Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719. The first edition credited the work's protagonist Robinson Crusoe as its author, leading many readers to believe he was a real person and the book a travelogue of true incidents. Epistolary and didactic in form, the book is presented as an autobiography of the title character —a castaway who spends 28 years on a remote tropical desert island near Trinidad, encountering cannibals and mutineers, before being rescued; the story has been thought to be based on the life of Alexander Selkirk, a Scottish castaway who lived for four years on a Pacific island called "Más a Tierra", now part of Chile, renamed Robinson Crusoe Island in 1966. Despite its simple narrative style, Robinson Crusoe was well received in the literary world and is credited as marking the beginning of realistic fiction as a literary genre, it is seen as a contender for the first English novel. Before the end of 1719, the book had run through four editions, it has gone on to become one of the most published books in history, spawning so many imitations, not only in literature but in film and radio, that its name is used to define a genre, the Robinsonade.
Crusoe set sail from Kingston upon Hull on a sea voyage in August 1651, against the wishes of his parents, who wanted him to pursue a career in law. After a tumultuous journey where his ship is wrecked in a storm, his lust for the sea remains so strong that he sets out to sea again; this journey, ends in disaster, as the ship is taken over by Salé pirates and Crusoe is enslaved by a Moor. Two years he escapes in a boat with a boy named Xury; the ship is en route to Brazil. Crusoe sells Xury to the captain. With the captain's help, Crusoe procures a plantation. Years Crusoe joins an expedition to bring slaves from Africa, but he is shipwrecked in a storm about forty miles out to sea on an island near the mouth of the Orinoco river on 30 September 1659, he observes the latitude as 9 degrees and 22 minutes north. He sees seals on his island; as for his arrival there, only he and three animals, the captain's dog and two cats, survive the shipwreck. Overcoming his despair, he fetches arms and other supplies from the ship before it breaks apart and sinks.
He builds a fenced-in habitat near a cave. By making marks in a wooden cross, he creates a calendar. By using tools salvaged from the ship, some which he makes himself, he hunts, grows barley and rice, dries grapes to make raisins, learns to make pottery and raises goats, he adopts a small parrot. He reads the Bible and becomes religious, thanking God for his fate in which nothing is missing but human society. More years pass and Crusoe discovers native cannibals, who visit the island to kill and eat prisoners. At first he plans to kill them for committing an abomination but realizes he has no right to do so, as the cannibals do not knowingly commit a crime, he dreams of obtaining two servants by freeing some prisoners. Crusoe teaches him English and converts him to Christianity. After more natives arrive to partake in a cannibal feast and Friday kill most of the natives and save two prisoners. One is Friday's father and the other is a Spaniard, who informs Crusoe about other Spaniards shipwrecked on the mainland.
A plan is devised wherein the Spaniard would return to the mainland with Friday's father and bring back the others, build a ship, sail to a Spanish port. Before the Spaniards return, an English ship appears. Crusoe and the ship's captain strike a deal in which Crusoe helps the captain and the loyal sailors retake the ship and leave the worst mutineers on the island. Before embarking for England, Crusoe shows the mutineers how he survived on the island and states that there will be more men coming. Crusoe leaves the island 19 December 1686 and arrives in England on 11 June 1687, he learns. Crusoe departs for Lisbon to reclaim the profits of his estate in Brazil, which has granted him much wealth. In conclusion, he transports. Friday accompanies him and, en route, they endure one last adventure together as they fight off famished wolves while crossing the Pyrenees. Robinson Crusoe: The narrator of the novel who gets shipwrecked. Friday: Servant to Robinson Crusoe. Xury: Former servant to Crusoe, helps him escape Sallee.
The Widow: Friend to Robinson Crusoe. She looks over his assets. Portuguese Sea Captain: Helps save Robinson Crusoe from slavery. Is generous and close with Crusoe. Ismael: Secures Robinson Crusoe a boat for escaping Sallee; the Spaniard: helps him escape his island. Robinson Crusoe's father: A merchant named Kreutznaer. Robinson Crusoe was published in 1719 during the Enlightenment period of the 18th century. In the novel Crusoe sheds light on different aspects of his beliefs; the book can be considered a spiritual autobiography as Crusoe's views on religion drastically change from the start of his story and the end. In the beginning of the book Crusoe is concerned
British Society of Criminology is a leading international organizations aiming to further the interests and knowledge of both scholars and practitioners involved in any aspect of professional activity, research or public education related to crime, criminal behaviour and criminal justice systems in the United Kingdom and abroad. BSC is dedicated to promoting criminological research, its official, peer-reviewed, scholarly journal is called Criminology and Criminal Justice and is published through SAGE Publications. BSC has reciprocal agreements with a number of organisations, which include the following: The British Sociological Association Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology Social Policy Association Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. For members, this means they can attend the other organisations' events at reduced member rate, vice-versa; the following have served as President of the British Society of Criminology: 1986 to 1989: Roger Hood 1990 to 1993: David Farrington 1993 to 1996: Robert Reiner 1996 to 1999: Philip Bean 2000 to 2003: Keith Bottomley 2003 to 2005: Maureen Cain 2005 to 2008: Tim Newburn 2008 to 2011: Mike Hough 2011 to 2015: Loraine Gelsthorpe 2015 to present: Peter Squires The current executive comprises a range of criminologists specialising in many fields 2018, 3-6 July, Birmingham City University 2017, 4-7 July, Sheffield Hallam University 2016, 6-8 July, Nottingham 2015, 30 June- 3 July, Plymouth University 2014, 9-12 July, University of Liverpool 2013, 2-4 July, University of Wolverhampton 2012, 4–6 July, University of Portsmouth 2011, 3–6 July, Northumbria University 2010, 11–14 July, Leicester University 2009, 29 June - 1 July, Cardiff University and University of Glamorgan 2008, University of Huddersfield 2007, London School of Economics 2006, Glasgow 2005, University of Leeds 2004, University of Portsmouth 2003, Bangor University 2002, Keele University 2000, Leicester University 1999, University of Liverpool 1997, Queen's University Belfast 1995, Loughborough University 1993, Cardiff University 1991, University of York 1989, Bristol Polytechnic 1987, University of Sheffield Winners: 2009: Stanley Cohen 2010: Pat Carlen 2011: Robert Reiner 2012: Jock Young 2013: Joanna Shapland 2014: Sandra Walklate 2015: John Lea 2016: Dick Hobbs 2017: John Braithwaite 2018: Frances Heidensohn British Society of Criminology
Hits! is a compilation album by Boz Scaggs, first released in 1980. It focuses on material released in 1976 and 1980; the album has been certified platinum by the RIAA. In a retrospective review by Jason Elias for AllMusic, he criticized the album's lack of comprehensiveness the omission of "What Can I Say". Elias deemed that the release My Time: A Boz Scaggs Anthology makes Hits! Redundant. "Lowdown" – 4:27 "You Make It So Hard" – 3:32 "Miss Sun" – 5:33 "Lido Shuffle" – 3:41 "We're All Alone" – 4:11 "Breakdown Dead Ahead" – 4:01 "Look What You've Done to Me" – 5:17 "Jojo" – 4:06 "Dinah Flo" – 3:03 "You Can Have Me Anytime" – 4:56The Australian release of Hits! Replaced Track 9 "Dinah Flo" with "What Can I Say". In 2006 Hits! was re-released with additional tracks and a new cover. "What Can I Say" "Jojo" "Miss Sun" "Hard Times" "Slow Dancer" "Harbor Lights" "Dinah Flo" "Look What You've Done to Me" "Breakdown Dead Ahead" "You Make It So Hard" "It's Over" "We're All Alone" "Heart of Mine" "Lowdown" "Lido Shuffle" "Lowdown" Boz Scaggs – lead vocals David Paich – keyboards and horns arrangements Fred Tackett – guitar, guitar solo Louie Shelton – guitar David Hungate – bass Jeff Porcaro – drums Carolyn Willis – background vocals Marty McCall – background vocals Jim Gilstrap – background vocals Augie Johnson – background vocals"You Make It So Hard Boz Scaggs – lead vocals, guitar James Gadson – drums James Jamerson – bass guitar Joe Sample, Clarence McDonald – keyboards David T. Walker, Dennis Coffey, Wah Wah Watson – guitar Carolyn Willis, Julia Tillman Wate, Lorna Willard, Myrna Matthew, Pat Henderson - background vocals H.
B. Barnum - string arrangements, conductor"Miss Sun" Boz Scaggs – lead vocals Jeff Porcaro – drums, percussion David Paich – keyboards, moog bass, synthesizers Steve Lukather – guitar Steve Porcaro – synthesizers Lisa Dal Bello – vocals"Lido Shuffle" Boz Scaggs – lead vocals, guitar David Paich – keyboards, horns arrangements, synthesizers solo Jeff Porcaro – drums David Hungate – bass guitar Fred Tackett – guitar"We're All Alone" Boz Scaggs – lead vocal Jeff Porcaro – drums David Hungate – bass guitar David Paich – keyboards and horns arrangements"Breakdown Dead Ahead" Rick Marotta – drums Boz Scaggs – lead vocals, guitar David Foster – keyboards Don Grolnick – electric piano Lenny Castro – percussion David Hungate – bass Steve Lukather – guitar, guitar solo Ray Parker, Jr. – guitar Paulette Brown, Venetta Fields, Bill Thedford – background vocals"Look What You've Done To Me" David Foster – keyboards and horns arrangements Don Felder, Steve Lukather – guitar Mike Porcaro – bass guitar Jeff Porcaro – drums Glenn Frey, Don Henley, Timothy B.
Schmit, background vocals"JoJo" Boz Scaggs – lead vocals, guitar David Foster – keyboards, strings arrangements Jerry Hey – horns arrangements Ray Parker Jr. Steve Lukather – guitar John Pierce – bass guitar Jeff Porcaro – drums Lenny Castro – percussion Adrian Tapia – saxophone solo David Lasley, Sharon Redd, Charlotte Crossley – background vocals"Dinah Flo" Boz Scaggs – vocals, electric guitar Barry Beckett – piano Pete Carr – electric guitar Charles Chalmers – saxophone, background vocals Sandra Chalmers – background vocals Roger Hawkins – drums Eddie Hinton – acoustic guitar David Hood – bass guitar Clayton Ivey – organ, keyboards Jimmy Johnson – electric guitar Donna Rhodes – background vocals Muscle Shoals Horns – horns, horns arrangements"You Can Have Me Anytime" Boz Scaggs – lead vocal David Foster – piano, synthesizers David Hungate – bass Marty Paich – strings arrangements Jeff Porcaro – drums Carlos Santana – guitar soloProduction Boz Scaggs – producer Johnny Bristol – producer David Foster – producer Roy Halee – engineer, producer Joe Wissert – producer Tom Perry – engineer Al Schmitt – engineer Bill Schnee – engineer, producer Greg Venable – engineer Mike Reese – mastering Lois Walker – mastering