University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution; as a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Mississauga; the university is ranked as the best Canadian university, according to various major publications. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School; the university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, the development of the theory of NP-completeness.
By a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the 1860s; the university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre serving cultural and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex. The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court; as of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.
The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States; the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature... to continue for to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.
Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866; the Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.
Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to confer medical degrees; the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884. A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904; the university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968.
The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toro
Anglican Church of Canada
The Anglican Church of Canada is the province of the Anglican Communion in Canada. The official French-language name is l'Église anglicane du Canada. In 2007, the Anglican Church counted 545,957 members on parish rolls in 2792 congregations, organised into 1676 parishes; the 2011 Canadian Census counted 1,631,845 self-identified Anglicans, making the Anglican Church the third-largest Canadian church after the Roman Catholic Church and the United Church of Canada. The Queen of Canada's Canadian Royal Style continues to include the title of Defender of the Faith, the Canadian Monarch continues her countenance of three Chapels Royal in the Realm; until 1955, the Anglican Church of Canada was known as the "Church of England in the Dominion of Canada" or the "Church of England in Canada". In 1977, the church's General Synod adopted l'Église Episcopale du Canada as its French-language name; this name was replaced with the current one, l'Église anglicane du Canada, in 1989. A matter of some confusion for Anglicans elsewhere in the world is that while the Anglican Church of Canada is a province of the Anglican Communion, the Ecclesiastical Province of Canada is one of four such ecclesiastical provinces of the Anglican Church of Canada.
This confusion is furthered by the fact that Canada has ten civil provinces, along with three territories. In recent years, there have been attempts by splinter groups to incorporate under similar names. Corporations Canada, the agency of the federal government which has jurisdiction over federally-incorporated companies, ruled on 12 September 2005 that a group of dissident Anglicans may not use the name "Anglican Communion in Canada", holding that in Canada, the term "Anglican Communion" is associated only with the Anglican Church of Canada, being the Canadian denomination which belongs to that international body; the Anglican Church of Canada's Prayer Book commemorates John Cabot's landing in Newfoundland on 24 June 1497. The first Church of England service was a celebration of Holy Communion at Frobisher Bay around 3 September 1578 by the chaplain on Martin Frobisher's voyage to the Arctic; the chaplain was "'Maister Wolfall and preacher', charged by Queen Elizabeth'to serve God twice a day'".
The propagation of the Church of England occurred in three ways. One way was by officers of ships and lay military and civil officials reading services from the Book of Common Prayer when no clergy were present. For example, in the charter issued by Charles I for Newfoundland in 1633 was this directive: "On Sundays Divine Service to be said by some of the Masters of ships, such prayers as are in the Book of Common Prayer". A second way was the direct appointing and employing of clergy by the English government on ships and in settlements. A third way was the employment of clergy by private "adventurous" companies; the first documented resident Church of England cleric on Canadian soil was Erasmus Stourton, who arrived at the "Sea Forest Plantation" at Ferryland, Newfoundland, in 1612 under the patronage of Lords Bacon and Baltimore. Stourton was of the Puritan party and remained in Ferryland until returning to England in 1628; the overseas development of the Church of England in British North America challenged the insular view of the Church at home.
The editors of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer found that they had to address the spiritual concerns of the contemporary adventurer. In the 1662 Preface, the editors note:... that it was thought convenient, that some Prayers and Thanksgivings, fitted to special occasions, should be added in their due places. The Hudson's Bay Company sent out its first chaplain in 1683, where there was no chaplain the officers of the company were directed to read prayers from the BCP on Sundays. Members of the Church of England established the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge in 1698, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 1701, the Church Missionary Society in 1799; these and other organizations directly financed and sent missionaries to establish the English Church in Canada and to convert Canada's First Nations people. Direct aid of this sort lasted up to the 1940s; the first Anglican church in Newfoundland and in Canada was the small garrison chapel at St John's Fort built sometime before 1698.
The first continuously resident cleric of the chapel was the Reverend John Jackson – a Royal Navy chaplain who had settled in St. John's and was supported by the SPCK in 1698. In 1701, the SPG took over the patronage of St John's. Jackson continued to receive little actual support and was replaced by the Reverend Jacob Rice in 1709. Rice wrote a letter to the Bishop of London detailing his efforts to repair the church, "most unchristianly defaced" and asking for help in acquiring communion vessels, a pulpit cloth and glass for the windows; the garrison chapel was replaced in 1720 and in 1759. The Cathedral of St John the Baptist in St John's, Newfoundland, is the oldest Anglican parish in Canada, founded in 1699 in response to a petition drafted by the Anglican townsfolk of St John's and sent to the Bishop of London, the Right Reverend Henry Compton; the first Anglican services in Nova Scotia are dated from 1710 when a New England army from Boston with assistance of the Royal Navy captured for the fourth t
Dominion Drama Festival
The Dominion Drama Festival was an organisation in Canada that sought to promote amateur theatre across the country. It lasted, in one form or another, from 1932 until 1978; the Dominion Drama Festival was devised in 1932 as a way to promote the theatre, being created in Canada. It was an annual event held each spring in a different city across the country, it would begin with small competitions in various parts of Canada, whichever were chosen from these regional competitions, judged by a travelling adjudicator, would move on to compete in the national festival. To be as fair as possible, a separate judge would preside over the festival at the national level. Prizes were awarded for the best performance of a full-length play in either English or French, for best director, visual presentation, best actor and best actress. Prizes were awarded at the regional level, including best presentation of a play written by a Canadian. One of the founding members was Vere Ponsonby, 9th Earl of Bessborough, the Governor General of Canada, who announced its creation at a ceremony at Rideau Hall.
Other notable founding members included the heiress Martha Allan, along with playwright Herman Voaden, Vincent Massey, Rupert Harvey, a British actor-director who became the Festival’s first adjudicator. Adjudicators were required to be bilingual, from either Britain or France until after the Second World War; the first DDF was held in Ottawa in April 1933 on Shakespeare’s birthday, with companies from eight provinces presenting one-act plays and excerpts from full-length plays. The first 5 festivals were held in Ottawa; the DDF played a role in the construction of a national identity and a national theatre, through its insistence on retaining a bilingual mandate and fostering the writing of original plays and providing coast-to-coast training for hundreds of career-oriented actors and technicians. However, it fostered a conservative approach to theatre, favouring productions of foreign plays and discouraging the participation of politically or disruptive plays, but this led to remarkable standards, attracted loyal and fashionable audiences.
By the 1950s, the social aspects of the annual competition had eclipsed the plays, with balls and receptions, dinner parties in formal attire. The DDF was suspended during the Second World War and once it was resumed following the war, the development of professional theatres began to challenge the primacy of the DDF in the theatre culture of Canada. Professional actors no longer worked in amateur productions, the newly formed Canada Council, started in 1957, funded only professional involvement. Recurring financial problems necessitated the controversial patronage of Calvert's Distillers and the Canadian Association of Broadcasters, which in turn allowed an Ottawa office and the hiring of a permanent director. From 1960 Canadians were engaged to adjudicate preliminary runoffs and, after 1965, the finals as well. There was a massive success with the All Canadian Festival during centennial year, but this didn't help with the DDF's growing debt. In 1970 the DDF was renamed Theatre Canada, showcasing amateur productions without the element of competition, these fringe-like innovations were cancelled in 1973 for financial reasons.
By 1978 the Ottawa office had closed, with it the DDF. As of 1937, a regional contest was held in 11 divisions to elect finalists to be part in the national final contest; the divisions were. Registration cost was $20 per company; each regional finalist would win a grant. After the collapse of Theatre Canada, Canada's amateur theatre was represented, both in Canada and internationally, by the National Multicultural Theatre Association. 1. Herbert Whittaker, The Oxford Companion to Canadian Theatre. Toronto: Oxford, 1989. 2. Betty Lee. Love and Whiskey: The Story of the Dominion Drama Festival. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1973
Stage management is a broad field, defined as the practice of organization and coordination of an event or theatrical production. Stage management may encompass a variety of activities including the overseeing of the rehearsal process and coordinating communications among various production teams and personnel. Stage management requires a general understanding of all aspects of production and offers organisational support to ensure the process runs smoothly and efficiently. A stage manager is an individual who has overall responsibility for stage management and the smooth execution of a theatrical production. Stage management may be performed by an individual in small productions, while larger productions employ a stage management team consisting of a head stage manager, or production stage manager, one or more assistant stage managers; the title of Stage Manager was not used until the 18th century. Though the concept and need for someone to fill the area of stage management can be seen with the Ancient Greeks.
The playwrights were responsible for production elements. Sophocles is the first known stage technician, supported by his employment as a scenic artist, playwright and producer. Moving into the Middle Ages there is evidence of a Conducteurs De Secrets, who oversaw collecting money at the door and serving as a prompter on stage; the prompter held the script and was prepared to feed performers their lines, this was a common practice of the time. Between the Renaissance and 17th century the actors and playwright handled stage management aspects and stage crew. During the Elizabethan and Jacobean Theatre there were two roles that covered the stage management: Stage Keeper and Book Keeper; the Stage Keeper was responsible for the maintenance of the theater, taking props on and off stage, security of performance space. The Book Keeper was responsible for the stage script, obtaining necessary licenses, copying/providing lines for the performers, marking entrances and exits, tracking props, marking when sound effects come in, cueing props and sound effects.
Between the Renaissance and the 16th century and playwrights took upon themselves the handling of finances, general directorial duties, stage management. Stage management first emerged as a distinct role in the 17th century during Shakespeare's and Molière's time. During Shakespeare’s time the roles of stage management were left to apprentices, young boys learning the trade. There is still evidence of a prompter at this time. Though it wasn't until the 18th century in England that the term Stage Manager was used; this was the first time a person other than actors and playwright was hired to direct or manage the stage. Over time, with the rise in complexity of theatre due to advances such as mechanized scenery, quick costume changes, controlled lighting, the stage manager's job was split into two positions—director and stage manager. Many playwrights and actors have worked as an assistant stage manager. Writer and director Preston Sturges, for example, was employed as an ASM on Isadora Duncan's production of Oedipus Rex at the age of 16 and a half: When one is responsible for giving an offstage cue the simplest ones, like the ring of a telephone or a birdcall, demand considerable sangfroid, the job is nervewracking.
One is much aware that everything depends on the delivery of the cue at the right microsecond. One stands there, knees bent, breathing heavily... Sturges didn't last long in this job, due to his calling for thunder and lightning instead of lightning and thunder, but 16 years Brock Pemberton hired him as an ASM on Antoinette Perry's production of Goin' Home, which led to the first mounting of one of Sturges' plays on Broadway, The Guinea Pig, in 1929. Pre-Rehearsal Preparation: Create a contact sheet with information on everyone in the production Collect all conflicts to create a Rehearsal Schedule Send out that Rehearsal Schedule to the actors and creative team Knowing the rehearsal and stage layout Understanding the ground plan of the set Should acquire all rehearsal props that are needed in rehearsals First Rehearsal Have the actors fill out emergency contact forms and other information needed by the production team Assigning scripts to everyone in the production Make detailed notes on the blocking of the production Make sure the production team members who need to explain the set, actors equity association reps, directors concept, more First read through of show SM reads the stage directions Responsible for the wellbeing & safety of everyone and should have basic first aid kit at all rehearsals Rehearsal Period Responsible for any questions or changes the director thinks of during rehearsal to bring up during Production Meetings SM’s are responsible for following along the script, prompting when actors forget their lines and taking line notes Monitor time to make sure company get their breaks at specific intervals Noting any changes or edits to the script Responsible for creating the running script that includes tech cues that are used by the SM Writing daily rehearsal reports that detail what happened in rehearsal that day and what notes, if any, the Sm/director have for the production team.
Distributing distribute it to all production team members Collecting the bios for the actors and production team for the show’s programs Responsible for contacting anyone, running late to rehearsal without notifying the SM Most rehearsals are closed, meaning no one outside of the production is welcome, it is the SM’s job to enforce this Creating a callboard for the actors to sign in during tech rehearsals and performance Creating cue sheets for everyone taking cues from the SM during the show (Sound makes it own
Upper Canada College
Upper Canada College, located in Toronto, Ontario, is a private school for boys between Senior Kindergarten and Grade Twelve, operating under the International Baccalaureate program. The secondary school segment is divided into ten houses. Aside from the main structure, with its dominant clock tower, the Toronto campus has a number of sports facilities and faculty residences, buildings for other purposes. UCC owns and operates a campus in Norval, for outdoor education. UCC was founded in 1829 by Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada Sir John Colborne, based upon Elizabeth College, Guernsey, it is the oldest independent school in the province of Ontario, the third oldest in Canada, is described as the country's most prestigious preparatory school, having many of Canada's most powerful and wealthy as graduates. Modelled on the British public schools, UCC, throughout the first part of its history, both had an influence on and was influenced by provincial government and obtained a reputation as a WASP bastion.
After facing closure by the government on more than one occasion, UCC became independent in 1900, nine years after moving to its present location. A major crisis befell UCC when, in 1959, the main structure at Deer Park was condemned and funds had to be raised to build the Upper School that exists today. Through the 1960s and'70s, campus culture changed: the cadet corps was disbanded, the curriculum shifted from classical to liberal arts, the student population became more culturally diverse; the college struggled between 1998 and 2004 with allegations of sexual abuse of students by teachers during the 1970s and'80s, as well as a related class-action lawsuit. Beginning in 2002, UCC made environmentalism a core component of students' education, put focus on the issue of boys' education, since 2007, has aimed to improve the student body's socioeconomic mix. A number of extracurricular sports and community service programs are run at UCC, some by students, such as the World Affairs Conference.
The operation of the school is overseen by a board of governors and the college engages in fundraising for construction projects, to augment its endowment, to fund scholarships. A link to the Canadian Royal Family is maintained through Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, as the official Visitor. Founded in 1829 by Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada Major-General Sir John Colborne in the hopes that it would serve as a "feeder school" to the newly established King's College, UCC was modelled on the great independent schools of Britain Eton College. Though now a private school, the college was created with public funds including an initial land grant of 6,000 acres of crown lands supplemented with an additional 60,000 acres; the school began teaching in the original Royal Grammar School. To there Colborne brought from the United Kingdom Cambridge and Oxford educated men, attracting them with high salaries. Still, despite increasing enrolment, popularity with leading families of the day; the school survived its denigrators.
The government of Ontario stopped funding UCC in 1900, thus making it a independent school. By 1910, however, UCC was dealing with declining enrollment and capital and considered selling the Deer Park campus for $1.125 million and moving again to become a full boarding school on a property purchased in Norval, Ontario. Plans were halted by the outbreak of the First World War and the college remained where it was, it thrived there, both physically and culturally, as the buildings were expanded and bright instructors attracted. Central to this development was Principal William Grant, shortly after assuming the position of principal in 1917, concentrated on appointing a group of teachers described as "eccentric, quaint, though travelled and intelligent" and saw the student enrollment and teacher salaries double, bursaries grow, a pension plan established over the course of his tenure; the school expanded in 1902 to take in lower year students with the construction of a separate primary school building, the Prep, allowing for boys to be enrolled from Grade Three through to graduation.
UCC maintained a cadet corps from around 1837, which became a rifle company attached to the Volunteer Militia Rifles of Canada in 1860 and the only student corps called to duty in Canadian military history when it assisted in staving off the Fenian Raids in 1866. Through the two World Wars, a number of UCC graduates provided leadership. A war memorial display case and plaque in the Upper School's main entrance hall is dedicated to the UCC Old Boys who distinguished themselves during Canadian military s
Order of Canada
The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, the personal gift of Canada's monarch. To coincide with the centennial of Canadian Confederation, the three-tiered order was established in 1967 as a fellowship that recognizes the outstanding merit or distinguished service of Canadians who make a major difference to Canada through lifelong contributions in every field of endeavour, as well as the efforts by non-Canadians who have made the world better by their actions. Membership is accorded to those who exemplify the order's Latin motto, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning "they desire a better country", a phrase taken from Hebrews 11:16; the three tiers of the order are Companion and Member. The Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is Sovereign of the order and the serving governor general Julie Payette, is its Chancellor and Principal Companion and administers the order on behalf of the Sovereign.
Appointees to the order are recommended by an advisory board and formally inducted by the governor general or the sovereign. As of August 2017, 6,898 people have been appointed to the Order of Canada, including scientists, politicians, athletes, business people, film stars and others; some have resigned or have been removed from the order, while other appointments have been controversial. Appointees receive the right to armorial bearings; the process of founding the Order of Canada began in early 1966 and came to a conclusion on 17 April 1967, when the organization was instituted by Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of the Canadian prime minister, Lester B. Pearson, assisted with the establishment of the order by John Matheson; the association was launched on 1 July 1967, the 100th anniversary of Canadian Confederation, with Governor General Roland Michener being the first inductee to the order, to the level of Companion, on 7 July of the same year, 90 more people were appointed, including Vincent Massey, Louis St. Laurent, Hugh MacLennan, David Bauer, Gabrielle Roy, Donald Creighton, Thérèse Casgrain, Wilder Penfield, Arthur Lismer, Brock Chisholm, M. J. Coldwell, Edwin Baker, Alex Colville, Maurice Richard.
During a visit to London, United Kingdom in 1970, Michener presented the Queen with her Sovereign's badge for the Order of Canada, which she first wore during a banquet in Yellowknife in July 1970. From the Order of Canada grew a Canadian honours system, thereby reducing the use of British honours. Among the civilian awards of the Canadian honours system, the Order of Canada comes third, after the Cross of Valour and membership in the Order of Merit, within the personal gift of Canada's monarch. By the 1980s, Canada's provinces decorations; the Canadian monarch, seen as the fount of honour, is at the apex of the Order of Canada as its Sovereign, followed by the governor general, who serves as the fellowship's Chancellor. Thereafter follow three grades, which are, in order of precedence: Companion and Member, each having accordant post-nominal letters that members are entitled to use; each incumbent governor general is installed as the Principal Companion for the duration of his or her time in the viceregal post and continues as an extraordinary Companion thereafter.
Additionally, any governor general, viceregal consort, former governor general, former viceregal consort, or member of the Canadian Royal Family may be appointed as an extraordinary Companion, Officer, or Member. Promotions in grade are possible, though this is ordinarily not done within five years of the initial appointment, a maximum of five honorary appointments into any of the three grades may be made by the governor general each year; as of March 2016, there have been 21 honorary appointments. There were in effect, only two ranks to the Order of Canada: Companion and the Medal of Service. There was, however a third award, the Medal of Courage, meant to recognize acts of gallantry; this latter decoration fell in rank between the other two levels, but was anomalous within the Order of Canada, being a separate award of a different nature rather than a middle grade of the order. Without having been awarded, the Medal of Courage was on 1 July 1972 replaced by the autonomous Cross of Valour and, at the same time, the levels of Officer and Member were introduced, with all existing holders of the Medal of Service created as Officers.
Lester Pearson's vision of a three-tiered structure to the order was thus fulfilled. Companions of the Order of Canada have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, on either the national or international scene. Up to 15 Companions are appointed annually, with an imposed limit of 165 living Companions at any given time, not including those appointed as extraordinary Companions or in an honorary capacity; as of August 2017, there are 146 living Companions. Since 1994, substantive members are the only regular citizens who are empowered to administer the Canadian Oath of Citizenship. Officers of the Order of Canada have demonstrated an outstanding level of talent and service to Canadians, up to 64 may be appointed each year, not including those inducted as extraordinary Officers or in an ho
The Table Talk of Samuel Marchbanks
The Table Talk of Samuel Marchbanks, published by Clarke Irwin in 1949, is the second of the Samuel Marchbanks books by Canadian novelist and journalist Robertson Davies. The other two books in this series are The Diary of Samuel Marchbanks and Samuel Marchbanks' Almanack. Davies created the Samuel Marchbanks character whilst editor of the Peterborough Examiner newspaper in the small city of Peterborough, northeast of Toronto, he wrote the first column under the Marchbanks pseudonym in 1944. The Table Talk of Samuel Marchbanks presents a number of Marchbanks' columns from 1947 and 1948, presenting them as observations purportedly made by Marchbanks during a seven-course formal dinner. Davies' writings as Samuel Marchbanks were collected in a one-volume edition, The Papers of Samuel Marchbanks in 1985