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RoboCop

RoboCop is a 1987 American action film directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Edward Neumeier and Michael Miner. The film stars Peter Weller, Nancy Allen, Dan O'Herlihy, Kurtwood Smith, Miguel Ferrer, Ronny Cox. Set in a crime-ridden Detroit, Michigan, in the near future, RoboCop centers on police officer Alex Murphy, murdered by a gang of criminals and subsequently revived by the megacorporation Omni Consumer Products as the superhuman cyborg law enforcer RoboCop. Themes that make up the basis of RoboCop include media influence, corruption, greed, capitalism, identity and human nature, it received positive reviews and was cited as one of the best films of 1987, spawning a franchise that included merchandise, two sequels, a television series, a remake, two animated TV series, a television mini-series, video games, a number of comic book adaptations/crossovers. In 2018 it was announced that a direct sequel to the original film titled RoboCop Returns was in the works and it would ignore the other sequels and remake, including the 1994 TV series and the TV mini-series.

RoboCop was produced for a modest $13 million. Honors for the film include five Saturn Awards, two BAFTA Award nominations and the Academy Award for Best Sound Effects Editing, along with nominations for Best Film Editing and Best Sound. In a dystopian future, Detroit is on the verge of collapse due to financial mismanagement and a high crime rate; the city signs a deal with the mega-corporation Omni Consumer Products to run Detroit's police department in exchange for letting OCP rebuild run-down sections of the city into a high-end utopia. Senior Vice President Dick Jones demonstrates a new law enforcement robot, ED-209. However, the robot malfunctions. Bob Morton, an ambitious executive, uses the opportunity to introduce his own experimental cyborg design, RoboCop; the chairman approves Morton's plan, to Jones's anger. On patrol in the violent Metro West precinct, officers Alex Murphy and Anne Lewis pursue a notorious gang after an armed robbery. Investigating their hideout, an abandoned steel mill, Murphy kills one of the gang members, but is ambushed by the leader, Clarence Boddicker.

Boddicker and his accomplices shoot Murphy with shotguns, until Boddicker shoots him through the head. Lewis arrives too late to help. Murphy dies in the trauma unit. OCP converts it into RoboCop; the cyborg is programmed with three Prime Directives: serve the public trust. RoboCop is assigned to Metro West. However, though Murphy's memory was wiped, RoboCop begins to remember scenes from Murphy's life, including his death. Lewis confirms to RoboCop, to his shock. On patrol, RoboCop foils Emil's armed robbery. RoboCop uses the police database to locate his home, now abandoned. Meanwhile, at the behest of Jones, Boddicker murders Morton. RoboCop locates Boddicker at a cocaine factory, where he kills everyone present and captures Boddicker. RoboCop brutalizes Boddicker, but before RoboCop can kill him, Boddicker reveals that he is in Jones's employ. Depositing Boddicker at Metro West, RoboCop heads to OCP Tower to arrest Jones for aiding Boddicker. However, when RoboCop attempts to arrest Jones, RoboCop unwittingly activates Directive 4, implanted by Jones himself: "Any attempt to arrest a senior officer of OCP results in shutdown".

Jones admits his culpability in Morton's death, tries to kill RoboCop with an ED-209 unit. However, RoboCop escapes to the garage. Lewis helps him escape to the abandoned steel mill to repair himself; the police, angered by OCP's underfunding and short-staffing, call a strike, Detroit descends into chaos. Jones, having freed Boddicker and his gang, provides them with heavy weapons and a tracking system for RoboCop sends them out to destroy RoboCop; the gang arrives at the steel mill. The final confrontation with Boddicker ends with RoboCop violently stabbing him in the throat with the computer data spike installed in his fist. RoboCop returns to OCP Tower, destroying the ED-209 at the door with Boddicker's weapon, he confronts Jones at a board meeting, revealing his recording of Jones' confession. Jones takes the OCP chairman, planning to escape via helicopter with him as hostage; the chairman fires Jones, making Directive 4 irrelevant. Impressed and thankful for saving his life, the chairman asks RoboCop's name.

Peter Weller as Alex Murphy / RoboCop:A police officer in old Detroit, murdered by the Boddicker gang, revived by OCP as an experimental cyborg police officerNancy Allen as Anne Lewis:A veteran police officer and Murphy's former partnerDan O'Herlihy as The Old Man:The chief executive of OCPRonny Cox as Dick Jones:The Senior President of OCPKurtwood Smith as Clarence Boddicker:A career criminal in the employ of Dick Jones, leader of the Boddicker gangMiguel Ferrer as Bob Morton:A young and ambitious OCP executive responsible for the "Robocop" projectIn addition to the main cast, Robocop features Paul McCrane as Emil Antonowsky, Ray Wise as Leon Nash, Jesse D. Goins as Joe Cox, Calvin Jung as Steve Minh, members of Boddicker's gang; the cast includes Michael Gregory as Lt. Hedgecock, Robert DoQui as Sergeant Warren Reed, Mario Machado as Casey Wong, Leeza Gibbon

Alexios IV Angelos

Alexios IV Angelos or Alexius IV Angelus was Byzantine Emperor from August 1203 to January 1204. He was the son of Emperor Isaac II Angelus and his first wife, an unknown Palaiologina, who became a nun with the name Irene, his paternal uncle was Emperor Alexius III Angelus. The young Alexios was imprisoned in 1195. In 1201, two Pisan merchants were employed to smuggle Alexius out of Constantinople to the Holy Roman Empire, where he took refuge with his brother-in-law Philip of Swabia, King of Germany. According to the contemporary account of Robert of Clari it was while Alexius was at Swabia's court that he met with Marquis Boniface of Montferrat, Philip's cousin, chosen to lead the Fourth Crusade, but had temporarily left the Crusade during the siege of Zara to visit Philip. Boniface and Alexios discussed diverting the Crusade to Constantinople so that Alexios could be restored to his father's throne. Montferrat returned to the Crusade while it wintered at Zara and he was shortly followed by Prince Alexios's envoys who offered to the Crusaders 10,000 Byzantine soldiers to help fight in the Crusade, maintain 500 knights in the Holy Land, the service of the Byzantine navy in transporting the Crusader army to Egypt, as well as money to pay off the Crusaders' debt to the Republic of Venice with 200,000 silver marks.

Additionally, he promised to bring the Greek Orthodox Church under the authority of the pope. The Venetians and most of the Leaders were in favour of the plan. In 1202 the fleet arrived at Constantinople. Alexios was paraded outside the walls, but the citizens were apathetic, as Alexios III, though a usurper and illegitimate in the eyes of the westerners, was an acceptable emperor for the Byzantine citizens. On 18 July 1203 the Crusaders launched an assault on the city, Alexios III fled into Thrace; the next morning the Crusaders were surprised to find that the citizens had released Isaac II from prison and proclaimed him emperor, despite the fact that he had been blinded to make him ineligible to rule. The Crusaders could not accept this, forced Isaac II to proclaim his son Alexios IV co-emperor on 1 August. Despite Alexios' grand promises, the more experienced and practical of the two, knew that the Crusaders' debt could never be repaid from the imperial treasury. Alexios, had not grasped how far the empire's financial resources had fallen during the previous fifty years.

Alexios did manage to raise half the sum promised, by appropriating treasures from the church and by confiscating the property of his enemies. He attempted to defeat his uncle Alexios III, who remained in control of Thrace; the sack of some Thracian towns helped Alexios' situation a little, but meanwhile hostility between the restive Crusaders and the inhabitants of Constantinople was growing. In December 1203 violence exploded between the citizens of Constantinople and the Crusaders. Enraged mobs seized and brutally murdered any foreigner they could lay hands upon, the Crusaders felt that Alexios had not fulfilled his promises to them. Alexios refused their demands, is quoted as saying, "I will not do any more than I have done." While relations with the Crusaders were deteriorating, Alexios had become unpopular with the Greek citizenry, with his own father. Blinded and nearly powerless, Isaac II resented having to share the throne with his son; the chronicler Nicetas Choniates dismissed Alexios as "childish" and criticized his familiarity with the Crusaders and his lavish lifestyle.

At the beginning of January 1204, Alexios IV retaliated against the Crusaders by setting fire to 17 ships filled with inflammable materials and sending them against the Venetian fleet, but the attempt failed. At the end of January 1204, the populace of Constantinople rebelled and tried to proclaim a rival emperor in Hagia Sophia. Alexios IV attempted to reach a reconciliation with the Crusaders, entrusting the anti-western courtier Alexios Doukas Murzuphlus with a mission to gain Crusader support. However, Alexios Doukas imprisoned both Alexios IV and his father on the night of 27–28 January 1204. Isaac II died soon afterwards of old age or from poison, Alexios IV was strangled on 8 February. Alexios Doukas was proclaimed emperor as Alexios V. During Alexios IV's brief reign, the empire lost its territories along the Black Sea coast to the Empire of Trebizond. Alexios IV is mentioned in the "Map of the Seven Knights" episode of the 5th season of the Grimm TV series, he is mentioned as a pro-Crusader.

List of Byzantine emperors Angold, The Fourth Crusade. Brand, C. M.'A Byzantine Plan for the Fourth Crusade', Speculum, 43, pp. 462–75. Harris, Jonathan and the Crusades. ISBN 978-1-78093-767-0 The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991. Phillips, The Fourth Crusade And The Sack Of Constantinople. Plate, William. "Alexios IV Angelos". In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: Little and Company. P. 131. Savignac, David. "The Medieval Russian Account of the Fourth Crusade - A New Annotated Translation"

HMS Amazon (1795)

HMS Amazon, was a 36-gun frigate, built at Rotherhithe by Wells & Co. in 1795 to a design by Sir William Rule. Carrying a main battery of 18-pounder long guns, she was the first of a class of four frigates, she spent her entire career in part of the Inshore Squadron under Sir Edward Pellew. She was wrecked in Audierne Bay in 1797, following an engagement with the French ship-of-the-line, Droits de l'Homme. Amazon was one of four 18-pound, Amazon-class frigates built to a design by William Rule, she and her sister ship, HMS Emerald, were ordered on 24 May 1794. Built to the same dimensions, they were: 143 feet 2 1⁄2 inches along the gun deck with a beam of 38 feet 4 inches and a depth in the hold of 13 feet 6 inches, they were 933 ​67⁄94 tons burthen a piece. Work began in June at Rotherhithe by Co, when the 119 feet 5 1⁄2 inches keel was laid down. Launched on 4 July 1795 Amazon was taken to Deptford. Including fitting, her construction had cost £24,681. Amazon was built to carry a main battery of twenty-six 18 pounders on her upper gun deck, eight 9 pdr on the quarter deck and two on the forecastle.

She additionally carried six on the quarter deck and two on the forecastle. When manned, she had a complement of 264. In 1795, while under the command of Captain Robert Carthew Reynolds, she was part of the Inshore Squadron under Sir Edward Pellew watching the French port of Brest to report any attempt by the French fleet to leave port. Pellew's force comprised the 44-gun ships Indefatigable and Argo, the 38-gun frigate Révolutionnaire, a second 36-gun frigate, Concorde. Cruising off Ushant, late in the afternoon of 13 April 1796, a ship was seen to windward. Pellew, ordered Révolutionnaire to sail an intercepting course while the rest of the squadron gave chase. Révolutionnaire cut off the quarry, which turned out to be the French frigate, Unité, after a brief exchange of fire, forced her to surrender. A week on 20 April, Amazon was again in pursuit of an enemy frigate. With Argo in Plymouth and Révolutionnaire on her way home with her prize, the three remaining British frigates were lying-to off The Lizard, when 40-gun Virginie was spotted.

Indefatigable, being the best sailer, was first to engage, after a 168-mile chase. When Amazon and Concorde caught up, the French ship surrendered. On 13 June, Amazon contributed to the capture of the 16-gun Betsy and the 14-gun Les Trois Couleurs off Brest. On 11 December 1796, Amazon was despatched with news that seven French ships of the line had arrived in Brest; this was part of the preparation for an invasion of Ireland. The French fleet evaded the main British blockade fleet and sailed for Bantry Bay. However, storms scattered them and most returned to France having accomplished little. In the Action of 13 January 1797, Amazon, in company with Pellew's ship Indefatigable, encountered the French ship Droits de l'Homme, a 74-gun ship of the line. Frigates would not engage a ship of the line as they would be outgunned. However, there was a heavy sea and the French ship could not open her lower deck gunports for fear of flooding; this reduced her broadside considerably. Pellew was seven miles ahead of Amazon.

An hour and a half Amazon came up and poured a broadside into the Frenchman's quarter. The two frigates attacked her from either side yawing to rake her while avoiding much of her return fire. At 4.20 am on 14 January land was sighted ahead and the frigates broke off the attack and headed in opposite directions. Amazon, going north, more damaged, was unable to wear and ran aground at Audierne Bay, Isle Bas. Three crew had been killed during the battle and six more drowned, but the rest were able to reach shore. There the French captured them; the heavy seas pounding her on the beach destroyed Amazon. The court martial on 29 September 1797 held by the Navy after the loss of any vessel, honourably acquitted Captain Reynolds and his officers of negligence in the loss of the ship. James, William; the Naval History of Great Britain, Volume I, 1793–1796. London: Richard Bentley. OCLC 634321885. James, William; the Naval History of Great Britain, Volume II, 1797–1799. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-906-9.

Winfield, Rif British Warships in the Age of Sail, 1793-1817: design, construction and fates.