Rochester, New York

Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York and the seat of Monroe County. With a population of 208,046, Rochester is the third most populous city in New York state, after New York City and Buffalo; the metropolitan area has a population of just over one million people. It is about 73 miles east of Buffalo and 87 miles west of Syracuse. Rochester was one of the United States' first boom towns due to the fertile Genesee River Valley, which gave rise to numerous flour mills, as a manufacturing hub. Several of the region's universities have renowned research programs; the area is the birthplace of Kodak, Western Union, French's, Bausch & Lomb, Ragú and Xerox, which conduct extensive research and manufacturing of industrial and consumer products. Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, after the New York City metropolitan area. Rochester's GMP has since ranked just while exceeding it in per-capita income.

In 2007, the 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester the "most livable city" among 379 U. S. metropolitan areas. In 2010 Forbes rated Rochester the third-best place to raise a family in the United States. In 2012 Kiplinger rated Rochester the fifth-best city in the United States for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, a low unemployment rate. Rochester is a global city with sufficiency status; the Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in and around Rochester until losing claim to most of this land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797. Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown. Rochester's development followed the American Revolution, forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after Britain's defeat. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced out of New York; as a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River in Canada. Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England who were looking for new agricultural land.

They were the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century. On November 8, 1803, Colonel Nathaniel Rochester, Major Charles Carroll, Colonel William Fitzhugh, Jr. all of Hagerstown, purchased a 100-acre tract from the state in Western New York along the Genesee River. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power. Beginning in 1811, with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville. By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County. In 1823, it consisted of 1,012 acres and 2,500 residents, the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester. In 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened. In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle.

By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200 and in 1834 it was rechartered as a city. Rochester was first known as "the Young Lion of the West", as the "Flour City". By 1838, it was the largest flour-producing city in the United States. Having doubled its population in only 10 years, Rochester became America's first "boom town". In 1830–31, Rochester experienced one of the nation's biggest Protestant revivalist movements, led by Charles Grandison Finney; the revival inspired other revivals of the Second Great Awakening. A leading pastor in New York, converted in the Rochester meetings gave the following account of Finney's meetings there: "The whole community was stirred. Religion was the topic of conversation in the house, in the office and on the street; the only theater in the city was converted into a livery stable. Grog shops were closed. Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of, started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland. In 1847, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist newspaper The North Star in Rochester.

A former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, he gained a circulation of over 4,000 readers in the United States and the Caribbean. The North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views; the Douglass home burnt down in 1872. Susan B. Anthony, a national leader of the women's suffrage movement, was from Rochester; the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed the right of women to vote in 1920, was known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment because of her work toward its passage, which she did not live to see. Anthony's home is a National Historic Landmark known as the National Susan B. Anthony Museum and House. At the end of the 19th century, anarchist Emma Goldman lived and worked in Rochester for several years, championing the cause of labor in Rochester sweatshops. Rochester saw si


Beatlemania was the intense fan frenzy surrounding the English band the Beatles in the 1960s. The group's popularity grew in the United Kingdom throughout 1963, propelled by the singles "Please Please Me", "From Me to You" and "She Loves You". By October, the press adopted the term "Beatlemania" to describe the scenes of adulation that attended the band's concert performances. From the start of 1964, their worldwide tours were characterised by intense levels of hysteria and high-pitched screaming by female fans, both at concerts and during the group's travels. In February 1964, the Beatles arrived in the United States and their televised performances on The Ed Sullivan Show were viewed by 73 million people, it established the Beatles' international stature, changed attitudes to popular music in the US and sparked the British Invasion phenomenon. As in Britain and other countries, the Beatles dominated the national sales charts at an unprecedented level. In 1965, their concert at New York's Shea Stadium marked the first time that a large outdoor stadium had been used for such a purpose.

The event attracted an audience of 55,000, the largest of any live concert that the Beatles performed. By 1966, John Lennon controversially remarked that the group were "more popular than Jesus now". Soon after, the Beatles' travels were further entangled by mob revolt, political backlash and threats of assassination, as well as more extreme displays of deity-like worship, they were so overwhelmed that they became a studio-only band. Although commentators speculated that the move would lead to a decline in popularity, their 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band revolutionised the music industry. By the Beatlemania phenomenon had subsided, though the group maintained a loyal following and commanded much cultural influence throughout the remainder of their career and in the decades since; the Beatles are regarded as the most influential band of all time. Their fans were predominately young adolescent females, sometimes called "teenyboppers", but came to include listeners who traditionally shunned youth-driven pop culture, which helped bridge divisions between folk and rock enthusiasts.

In succeeding decades, the receptions of other acts – boy bands – have drawn comparisons to Beatlemania. None, have replicated the breadth and depth of the Beatles' fandom. From 1963, the Beatles provided one of the first opportunities for female teenagers in Britain to exhibit spending power and publicly express sexual desire, while the group's image suggested a disregard for adults' opinions and parents' ideas of morality. In the description of author and musician Bob Stanley, the band's domestic breakthrough represented a "final liberation" for the nation's teenagers and, by coinciding with the end of National Service, the group "effectively signaled the end of World War II in Britain". During the 1840s, fans of Hungarian pianist and composer Franz Liszt showed a level of fanaticism similar to that of the Beatles. Poet Heinrich Heine coined "Lisztomania" to describe this. Once it became an international phenomenon in 1964, Beatlemania surpassed in intensity and reach any previous examples of fan worship, including those afforded Elvis Presley and Frank Sinatra.

One factor in this development may have been the post–World War II baby boom, which gave the Beatles a larger audience of young fans than Sinatra and Presley had a decade earlier. In their 1986 book Re-making Love: The Feminization of Sex, authors Barbara Ehrenreich, Elizabeth Hess and Gloria Jacobs argued that the Beatles' famous moptop haircuts signalled androgyny and thus presented a less threatening version of male sexuality to teenage girls, while their presentable suits meant that they seemed less "sleazy" than Presley to middle-class whites. According to author Peter Doggett, psychologists during the 1960s were drawn to the significance of the long hair preferred by the Beatles and the bands that emerged soon after their breakthrough: Did this give the group a glow of femininity which made them less threatening to pubescent or prepubescent girls? Did their flowing locks allow their male fans to view them with the same mixture of lust and longing that they would have harboured for young women?

Were the hirsute groups expressing their own latent homosexuality? Or, in contrast, so confident a grasp of their own heterosexuality that they could afford to disguise it behind the veneer of androgyny? Were both musicians and fans locked into a mutual display of narcissism, concealing a vacuum of self-doubt? Such intriguing debates preoccupied academics for years to come, as if teenagers and their idols were aliens beyond our ken. In February 1964, Paul Johnson wrote an article in the New Statesman which stated that the mania was a modern incarnation of female hysteria and that the wild fans at the Beatles' concerts were "the least fortunate of their generation, the dull, the idle, the failures"; the article became the "most complained-about piece" in the magazine's history. A 1966 study published in the British Journal of Clinical Psychology rejected Johnson's assertion. Instead, they described Beatlemania as "the passing reaction of predominantly young adolescent females to group pressures of such a kind that meet their special emotional needs".

With the success of their second single "Please Please Me", the Beatles found themselves in demand for the whole of 1963. In the UK, the song reached number two on the Record Retailer chart, topped both the NME and Melody Maker charts; the band released their first album in Marc

Purbeck miniature railway

Purbeck Miniature Railway is a 7 1⁄4 in gauge miniature railway, located at The Purbeck School near Wareham, England. Construction started in the late 1980s in co-operation with the Weymouth & District Society of Model Engineers and has closed due to building works on The Purbeck School; the line runs from a passenger station at Monument, around the main playground, before crossing a bridge and passing through a tunnel to reach the second station where the main sheds are located. The line is 250 metres long; the line built its own rolling stock over the years, inspired by Heywood designs. There was a range of wagons for maintenance purposes including a ballast hopper, weedkiller tank, guards vans and open wagons; the passenger stock varied from enclosed 4 wheel coaches to open sit astride trolleys. Petrol and electric locomotives Steam locomotives There was a signal box at Purbeck South which controlled the points and semaphore signals, allowing more than one train to operate at once. At Monument there was a simple arrangement of two platforms and a turntable, operated by the guard, shunter or driver.

The line used to give rides to the public at car boot events, which were held on the first Sunday of each month. The railway is no longer in operation; the line runs its own club for young people run by a former Purbeck school teacher. Public are welcome to come along and look and ride on the railway at the meetings or on special occasions and open days