointed by a National Reorganization Process dictatorship installed in 1976, José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz, implemented a sweeping program of financial deregulation and free trade which by 1981 collapsed under the weight of a US$37 billion foreign debt – most of it the result of a wave of private currency speculation and government military spending.
Alemann's brother, Juan Alemann, served as Treasury Secretary during the dictatorship, was nearly killed by a bomb placed in his residence in 1979 by a Montoneros guerilla operative. Named Economy Minister by a new dictator, General Leopoldo Galtieri, in December 1981, Alemann departed from his expansionist policies of twenty years earlier and introduced his own austerity program: cuts in public sector spending, accelerated devaluation of the peso, a mandatory wage freeze, he attempted to repair relations with the International Monetary Fund by proposing the privatization of an array of State enterprises, elicited signals of support from the Reagan administration, but triggered protest from labor unions, culminating in a massive, March 30, 1982, rally against Alemann by the General Confederation of Labour South America's largest trade union. Gatieri's invasion of the Falkland Islands, on April 2, derailed Alemann's rapproachment with U. S. and European creditors, following Galtieri's defeat and subsequent resignation in June, Alemann was replaced.
He retired from public service, devoting his time to the Tageblatt as managing editor, contributing occasional op ed columns in the centrist Clarín. Continuing to lecture on economic policy matters, the octogenarian was assaulted by opponents at least twice after 2002, though he suffered only minor injuries. Sistemas Económicos, Buenos Aires: Arayú Hacia una política de inversiones, Buenos Aires: Selección Contable Curso de Política Económica Argentina, Buenos Aires: EUDEBA Breve historia de la política económica argentina, Buenos Aires: Claridad Recordando a Kennedy, Buenos Aires: Sudamericana
Province of Pavia
The province of Pavia is a province in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. As of 2015, the province has a population of 548,722 inhabitants and an area of 2,968.64 square kilometres. The city Pavia was settled by the Ligures and was occupied by Gaulish tribes. Named "Ticinum" by the Romans, the town was reinforced and became a key part of their defenses in northern Italy. In the sixth century it was the capital of German tribe the Lombards and survived an attempted Frankish invasion. However, following the death of Charlemagne, the Lombard territory became part of Frankish territory. In the 12th century, it became a commune after Frankish rule ceased, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor fortified areas of the commune and he was crowned in Pavia in 1155; the University of Pavia was founded in 1361. Starting from 1359, Pavia and its neighbourhood were owned by the Visconti and the Sforza of Milan, until, in 1499, the Duchy of Milan became a Spanish possession, it was the scene of a Franco-Imperial battle in 1525, in which Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor defeated Francis I of France.
In 1707 and again 1774, parts of the so-called "principality of Pavia", a province of the Duchy under the Spaniards, were sold to Piedmont. The Province of Pavia is in the region of Lombardy in northwestern Italy, it is bounded to the north by the provinces of Milan and the Lodi, to the southeast by the Province of Piacenza, to the southwest it is bounded by the Province of Alessandria. The province is crossed by the rivers Ticino and Po, which meet four kilometres south of the capital, Pavia; the province contains 190 communes and the River Po is navigable up to its confluence with the Ticino. There are three regions of the province, the Pavese, in the Po Valley, the Lomellina, completely in the Po Valley but between the Ticino and the Po, Oltrepò, to the south of the Po and which includes Monte Lesima, a mountain in the Apennine Mountains, the highest point in the province; the territory of Siccomario, at the confluence of the two great rivers, should properly be included in Lomellina, but for historical reasons it is considered part of Pavese.
Another large river flowing through the province is the Olona. The province is flat with the northwestern part of the province being good agricultural land; the southern part rises to low hills. The town of Pavia has a major position in northern Italy's textile industry and is renowned for hatmaking, it plays its part in the country's engineering and metallurgical industries. This produces sparkling wines, it is the largest area in Italy for the production of Pinot noir. The list below shows the most populated municipalities of the province in 2010: Comuni of the Province of Pavia Province of Pavia official website Oltrepò Pavese Touristic site
President of Argentina
The President of Argentina known as the President of the Argentine Republic, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, both in its title as in its features and powers. Current President Mauricio Macri was sworn into office on December 10, 2015; the Constitution of Argentina, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata; the Head of State continued to be the King. These Viceroys were natives of the country. By the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires.
It was known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State, the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person; this power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, but there was not yet a presidential system. In 1816, Congress composed a Constitution; this established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces. A new constitution was drafted in 1826; this constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1816 constitution.
This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, Bernardino Rivadavia. Because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, the office was dissolved shortly after. A civil war between unitarios and federalists ensued in the following decades. In this time, there was no central authority, the closest to, the Chairman of Foreign Relations the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires; the last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, who in the last years of his governorship was elected Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining effective rule of the rest of the country. In 1852, Rosas was deposed, a constitutional convention was summoned; this constitution, still in force, established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed with no possibility of reelection; the first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires.
Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. Thus, Rivadavia and Mitre are considered the first presidents of Argentina by different historians: Rivadavia for being the first one to use the title, Urquiza for being the first one to rule under the 1853 constitution, Mitre for being the first president of Argentina under its current national limits. In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. In 1966 and 1976, the federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces. In 1962, the President of the Senate ruled, but in the other cases, a military chief assumed the title of President, it is debatable whether these military presidents can properly be called Presidents, as there are issues with the legitimacy of their governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents Jorge Rafael Videla and Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri were explicitly not legitimate presidents.
They and their immediate successors were denied the right to a presidential pension after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, remains more uncertain; the President of the Nation has the following powers: Is the supreme head of the Nation, head of government and is politically responsible for the general administration of the country. Issues the instructions and regulations necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions. Participates in the making of laws under the Constitution, has them published; the Executive Power shall in no case under penalty, void, issue legislative provisions. Only when exceptional circumstances make it impossible to follow the ordinary procedures foreseen by this Constitution for the enactment of laws, not try to rules governing criminal matters, electoral or political party regime, may issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which will be decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with the head of cabinet of ministers.
The head of and within ten days submit the decision to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee, whose compos
Casatisma is a comune in the Province of Pavia in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 45 km south of Milan and about 15 km south of Pavia. Casatisma borders the following municipalities: Bressana Bottarone, Castelletto di Branduzzo, Corvino San Quirico, Robecco Pavese, Verretto
Second Triumvirate (Argentina)
The Second Triumvirate was the governing body of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata that followed the First Triumvirate in 1812, shortly after the May Revolution, lasted 2 years. The second triumvirate is the result of the Revolution of October 8, 1812, when the generals José de San Martín and Carlos María de Alvear joined forces with former supporters of Mariano Moreno and deposed the First Triumvirate; when the members of the First Triumvirate were deposed, the Cabildo appointed new ones. Nicolás Rodríguez Peña was appointed by 172 votes against 12, Antonio Álvarez Jonte by 147 against 35, Juan José Paso by 96 against 87; the new triumvirate called the Assembly of Year XIII, a popular request that the First Triumvirate avoided to follow. The Triumvirate started its functions on October 8, 1812; the second triumvirate took measures against the members of the former ones. Pueyrredón was vanished to San Luis, Rivadavia was imprisoned and trialed. Chiclana was trialed, but found innocent, appointed as governor of Salta.
Sarratea, under protection of the British diplomacy, did not face any reprisals. The main actions of the Triumvirate were: Established a commission on December 4, 1812 for the creation of the Constitution of Argentina Called for the Asamblea del Año XIII on January 31, 1813. Disposed the creation of the Province of Cuyo on November 14, 1813; as the 1813 Assembly decided to replace the Triumvirate for a unipersonal Supreme Directorship, it ceased its functions on January 22, 1814, Gervasio Antonio de Posadas assumed as the first Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. One year on January 31, 1815, he was to be replaced in office by his nephew Carlos María de Alvear, who counted on the support of the powerful Logia Lautaro. Segreti, Carlos. La aurora de la Independencia. Memorial de la Patria. Tomo II. Buenos Aires: Editorial La Bastilla. Ternavasio, Marcela. Gobernar la Revolución. Buenos Aires: Editorial Siglo Veintiuno. Galasso, Norberto. Seamos Libres y lo demás no importa nada.
Buenos Aires: Colihue. ISBN 978-950-581-779-5
Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic
The Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, in Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas de la República Argentina, are controlled by the Commander-in-Chief and a civilian Minister of Defense. In addition to the Army and Air Force, there are two security forces, controlled by the Ministry of Security, which can be mobilized in occasion of an armed conflict: the National Gendarmerie, a gendarmerie used to guard borders and places of strategic importance. Traditionally, Argentina maintains close defense cooperation and military-supply relationships with the United States and to a lesser extent, with Israel, Germany, Spain, Belarus and Russia; the Argentine military, as has been the tendency in other Latin American countries, were more influential in former times. Starting in 1930 and throughout the 20th century, democratic governments were more than not interrupted by military coups; the terrible consequences of the last dictatorship destroyed the military image as the moral reserve of the nation and opened the way to transform them into today's armed forces.
After the Revolución Libertadora coup that deposed president Juan Domingo Perón in 1955, the armed forces split into opposing sectors named Azules y colorados. The fight would end in 1963 with military clashes and the defeat of the reds who were opposed to Perón. In 1965, the Argentine military conducted land military maneuvers on Antarctica under then-Colonel Jorge E. Leal. Nicknamed Operación 90, this was undertaken ten years before the Antarctic Treaty came into being and was conducted to cement Argentina's claims to a portion of those territories. In 1975 the armed forces started a massive operation in the Tucumán Province to crush the ERP guevarist guerrilla group which attempted to create a "revolutionary foco in this remote and mountainous province, in the north-west of Argentina." The last military dictatorship, the National Reorganization Process, lasted from 1976 to 1983. As Isabel Perón was unable to defeat the terrorist organizations of Montoneros and ERP, the military took power during the 1976 Argentine coup d'état and exterminated the violent communist guerrillas by random detentions, torture or death.
The current government of Cristina Fernández de Kirchner that sympathizes with Perón, antagonized the Armed Forces with the justification of the past junta and limits the powers of the current armed forced to avoid state terrorism of the past. During much of the 19th and the 20th century, relations between neighbour Chile chilled due to disputes over Patagonia, though in recent years relations have improved dramatically. On 2 April 1982, the Military Junta invaded the British overseas territories of the Falkland Islands and its dependency South Georgia in order to maintain power by diverting public attention from the nation's poor economic performance and exploiting the long-standing feelings of the Argentines towards the islands; such action would bolster its dwindling legitimacy. After short but fierce naval and air battles, the British landed on 21 May, a land campaign followed until the Argentine forces surrendered on 14 June. 649 Argentines and 255 British died during the war. The political effects of the war were strong and prompted larger protests against the dictatorship, which hastened its downfall.
The democratic government of Raúl Alfonsín that took office in 1983 prosecuted the 1970s crimes and made the unprecedented Trial of the Juntas and soon the Army was rocked by uprisings and internal infighting. Far-right sectors of the Army rebelled in the Carapintadas movement. To contain the rebellions, Alfonsín promoted the Law of due obedience; the following president, Carlos Menem, gave the presidential pardon to the military found guilty in the Trial of the Juntas. It would not be until 1990, when the last military uprising in Argentine history was crushed, that the political conflict within the Army subsided. In January 1989, during the subversive attack on La Tablada, the Army used white phosphorus in a violation of the Geneva Convention. Argentina was the only Latin American country to participate in the 1991 Gulf War sending a destroyer and a corvette in first term and a supply ship and another corvette to participate on the United Nations blockade and sea control effort of the gulf.
The success of "Operación Alfil" as it was known, with more than 700 interceptions and 25,000 miles sailed on the operations theatre helped to overcome the so-called "Malvinas syndrome". From 1990 to 1992, the Baradero-class patrol boats were deployed under UN mandate ONUCA to the Gulf of Fonseca in Central America. In 1994, the three Drummond-class corvettes participated on Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti. In the 1990s, Argentine Armed Forces began a close defense cooperation and friendship policy with neighbors Brazil and Chile, with emphasis on fulfilment of United Nations mandates; the Argentine military have been reduced both in number and budget, but became more professional after conscription was abolished by president Menem. The British embargo due to the Falklands War was eliminated and Argentina was granted Major Non-NATO ally status by United States President Bill Clinton; the modern Argentine Military Forces are committed to international peacekeeping under United Nations mandates, humanitarian aid on emergenci