Culture of Germany
German culture has spanned the entire German-speaking world. From its roots, culture in Germany has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker. There are a number of public holidays in Germany; the country is known for its traditional Oktoberfest celebrations in Munich, its carnival culture and globally influential Christmas customs known as Weihnachten. 3 October has been the national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the German Unity Day. The UNESCO inscribed 38 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List. Germany was the world's second most respected nation among 50 countries in 2013. A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognized for having the most positive influence in the world in 2011, 2013, 2014. German is the predominant spoken language in Germany, it is one of 23 official languages in the European Union, one of the three working languages of the European Commission, along with English and French.
Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian. They are protected by the ECRML; the most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Polish, the Balkan languages, Russian. Standard German is a West Germanic language and is related to and classified alongside English and the Frisian languages. To a lesser extent, it is related to the East and North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Significant minorities of words are derived from Latin and Greek, with a smaller amount from French and most English. German is written using the Latin alphabet. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has three vowels with Umlaut, namely ä, ö, ü, as well as the Eszett or scharfes S, written "ß". German orthography has gone through a series of reforms, the most recent in 1996. German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. German dialects are traditional local varieties and can be traced back to the different German tribes.
Many of them are not understandable to a speaker of standard German, since they differ in lexicon and syntax. Around the world, German has 100 million native speakers and about 80 million non-native speakers. German is the main language of about 90 million people in the EU. 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language, 27% in at least two languages other than their first. In the German diaspora, aspects of German culture are passed on to younger generations through naming customs and through the use of spoken and written German; the Goethe Institute seeks the spread the knowledge of German culture worldwide. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages, with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach; the Nibelungenlied, whose author remains unknown, is an important work of the epoch, as is the Thidrekssaga. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.
Theologian Luther, who translated the Bible into German, is credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language. Among the most admired German poets and authors are Lessing, Schiller, Hoffmann, Brecht and Schmidt. Nine Germans have won the Nobel Prize in literature: Theodor Mommsen, Paul von Heyse, Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Nelly Sachs, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll, Günter Grass, Herta Müller; the rise of the modern natural sciences and the related decline of religion raised a series of questions, which recur throughout German philosophy, concerning the relationships between knowledge and faith and emotion, scientific and artistic ways of seeing the world. German philosophers have helped shape western philosophy from as early as the Middle Ages. Leibniz and most Kant played central roles in the history of philosophy. Kantianism inspired the work of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche as well as German idealism defended by Fichte and Hegel. Marx and Engels developed communist theory in the second half of the 19th century while Heidegger and Gadamer pursued the tradition of German philosophy in the 20th century.
A number of German intellectuals were influential in sociology, most notably Adorno, Habermas, Luhmann, Simmel, Tönnies, Weber. The University of Berlin founded in 1810 by linguist and philosopher Wilhelm von Humboldt served as an influential model for a number of modern western universities. In the 21st century Germany has been an important country for the development of contemporary analytic philosophy in continental Europe, along with France, Austria and the Scandinavian countries. In the field of music, Germany claims some of the most renowned classical composers of the world, including Bach and Beethoven, who marked the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music. Germans developed many Lutheran chorales and hymns. Other composers of the Austro-German tradition who achieved international fame include Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Wagner, Schubert, Händel, Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Johann Strauss II, Mahler, Richard Strauss, Schoenberg and most Henze and Stockhausen.
Germany is the largest music market in Europe, third largest in the world. It has exerted a strong influence on techno
Canadian Confederation was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867. Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Quebec. Over the years since Confederation, Canada has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current union of ten provinces and three territories. Canada is a federation and not a confederate association of sovereign states, which "confederation" means in contemporary political theory, it is often considered to be among the world's more decentralized federations. The use of the term Confederation arose in the Province of Canada to refer to proposals beginning in the 1850s to federate all of the British North American colonies, as opposed to only Canada West and Canada East. To contemporaries of Confederation the con- prefix indicated a strengthening of the centrist principle compared to the American federation. In this Canadian context, confederation here describes the political process that united the colonies in the 1860s, related events and the subsequent incorporation of other colonies and territories.
The term is now used to describe Canada in an abstract way, such as in "the Fathers of Confederation". Provinces and territories that became part of Canada after 1867 are said to have joined, or entered into, confederation; the term is used to divide Canadian history into pre-Confederation and post-Confederation periods. All the former colonies and territories that became involved in the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, were part of New France, were once ruled by France. Nova Scotia was granted in 1621 to Sir William Alexander under charter by James VI; this claim overlapped the French claims to Acadia, although the Scottish colony of Nova Scotia was short-lived, for political reasons, the conflicting imperial interests of France and the 18th century Great Britain led to a long and bitter struggle for control. The British acquired present-day mainland Nova Scotia by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 and the Acadian population was expelled by the British in 1755, they called Acadia Nova Scotia.
The rest of New France was acquired by the British by the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. From 1763 to 1791, most of New France became the Province of Quebec. However, in 1769 the present-day Prince Edward Island, part of Acadia, was renamed "St John's Island" and organized as a separate colony, it was renamed "Prince Edward Island" in 1798 in honour of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. The first English attempt at settlement had been in Newfoundland, which would not join Confederation until 1949; the Society of Merchant Venturers of Bristol began to settle Newfoundland and Labrador at Cuper's Cove as far back as 1610, Newfoundland had been the subject of a French colonial enterprise. In the wake of the American Revolution, an estimated 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America; the British created the separate colony of New Brunswick in 1784 for the Loyalists who settled in the western part of Nova Scotia. While Nova Scotia received more than half of this influx, many Loyalists settled in the Province of Quebec, which by the Constitutional Act of 1791 was separated into a predominantly English Upper Canada and a predominantly French Lower Canada.
The War of 1812 and Treaty of 1818 established the 49th parallel as the border with the United States from the Great Lakes to the Rocky Mountains in Western Canada. Following the Rebellions of 1837, Lord Durham in his Durham Report, recommended Upper and Lower Canada be joined as the Province of Canada and the new province should have a responsible government; as a result of Durham's report, the British Parliament passed the Act of Union 1840, the Province of Canada was formed in 1841. The new province was divided into two parts: Canada East. Governor General Lord Elgin granted ministerial responsibility in 1848, first to Nova Scotia and to Canada. In the following years, the British would extend responsible government to Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland; the area which constitutes modern-day British Columbia is the remnants of the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia District and New Caledonia District following the Oregon Treaty. Before joining Canada in 1871, British Columbia consisted of the separate Colony of British Columbia, the Colony of Vancouver Island constituting a separate crown colony until it was united with the colony of British Columbia in 1866.
The remainder of modern-day Canada was made up of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and the Arctic Islands, which were under direct British control and became a part of Canada in 1880. The idea of unification was presented in 1839 by Lord Durham in his Report on the Affairs of British North America, which resulted in the Union of Upper and Lower Canada. Beginning in 1857, Joseph-Charles Taché proposed a federation in a series of 33 articles published in the Courrier du Canada. In 1859, Alexander Tilloch Galt, George-Étienne Cartier and John Ross travelled to Great Britain to present the British Parliament with a project for confederation of the British colonies; the proposal was received by the Lond
Georgia Street is an east–west street in the cities of Vancouver and Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. Its section in Downtown Vancouver, designated West Georgia Street, serves as one of the primary streets for the financial and central business districts, is the major transportation corridor connecting downtown Vancouver with the North Shore by way of the Lions Gate Bridge; the remainder of the street, known as East Georgia Street between Main Street and Boundary Road and Georgia Street within Burnaby, is more residential in character, is discontinuous at several points. West of Seymour Street, the thoroughfare is part of Highway 99; the entire section west of Main Street was designated part of Highway 1A, markers for the'1A' designation can still be seen at certain points. Starting from its western terminus at Chilco Street by the edge of Stanley Park, Georgia Street runs southeast, separating the West End from the Coal Harbour neighbourhood, it runs through the Financial District. The eastern portion of West Georgia features the Theatre District, Library Square, Rogers Arena, BC Place.
West Georgia's centre lane between Pender Street and Stanley Park is used as a counterflow lane. East of Cambie Street, Georgia Street becomes a one-way street for eastbound traffic, connects to the Georgia Viaduct for eastbound travellers only. East Georgia Street begins at the intersection with Main Street in Vancouver's Chinatown runs eastwards through Strathcona, Grandview–Woodland and Hastings–Sunrise to Boundary Road. East of the municipal boundary, Georgia Street continues eastwards through Burnaby until its terminus at Grove Avenue in the Lochdale neighbourhood; this portion of Georgia Street is interrupted at several locations, such as Templeton Secondary School, Highway 1 and Kensington Park. Georgia Street was named in 1886 after the Strait of Georgia, ran between Chilco and Beatty Streets. After the first Georgia Viaduct opened in 1915, the street's eastern end was connected to Harris Street, Harris Street was subsequently renamed East Georgia Street; the second Georgia Viaduct, opened in 1972, connects to Prior Street at its eastern end instead.
As a result, East Georgia Street has been disconnected from West Georgia since. On June 15, 2011 Georgia Street became the focal point of the 2011 Vancouver Stanley Cup riot
Stanley Park is a 405-hectare public park that borders the downtown of Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada and is entirely surrounded by waters of Vancouver Harbour and English Bay. The park was one of the first areas to be explored in the city; the land was used by Indigenous peoples for thousands of years before British Columbia was colonized by the British during the 1858 Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. For many years after colonization, the future park with its abundant resources would be home to Non-Indigenous settlers; the land was turned into Vancouver's first park when the city incorporated in 1886. It was named after Lord Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, a British politician, appointed Governor General. Unlike other large urban parks, Stanley Park is not the creation of a landscape architect, but rather the evolution of a forest and urban space over many years. Most of the manmade structures present in the park were built between 1911 and 1937 under the influence of superintendent W. S. Rawlings.
Additional attractions, such as a polar bear exhibit and miniature train, were added in the post-war period. Much of the park remains as densely forested as it was in the late 1800s, with about a half million trees, some of which stand as tall as 76 metres and are hundreds of years old. Thousands of trees were lost after three major windstorms that took place in the past 100 years, the last in 2006. Significant effort was put into constructing the near-century-old Vancouver Seawall, which can draw thousands of people to the park in the summer; the park features forest trails, lakes, children's play areas, the Vancouver Aquarium, among many other attractions. On June 18, 2014, Stanley Park was named "top park in the entire world" by TripAdvisor, based on reviews submitted. Archaeological evidence suggests a human presence in the park dating back more than 3,000 years; the area is the traditional territory of different coastal indigenous peoples. From the Burrard Inlet and Howe Sound regions, Squamish Nation had a large village in the park.
From the lower Fraser River area, Musqueam Nation used its natural resources. Where Lumberman's Arch is now, there once was a large village called Whoi Whoi, or Xwayxway meaning place of masks. One longhouse, built from cedar poles and slabs, was measured at 200 feet long by 60 feet wide; these houses were occupied by large extended families living in different quadrants of the house. The larger houses were used for ceremonial potlatchs where a host would invite guests to witness and participate in ceremonies and the giving away of property. Another settlement was further west along the same shore; this place was called meaning high bank. The site of Chaythoos is noted on a brass plaque placed on the lowlands east of Prospect Point commemorating the park's centennial. Both sites were occupied in 1888, when some residents were forcefully removed to allow a road to be constructed around the park, their midden was used for construction material; the popular landmark Siwash Rock, located near present-day Third Beach, was once called Slahkayulsh meaning he is standing up.
In the oral history, a fisherman was transformed into this rock by three powerful brothers as punishment for his immorality. In 2010, the chief of the Squamish Nation proposed renaming Stanley Park as Xwayxway Park after the large village once located in the area; the first European explorations of the peninsula occurred with Spanish Captain José María Narváez and British Captain George Vancouver. In A Voyage of Discovery, Vancouver describes the area as “an island... with a smaller island Deadman's Island lying before it,” suggesting that it was surrounded by water, at least at high tide. Captain Vancouver wrote about meeting the people living there:Here we were met by about fifty in canoes, who conducted themselves with great decorum and civility, presenting us with several fish cooked and undressed of a sort resembling smelt; these good people, finding we were inclined to make some return for their hospitality, showed much understanding in preferring iron to copper. According to historians, the natives first saw Captain Vancouver's ship from Chaythoos, a location in the future park that in today's terms lay just east of the Lions Gate Bridge.
Speaking about this event in a conversation with archivist Major Matthews, Andy Paull, whose family lived in the area, confirms the account given by Captain Vancouver:As Vancouver came through the First Narrows, the in their canoes threw these feathers in great handfuls before him. They would of course rise in the air, drift along, fall to the surface of the water, where they would rest for quite a time, it must have been a pretty scene, duly impressed Captain Vancouver, for he speaks most of the reception he was accorded. No significant contact with inhabitants in the area was recorded for decades, until around the time of the Crimean War. British admirals arranged with Chief Joe Capilano that if there was an invasion, the British would defend the south shore of Burrard Inlet and the Squamish would defend the north; the British gave his men 60 muskets. Although the attack anticipated by the British never came, the guns were used by the Squamish to repel an attack by an indigenous raid from the Euclataws.
Stanley Park was not attacked, but this was when it started to be thought of as a strategic military position. The peninsula was a popular place for gathering traditional food and materials in the 1800s, but it started to see more activity after the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush in 1858
Yorkville is a neighbourhood and former village in Toronto, Canada. It is bounded by Bloor Street to the south, Davenport Road to the north, Yonge Street to the east and Avenue Road to the west, is considered part of "The Annex" neighbourhood officially. Established as a separate village in 1830, it was annexed into Toronto in 1883. Yorkville is diverse, comprising residential areas, office space, an array of shopping options. Within the Yorkville district is one of Canada's most exclusive shopping districts, anchored by the Mink Mile along Bloor Street. In 2006, Mink Mile was the 22nd most expensive street in the world, with rents of $208 per square foot. Yorkville had rents of $300 per square foot in 2008, making it the third most expensive retail space in North America. In 2008, the Mink Mile was named the seventh most expensive shopping street in the world by Fortune Magazine, claiming tenants can pull in $1,500 to $4,500 per square foot in sales. Founded in 1830 by entrepreneur Joseph Bloore and William Botsford Jarvis of Rosedale, the Village of Yorkville began as a residential suburb.
Bloore operated a brewery north-east of today's Church Street intersection. Jarvis was Sheriff of the Home District; the two purchased land in the Yorkville district, subdividing it into smaller lots on new side streets to those interested in living in the cleaner air outside of York. The political centre of Yorkville was the Red Lion Hotel, an inn, used as the polling place for elections, it is here that William Lyon Mackenzie was voted back into the Legislature for 1832 and a huge procession took him down Yonge Street. The village grew enough to be connected by an omnibus service in 1849 to Toronto. By 1853, the population of the village had reached 1,000, the figure needed to incorporate as a village and the Village of Yorkville was incorporated. Development increased and by the 1870s, Potter's Field, a cemetery stretching east of Yonge Street along the north side of Concession Road was closed, the remains moved to the Necropolis and Mount Pleasant cemetery. By the 1880s, the cost of delivering services to the large population of Yorkville was beyond the Village's ability.
It petitioned the Toronto government to be annexed. Annexation came on February 1, 1883, Yorkville's name changed from "Village of Yorkville" to "St. Paul's Ward" and the former "Yorkville Town Hall" became "St. Paul's Hall"; the character of the suburb did not change and its Victorian styled homes, quiet residential streets, picturesque gardens survived into the 20th century. In 1923, Toronto Hebrew Maternity and Convalescent Hospital was opened at 100 Yorkville Avenue and a year the name was changed to Mount Sinai Hospital; the facade of this building still stands housed retailer Chanel. In the 1960s, Yorkville flourished as Toronto's bohemian cultural centre, it was the breeding ground for some of Canada's most noted musical talents, including Joni Mitchell, Neil Young and Gordon Lightfoot, as well as then-underground literary figures such as Margaret Atwood, Gwendolyn MacEwen and Dennis Lee. Yorkville was known as the Canadian capital of the hippie movement. In 1968, nearby Rochdale College at the University of Toronto was opened on Bloor Street as an experiment in counterculture education.
Those influenced by their time in 1960s-70s Yorkville include cyberpunk writer William Gibson. Its domination by hippies and young people led MPP Syl Apps to refer to it as "a festering sore in the middle of the city" and call for its "eradication." Joni Mitchell captured a colorful impression of the nightlife scene on Yorkville Avenue in her song Night in the City. After the construction of the Bloor-Danforth subway, the value of land nearby increased as higher densities were allowed by the City's official plan. Along Bloor Street, office towers, the Bay department store and the Holt Renfrew department store displaced the local retail; as real estate values increased, the residential homes north of Bloor along Yorkville were converted into high-end retail, including many art galleries, fashion boutiques and antique stores, popular bars and eateries along Cumberland Street and Yorkville Avenue. Many smaller buildings were demolished and office and hotels built in the 1970s, with high-priced condominium developments being built in subsequent decades.
Along Bloor Street is located the "Mink Mile" shopping district. The street is lined on both sides of the street with office buildings with retail stores in the bottom one or two floors; the main streets of Avenue Road and Bay Street north of Bloor are developed. North of Bloor, on Yorkville and Cumberland streets, between the main arteries, the character changes to smaller buildings containing art galleries, first-floor retail and restaurants. Further north still are single-family detached and semi-detached homes dating to the 19th century. Yorkville has upscale shopping and the first five star hotel in Canada. Upscale boutiques include Burberry, Gucci, MAC Cosmetics, Hugo Boss, Hermès, Louis Vuitton, Holt Renfrew, Tiffany & Co. Escada, Ermenegildo Zegna, Harry Rosen, Calvin Klein, Cole Haan, Vera Wang, Ferrari, Williams-Sonoma and Olufsen, Betsey Johnson, Max Mara, Bulgari, Coach, Guerlain and others; the Holt Renfrew store on Bloor is the luxury retailer's flagship and largest store with four floors and boutiques.
Many flagships of other companies are located here as well, such as Harry Rosen, Town Shoes, Gucci and Chanel Browns Shoes opened on Bloor, with merchandise, much more expens
Downtown Vancouver is the southeastern portion of the peninsula in the north-central part of the City of Vancouver. It is the main city centre and central business district of the city, Metro Vancouver, the Lower Mainland regions; the downtown area is considered to be bounded by Burrard Inlet to the north, Stanley Park and the West End to the west, False Creek to the south, the Downtown Eastside to the east. Most sources include the full downtown peninsula as downtown Vancouver, but the City of Vancouver defines them as separate neighbourhoods. Besides the identifiable office towers of the financial and central business districts, Downtown Vancouver includes residential neighbourhoods in the form of high-rise apartment and condominiums, in Yaletown and Coal Harbour. Other downtown neighbourhoods include the Granville Mall and Entertainment District, Downtown's South, Gastown and Chinatown; the downtown area includes most of the remaining historic buildings and many of the larger notable buildings in the region.
There are two major sporting facilities in Rogers Arena and BC Place Stadium. The NHL's Vancouver Canucks play at Rogers Arena, while the CFL's BC Lions and the MLS's Vancouver Whitecaps FC use the neighbouring BC Place Stadium. SkyTrain Stadium-Chinatown station provides easy rapid transit access to the district; the presence of water on three sides limits access to downtown Vancouver. There are four major bridges: the Lions Gate Bridge, connecting to the North Shore municipalities and the Trans Canada Highway, the Burrard Street Bridge, Cambie Street Bridge, Granville Street Bridge provides access to the commercial and residential areas south of False Creek; the historic Waterfront station is the principal transit hub for the downtown core. There are six subway stations located in downtown Vancouver running on two SkyTrain lines: the Expo Line and Canada Line; the Expo Line travels from Waterfront station at the foot of the central harbor and through Dunsmuir Tunnel to the east. The Canada Line travels from Waterfront station and tunnels south under Granville Street and Davie Street, linking downtown to central Richmond and Vancouver International Airport.
SeaBus is a passenger-only ferry that connects from Waterfront station to the North Shore in 10–12 minutes. The West Coast Express commuter rail system travels from Waterfront station to the eastern suburbs and exurbs. Terminals are available near Waterfront station for float planes and helicopters. Most north-south Vancouver bus routes serve Downtown Vancouver, in addition to suburban routes from the North Shore and Burnaby; the bus rapid transit line 98 B-Line had eight stops in the downtown core along Seymour Street and Burrard Street. This service was replaced on August 2009 by SkyTrain's Canada Line; the 95 B-Line started service in December 2016 in conjunction with the opening of the Evergreen Extension, connecting downtown to Simon Fraser University along Hastings Street. There are two private passenger water taxi operators, providing service between several downtown neighbourhoods, False Creek, Granville Island; the city is planning to extend the downtown streetcar from its current route of Granville Island to the Main Street SkyTrain station, with future plans extending it to Chinatown and to Stanley Park.
City of Vancouver Community Profiles: Downtown Downtown page, Vancouver Then and Now website, comparisons of old photos with modern locations
Mink Mile is an upscale shopping district in the neighbourhood of Yorkville in Toronto, Canada, along Bloor Street between Yonge Street and Avenue Road. Mink Mile commands an average rent of $310 per square foot, making it the most expensive place in Canada to lease retail space and the third most expensive retail space in North America; this stretch of Bloor was named in 2008 the seventh most expensive shopping street in the world by Fortune Magazine, claiming tenants can make $1,500 to $4,500 per square foot in sales. The Mink Mile has been recognized as one of the most luxurious shopping streets in North America, being compared to New York's Fifth Avenue, Chicago's Magnificent Mile, Los Angeles' Rodeo Drive. Demand remained high on the Mink Mile, according to real estate firm and Wakefield. In 2005, retail space rents were $110 per square foot; the 2010 Cushman and Wakefield report indicate rents of $198 per square foot, while the Q407 Toronto Retail Report in 2010 mentions deals reaching $300 per square foot, making the Mink Mile the third most expensive retail street in North America.
This has led to higher rents on nearby Cumberland St. and Yorkville Ave. with several new developments asking $125 per square foot. Expensive Indian fashion boutique INDIVA, which moved to a smaller boutique on Yorkville Ave. claims that the monthly rent at their previous location was $85,000. Many independent retailers struggle to meet these demands, many in past years have closed or relocated to other streets. However, it is estimated. In recent years, mid-market retailers have begun to locate along the Mink Mile. In 2005, Winners and La Senza opened stores followed by Club Monaco, J. Crew, Banana Republic, French Connection, Aldo, American Apparel, Roots Canada Ltd, Nike, Roots, Sephora, Gap and H&M. Discount retailer, Labels 4 Less opened their own store, to the disappointment of many of its neighbours. Begun in 2008, the Bloor-Yorkville Business Improvement Area and the City of Toronto updated the streetscape from Church Street to Avenue Road, creating an enhanced pedestrian experience with widened sidewalks, mature trees, flower gardens, modern lighting and public art.
The project was completed in 2013. Several international luxury retailers have shops in the area including Hermès, Louis Vuitton, Prada, Hugo Boss, Cartier, Dolce & Gabbana, Cole Haan, Porsche Design, Tiffany & Co. Coach, Victorinox Swiss Army and a 50,000 square foot Harry Rosen flagship. Holt Renfrew has its flagship department store on 50 Bloor Street and a Men's store at 100 Bloor Street. There are other midrange and upscale stores, such as Max Mara, Moncler, J. Crew, Banana Republic, Brooks Brothers, The Gap, Roots Canada, Sephora, H&M, Club Monaco. Cumberland Terrace Manulife Centre Hudson's Bay Centre Holt Renfrew Centre Robson Street