United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
Sir Huw Pyrs Wheldon, OBE, MC was a BBC broadcaster and executive. Wheldon was born on 7 May 1916 in Prestatyn, Denbighshire and he was educated at Friars School, Bangor, an all-boys grammar school. His father, Sir Wynn Wheldon, was a prominent educationalist and his grandfather, Tomos Jones Wheldon, had been the Moderator of the Calvinist Methodist Church in Wales. His mother, Megan Edwards, was an accomplished pianist, on the outbreak of war in 1939 Wheldon enlisted in the Buffs. He was commissioned into the Royal Welch Fusiliers in 1940, but subsequently volunteered for the forces and joined the Royal Ulster Rifles. He was awarded the Military Cross for an act of bravery on D-Day +1, future Led Zeppelin guitarist Jimmy Page was a guest on his show in 1957. He began to produce and present adult programmes, such as Men in Battle with Sir Brian Horrocks and he was responsible for Orson Welles Sketchbook. It was with the magazine programme Monitor that Wheldon truly made his mark on the cultural scene.
Monitor ranged in subject over all the arts — the hundredth show was Elgar a film directed by Ken Russell and written by Wheldon, Monitor featured specially made films, sometimes just one full-length item, eventually using actors to re-enact the subjects lives. Prior to this, only photos or location shots had been used in programmes, wheldons Monitor lasted until he had interviewed everyone I am interested in interviewing, and he was succeeded by Jonathan Miller for the series last season. In 1967 he was invited to deliver the MacMillan Memorial Lecture to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland and he chose the subject Perspectives on Television. Wheldon now entered BBC management, becoming by turns Head of Documentaries and Controller, in 1968 he became Managing Director, BBC TV, a position he held until compulsory retirement in 1975. After he retired from management Wheldon co-wrote, with J. H. Plumb, and presented Royal Heritage, produced by Michael Gill, it achieved immense popularity ratings in 1977, the year of the Queens Silver Jubilee.
Two other major documentaries followed, The Library of Congress and Destination D-Day, following his retirement from the BBC he became Chairman of the Court of the Governors of the London School of Economics, where he had read economics before the war. He disarmed potential sponsors of the school by eschewing flattery and opening negotiations with the statement that what he was after was their cash. He was a formidable and active President of the Royal Television Society, an RTS Memorial Lecture in his name by a distinguished broadcaster is televised annually. In 2011 Bettany Hughes gave the lecture, and Brian Cox gave the lecture in 2010, other speakers have included David Attenborough, Jeremy Isaacs and, in 2005, the writer Paul Abbott. In addition to this, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts dispenses a Huw Wheldon Award for Specialist Factual Programme, there are Wheldon bursaries and awards at the LSE and the University of Wales, Bangor
Frank Stanton (executive)
Frank Nicholas Stanton was an American broadcasting executive who served as the president of CBS between 1946 and 1971 and as vice chairman until 1973. He served as the chairman of the Rand Corporation from 1961 until 1967, Stanton was born March 20,1908 in Muskegon, Michigan to Helen Josephine Schmidt and Frank Cooper Stanton. He attended Stivers School for the Arts in Dayton, Ohio and he attended Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware, receiving a B. A. in 1930. He married his sweetheart, Ruth Stephenson, in 1931. He taught for one year in the arts department of a high school in Dayton, attended Ohio State University. He held a diploma from the American Board of Professional Psychology, soon after earning his Ph. D. Stanton became the third employee in the CBS research department. During World War II, he consulted for the Office of War Information, the Secretary of War, Stanton helped lead the fight for color television. By 1950 CBS had been working on its system of color TV for a decade. CBS color broadcasting only lasted for four months, CBS suspended it when the manufacture of color television receivers was halted by the U. S.
government as part of the Korean War effort. When the ban on color sets was rescinded in 1953 CBS announced that it had no plans to resume broadcasting using its field-sequential color system, a major problem with the CBS system was that the video was not compatible with existing black-and-white TV sets. A competing dot-sequential color system being developed by RCA was compatible, during the period of McCarthyism, Stanton created an office at CBS to review the political leanings of employees. Although right-wing journalists considered CBS left-leaning, branding it the Red Network, at Stantons direction, employees were required to take an oath of loyalty to the US government. According to radio historian Jim Cox, CBS and the blacklisting became synonymous, CBS, in response to the culture of blacklisting, instituted a purge of its own, as had Hollywood and president Truman, Paley was more responsible for policy setting, and Stanton its main executor. Good Night, and Good Luck, a 2005 movie portraying this era, left Stanton out of the film as a character, partly because Stanton was still living, Stanton played a role in the infamous controversy involving Arthur Godfrey, CBSs top money-earner in the early 1950s.
Godfrey insisted that the cast members of two of his three CBS shows, a group of known as the Little Godfreys, refrain from hiring managers. Godfrey did so on October 19,1953, without informing LaRosa before the airing, the move caused an enormous backlash against Godfrey. Stanton told Godfrey biographer Arthur Singer that Maybe was a mistake, Stanton organized the first televised presidential debate in American history. Stanton thereby enabled the first two-candidate presidential television debate, which was held at and televised from the CBS studio in Chicago, with candidates John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon
Joseph V. Charyk
Joseph Vincent Charyk was widely credited as the founder of the geosynchronous communications satellite industry. He was born in Canmore, Alberta in a Ukrainian family, early in his career, Charyk consolidated the Central Intelligence Agency, United States Air Force, and United States Navy space programs into the National Reconnaissance Office. He brought the first United States imagery satellite, CORONA, into operation, during his tenure, the NRO operated the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft and managed development of the A-12. Charyk served as Chief Scientist of the United States Air Force until he was appointed the Undersecretary of the Air Force, in 1961 he was appointed by President John F. Kennedy to be the first Director of the National Reconnaissance Office. He returned to industry, serving as first president of Communications Satellite Corporation. Charyk decided to make geosynchronous satellites the basis of the Comsat network and he fought skepticism that this untested technology would not work for voice transmission because of a half-second time delay.
He raised funds to support this new industry and enlisted the cooperation of countries around the world and his efforts launched a global system that would eventually seem commonplace to billions of people around the world. While at Comsat, Charyk served as President, CEO, Charyk earned his bachelors in Engineering and Physics from the University of Alberta and his PhD in Aeronautics from the California Institute of Technology. In 1974 he received the International Emmy Directorate Award for his work with COMSAT, Charyk died on September 28,2016 at the age of 96
Akio Morita was a Japanese businessman and co-founder of Sony along with Masaru Ibuka. Akio Morita was born in Nagoya, Japan, moritas family was involved in sake and soy sauce production in the village of Kosugaya on the western coast of Chita Peninsula in Aichi Prefecture since 1665. He was the oldest of four siblings and his father Kyuzaemon trained him as a child to take over the family business, however, found his true calling in mathematics and physics, and in 1944 he graduated from Osaka Imperial University with a degree in physics. He was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in the Imperial Japanese Navy, during his service, Morita met his future business partner Masaru Ibuka in the Navys Wartime Research Committee. On May 7,1946, Morita and Ibuka founded Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha with about 20 employees, Ibuka was 38 years old, Morita,25. Moritas family invested in Sony during the period and was the largest shareholder. In 1949, the company developed magnetic recording tape and in 1950, in 1957, it produced a pocket-sized radio, and in 1958, Morita and Ibuka decided to rename their company Sony.
Morita was an advocate for all the products made by Sony, since the radio was slightly too big to fit in a shirt pocket, Morita made his employees wear shirts with slightly larger pockets to give the radio a pocket sized appearance. In 1960, it produced the first transistor television in the world, in 1973, Sony received an Emmy Award for its Trinitron television-set technology. In 1975, it released the first Betamax home video recorder, in 1979, the Walkman was introduced, making it one of the worlds first portable music players. In 1984, Sony launched the Discman series which extended their Walkman brand to portable CD products, in 1960, the Sony Corporation of America was established in the United States. In 1961, Sony Corporation was the first Japanese company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange, in the form of American depositary receipts, which are traded over-the-counter. Sony bought CBS Records Group which consisted of Columbia Records, Epic Records and other CBS labels in 1988, on November 25,1994, Morita stepped down as Sony chairman after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage while playing tennis.
He was succeeded by Norio Ohga, who had joined the company in the 1950s after sending Morita a letter denouncing the poor quality of the tape recorders. Morita was vice chairman of the Japan Business Federation, and was a member of the Japan-U. S, economic Relations Group, known as the Wise Mens Group. He was the third Japanese chairman of the Trilateral Commission and his amateur radio call sign is JP1DPJ. In 1966, Morita wrote a book called Gakureki Muyō Ron, in 1986, Morita wrote an autobiography titled Made in Japan. The book was translated into English and caused controversy in the United States, Morita was awarded the Albert Medal by the United Kingdoms Royal Society of Arts in 1982, the first Japanese to receive the honor
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazils third-most populous state. Part of the city has designated as a World Heritage Site, named Rio de Janeiro. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822 and this is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, the home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data.
The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the city is divided into 33 administrative regions. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabrals fleet, allegedly the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition. The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Botocudo, in 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Consequently, Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony, Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay. Until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several, mostly French and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc, on 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
The kingdoms capital was transferred to the city, thus, as there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived suddenly, many inhabitants were simply evicted from their homes. The first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, from the colonial period until the first independent decades, Rio de Janeiro was a city of slaves. There was an influx of African slaves to Rio de Janeiro, in 1819. In 1840, the number of slaves reached 220,000 people, the Port of Rio de Janeiro was the largest port of slaves in America. As a political center of the country, Rio concentrated the political-partisan life of the Empire and it was the main stage of the abolitionist and republican movements in the last half of the 19th century. Rio continued as the capital of Brazil after 1889, when the monarchy was replaced by a republic, until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighbourhood now known as the historic city centre, on the mouth of Guanabara Bay.
Expansion of the city to the north and south was facilitated by the consolidation and electrification of Rios streetcar transit system after 1905, though many thought that it was just campaign rhetoric, Kubitschek managed to have Brasília built, at great cost, by 1960