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Rock-climbing equipment

A wide range of equipment is used during rock or any other type of climbing that includes equipment used to protect a climber against the consequences of a fall. See the Glossary of climbing terms for more equipment descriptions. Climbing ropes are of kernmantle construction, consisting of a core of long twisted fibres and an outer sheath of woven coloured fibres; the core provides about 80% of the tensile strength, while the sheath is a durable layer that protects the core and gives the rope desirable handling characteristics. Ropes used for climbing can be divided into two classes: low elongation ropes. Dynamic ropes are designed to absorb the energy of a falling climber, are used as belaying ropes; when a climber falls, the rope stretches, reducing the maximum force experienced by the climber, their belayer, equipment. Low elongation ropes stretch much less, are used in anchoring systems, they are used for abseiling and as fixed ropes climbed with ascenders. Modern webbing or "tape" is made of a combination of the two.

Climbing-specific nylon webbing is tubular webbing, that is, it is a tube of nylon pressed flat. It is strong rated in excess of 9 kN. Dyneema is stronger rated above 20 kN and as high as 27 kN. In 2010, UK-based DMM performed fall factor 1 and 2 tests on various Dyneema and Nylon webbings, showing Dyneema slings can fail under 60 cm falls. Tying knots in Dyneema webbing was proven to have reduced the total amount of supported force by as much as half; when webbing is sewn or tied together at the ends, it becomes a sling or runner, if you clip a carabiner to each end of the sling, you have a quickdraw. These loops are made one of two ways—sewn or tied. Both ways of forming runners have advantages and drawbacks, it is for the individual climber to choose which to use. Speaking, most climbers carry a few of both types, it is important to note that only nylon can be safely knotted into a runner, Dyneema is always sewn because the fibers are too slippery to hold a knot under weight. Webbing has many uses such as: Extending the distance between a tie-in point.

An anchor around a tree or rock. An anchor extension or equalization. Makeshift harnesses. Carrying equipment. Protecting a rope that hangs over a sharp edge. Carabiners are metal loops with spring-loaded gates, used as connectors. Once made from steel all carabiners for recreational climbing are now made from a light weight aluminum alloy. Steel carabiners are much heavier, but harder wearing, therefore are used by instructors when working with groups. Carabiners exist in various forms. There are two major varieties: non-locking carabiners. Locking carabiners offer a method of preventing the gate from opening when in use. Locking carabiners are used for important connections, such as at the anchor point or a belay device. There are several different types of locking carabiners, including a thread-lock. Twist-lock carabiners are referred to as "auto-locking carabiners" due to their spring-loaded locking mechanism. Non-locking carabiners are found as a component of quickdraws. Carabiners are made with many different types of gates including wire-gate, bent-gate, straight-gate.

The different gates uses. Most locking carabiners utilize a straight-gate. Bent-gate and wire-gate carabiners are found on the rope-end of quickdraws, as they facilitate easier rope clipping than straight-gate carabiners. Carabiners are known by many slang names including biner or Krab; the first climber who used a carabiner for climbing was German climber Otto Herzog. The Maillon performs a similar function to a carabiner but instead of a hinge, it has an internally threaded sleeve engaging with threads on each end of the link, is available in various shapes and sizes, they are strong but more difficult to open, either deliberately or accidentally, so are used for links which do not need to be released during normal use, such as the center of a harness. Quickdraws are used by climbers to connect ropes to bolt anchors, or to other traditional protection, allowing the rope to move through the anchoring system with minimal friction. A quickdraw consists of two non-locking carabiners connected together by a short, pre-sewn loop of webbing.

Alternatively, quite the pre-sewn webbing is replaced by a sling of the above-mentioned dyneema/nylon webbing. This is of a 60 cm loop and can be tripled over between the carabiners to form a 20 cm loop; when more length is needed the sling can be turned back into a 60 cm loop offering more versatility than a pre-sewn loop. Carabiners used for clipping into the protection have a straight gate, decreasing the possibility of the carabiner accidentally unclipping from the protection; the carabiner into which the rope is clipped has a bent gate, so that clipping the rope into this carabiner can be done and easily. Quickdraws are frequently used in indoor lead climbing; the quickdraw may be pre-attached to the wall. When a climber ascends the wall, he must clip the rope through the quickdraw in order to maintain safety; the safest and most effective place to clip into a quickdraw is when it is at waist height. A harness is a system use

Rufus Lenoir Patterson

Rufus Lenoir Patterson was an American businessman and politician from North Carolina. Born into a prominent family, Patterson received private schooling before matriculating at the University of North Carolina. Electing to forgo a career in law, Patterson studied in a banking house and founded a series of mills in Salem, North Carolina, he was elected to a term as Mayor of Salem. Patterson was twice a delegate to state constitutional conventions, he was the father of Rufus Lenoir Patterson Jr. Rufus Lenoir Patterson was born in Caldwell County, North Carolina on June 22, 1830, to a prominent family, he was the eldest son of Samuel F. Patterson, a politician, a North Carolina State Treasurer, the great-grandson of Revolutionary War officer William Lenoir. A younger brother, Samuel L. Patterson, was a North Carolina Commissioner of Agriculture. Patterson split time in his youth at Caldwell County and Raleigh, North Carolina, where his father worked, he attended the Raleigh Academy schooled under Episcopal minister T. S. W. Mott.

Patterson graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1851 studied law under future U. S. Representative John Adams Gilmer. However, he found the study of law unappealing and, after a brief period farming at the family homestead, decided to pursue a career in business, he moved to Greensboro to study banking under his wife's uncle. With the financial backing of former Governor of North Carolina John Motley Morehead, his father-in-law, Patterson opened a flour and paper mill in Salem, North Carolina; the success of the mills made Patterson one of the growing town's most prominent citizens. In 1855, he was elected to the Forsyth County Court as a Democrat. Although he was disillusioned with the direction the party was heading, he nonetheless approved the state's ordinance of secession at the 1861 North Carolina Constitutional Convention, he returned to Caldwell County. There, he managed his father's cotton factory in Patterson until it was burned during Stoneman's 1865 Raid; that year he was again a delegate to the state constitutional convention.

After the Civil War Patterson returned to Salem. He partnered with his new brother-in-law Henry W. Fries to operate several cotton and paper mills, including the Fries Cotton Mill, they established a general merchandise store and Patterson invested in a railroad. He served as a director of Western North Carolina Railroads, he served a term as trustee of North Carolina University in 1874. In 1875, he was elected Mayor of Salem. Patterson married Marie Louise Morehead in 1852, they had five children: Jesse Lindsay, Carrier F. Lettie W. Louis Morehead, a son that died in infancy. Marie died in Patterson married Mary E. Fries two years later, they had six children: Frank F. Samuel F. Andrew H. Rufus L. John L. and Edmond V. Rufus Lenoir Patterson Jr. founded American Machine and Foundry and served as a vice president of the American Tobacco Company. In 1878, Patterson, Sr. was accepted into the Moravian Church. He was a frequent benefactor to his alma mater. Patterson died on July 15, 1879 and was buried at Salem Woodland Cemetery

Kim Dong-ryul

Kim Dong-ryul is a South Korean pop singer-songwriter. He composes, writes lyrics and performs his own music, he has been active since 1993. As an architectural major in Yonsei University, Kim Dong-ryool formed the duet, Exhibition with his close friend, Seo Dong-Wook. Dong-ryool played the piano while Dong-wook played bass guitar; the duet became famous through an MBC University Song Festival in 1993. They emerged champion and won the special prize with the song "In Dreams" which Seo wrote and Kim composed. From onwards, Kim began his career of singing and writing lyrics. Kim's first album An Essay of Memory, which famous singer Shin Hae-cheol produced, was released in 1994. Though the duet were new figures in the world of popular music, they did the composing, bass,and computer programming themselves; the album received positive reviews and climbed onto the top ten chart, going on to sell over 600,000 copies. In 1994, Kim and Seo enlisted in military service together. Upon release, the duet released their second album Strangers in 1996.

The album was produced by Shin Hae-cheol, instrumentalists Yi, Byeong-Woo, Kim Se-hwang, Jeong Won-Young participated in it. Strangers received positive reviews from critics, but there was a plagiarism dispute regarding "A Testament", a song on the album; the song came under suspicion because of its similarity to "The Girl Who Fell from the Sky", from the soundtrack in Studio Ghibli's animated film Laputa: Castle in the Sky. Experts decided that the main melody and ways of using instruments were similar, so'A Testament' became a dishonourable song for the duet. In 1997, the duet decided to return to normal school life, they released their last album Graduation with five songs which had special personal meanings for them. "First Love", composed by Kim Dong-ryool when he was 14 years old and "In Dreams", the song that made the duet popular. After disbanding, Seo Dong-wook became a normal student, but Kim Dong-ryool said, "The only thing I can do is music." He created the project group'Carnival' with Lee Juck, with whom he became close with through the Jam concert of a popular radio program, At Starry Nights.

Both of them were 24, composers. But their music styles were different. Kim Dong-ryool's songs were still naive and standard classical ballads, while Lee Juck's songs were poignant and heretical; the two decided to collaborate and their music was of the funk genre. They worked with world-famous brass session team, Jerry Hey, Korean singer and jazz pianist, Kim Gwang-min, it had a retro theme, was a great success for them. They won the Golden Disc Award. After the success of Carnival, Kim composed several popular songs such as "For a Thousand Days" for Lee Seung-hwan and "Show" for Kim Won-Jun. In 1998 he released his first solo album The Shadow of Forgetfulness with a piano-based sound recalling early Elton John. Critics wrote that he had managed to create a new ballad style which featured classical and polished melodies. After the first album, he held his first solo concert on Christmas Day in 1998. Though he was successful and a well-acknowledged artiste, Kim decided to study music more, he majored in film scoring.

While studying there, he wanted to make real Korean-style music and he became more interested in Korean traditional music and culture. At the end of his first academic year, he released his second solo album Hope. In this album, he collaborated with not only the London Symphony Orchestra but also'Samulnori', a traditional Korean percussion quartet. In 2001, he released his third solo album Homecoming, he continued to integrate classical sound. The critics commented on this album that it had a well-rounded sound and the overall atmosphere was natural and stable. After graduating top of his class, Kim returned to Korea and released his fourth solo album Exposing in 2004; the song "At Long Last" from this album topped the KBS charts in April. Kim had tried to incorporate some new music styles in Exposing, such as bossa nova and pop-opera, his music became more mature. Song arrangements were more refined than before. Kim Dong-ryool held his second solo concert in Seoul and Busan in August, 2004 and released the live recording album Invitation in 2005.

He put his experience of the past ten years into this recording album. From 2005 to 2007 he hosted the TV music program Kim Dong-ryool's For You and the radio program Kim Dong-ryool's Music Island. A'Best-Of' compilation album was released in 2007. In 2008, Kim released his fifth album Monologue, it sold nearly 100,000 copies. This record was momentous to the Korean music industry because the rate of physical album sales had been low. Most songs from the album became popular among all generations. After this breakthrough, Kim held three concerts in 2008. All the advance tickets were sold out in less than 20 minutes; the concerts were designed to be full-scale in every way and Kim rearranged his songs to be accompanied by an orchestra. In January 2018, Kim released a new EP, after a 3 year hiatus which sold 14,374 copies in the first month of sales. In September, he will release a single titled "Song", an extension of his latest EP Reply. Exhibition Exhibition 2 Graduation Carnival Day Off About Composers Moneytoday My Daily IZM Neo Music Community IZM Neo Music Community IZM Neo Music Community KBS IZM Neo Music Community Moneytoday IZM Neo Music

Kern brook lamprey

The Kern brook lamprey is a species of lamprey in the Petromyzontidae family endemic to the United States. It is found on the east side of San Joaquin Valley, in lower Merced, Kaweah and San Joaquin rivers in California, it can grow to up to around 14 centimeters, is characterized by its grayish brown and white coloring, black spots on its fins. L. hubbsi is similar to other lampreys. Some of the morphological characteristics separating L. hubbsi from other lamprey species include SO lamina 2 cusps. Not much is known about the biology of these lampreys. Lamprey taxonomy can prove to be difficult because there are few morphological differences that can be observed. L. hubbsi was under the subgenus Entosphenus. The genus Lampetra comprises the subgenera Entosphenus and Lampetra. Species of the Entosphenus subgenus formed a tight-knit clade, distinct from the other two subgenera under the genus Lampetra. However, molecular evidence helped lead to the determination that the Kern Brook Lamprey should be under the genus Lampetra instead, as Lampetra hubbsi clustered with species from the Lampetra subgenus from the west coast of North America.

L. hubbsi was determined to have a higher fecundity in comparison to another nonparasitic lamprey species, Eudontomyzon hellenicus known as the Macedonia brook lamprey, critically endangered. The mean absolute fecundity of L. hubbsi was twice the amount of the mean absolute fecundity of Eudontomyzon hellenicus. The absolute fecundity of the lampreys was determined by direct counting; some of the threats that the Kern brook lamprey faces includes the loss of habitat and being degraded by dams and diversions. This has caused population fragmentation and these lamprey face a narrowly restricted range, poisoning associated with fisheries management, impacts of fish that are not native

Philip the Tetrarch

Philip the Tetrarch, sometimes called Herod Philip II by modern writers was the son of Herod the Great and his fifth wife, Cleopatra of Jerusalem. Philip II was born c. 26 BCE. He was a half-brother of Herod Archelaus. Philip inherited the northeast part of his father's kingdom, which included Trachonitis. Augustus Caesar made his own division of Herod's kingdom, giving one half to Archelaus, while dividing the other half into two, going to Antipas and Philip. Batanea, along with Trachonitis and Auranitis, paid the annual tribute of one hundred talents to Philip. Philip married his niece Salome, the daughter of Herodias and Herod II; this Salome appears in the Bible in connection with the execution of John the Baptist. However, there would have been a great difference in their ages: Salome was born in ~14 CE, at which time Herod Philip was 39 years old; the gospels of Matthew and Mark state that the Herodias whom Herod Antipas married was the wife of Antipas' brother "Philip", a fact supported by Josephus, who indicated she was the wife of Herod II.

It is known that Philip the Tetrarch rebuilt the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own name to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea-coast, the seat of the Roman government. It is possible that the'Salome' he was married to was a half-sister by that same name, a daughter of Herod the Great and his 8th wife Elpis; this sibling Salome was born in ~14 BCE, so only five years younger than Herod Philip. But this would be the only known occurrence of the children of Herod the Great intermarrying if from different mothers. Marriage to 1st cousins and uncles, was common in the so-called Herodian dynasty. There is no contemporary evidence for Philip the Tetrarch's use of the name "Herod Philip" as a dynastic title, as did occur with his brothers Herod Antipas and Herod Archelaus. Herod II is sometimes called "Herod Philip I", Philip the Tetrarch is called "Herod Philip II". Kokkinos says, "The stubborn insistence of many theologians in referring to Herod III as'Herod Philip' is without any value...

No illusory Herod Philip existed.". Philip's half-brothers and Antipas, had adopted the name of Herod, "presumably" for a dynastic claim from Herod the Great. Herodian dynasty Herodian kingdom List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources Philip the Tetrarch entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith Herod Philip II biographical entry


Paitchau is a mountain in the Tutuala subdistrict, Lautém District of East Timor. Situated within Nino Konis Santana National Park, it is south of Lake Ira Lalaro. Though part of a mountain chain, Paitchau is an isolated mountain in the southern Sucos Mehara, it ranges in altitude from 0–960 metres. BirdLife International has classified the mountain and its surrounding region of 55,797 hectares as an Important Bird Area of East Timor; the area contained within the Paitchau Range and Ira Lalaro is sparsely populated and contains several unique faunal and floral species. Paitchau is a sharp peak, prominent from the southwest; the hill range is located in the extreme eastern part of Timor-Leste and it slopes towards the coastline of Lore and Silvicola which have coral reefs. The area has diverse flora and fauna, its slopes are steep and the southern part of the range towards the coast is thickly forested. The range rises to a maximum height of 960 metres or 1,030 metres and is made up of massive primary karst limestone formations.

Paitchau is characterized by tropical moist deciduous lowland forest and tropical mixed evergreen forest. There is swamp land around Ira Lalaro. Paitchau is said to contain "the best remaining'primary’ forest" in the country. AvifaunaThere are 24 restricted-range species in the Important Bird Area which includes the endangered Treron psittaceus, the critically endangered Cacatua sulphurea. Bird, Eric. Encyclopedia of the World's Coastal Landforms. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-8638-0. Hydrographic Dept. Indonesia pilot. Great Britain. Hydrographer of the Navy. Miksic, John N.. Rethinking Cultural Resource Management in Southeast Asia: Preservation and Neglect. Anthem Press. ISBN 978-0-85728-389-4. Tiwary, Shiv Shanker. S.. Encyclopaedia Of Its Tribes. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-261-3837-1