A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
A guitar solo is a melodic passage, instrumental section, or entire piece of music written for a classical guitar, electric guitar or an acoustic guitar. In the 20th and 21st century traditional music and popular music such as blues, jazz, jazz fusion and metal guitar solos contain virtuoso techniques and varying degrees of improvisation. Guitar solos on classical guitar, which are written in musical notation, are used in classical music forms such as chamber music and concertos. Guitar solos range from unaccompanied works for a single guitar to compositions with accompaniment from a few other instruments or a large ensemble; the accompaniment musicians for a guitar solo can range from a small ensemble such as a jazz quartet or a rock band, to a large ensemble such as an orchestra or big band. Unaccompanied acoustic guitar music is found in folk and classical music dating as far back as the instrument has existed, the use of an acoustic guitar as a solo voice within an ensemble dates back at least to the Baroque concerto.
The classical guitar is an acoustical wooden guitar with six strings nylon, as opposed to the metal strings used in acoustic and electric guitars. Classical guitar is played by plucking individual strings with the fingernails or the fingertips. A classical guitar solo concert is called a recital; the most important composer who did not write for the guitar but whose music is played on it is Johann Sebastian Bach, whose baroque lute works have proved adaptable to the instrument. Of music written for guitar, the earliest important composers are from the classical period and include Fernando Sor and Mauro Giuliani, both of whom wrote in a style influenced by Viennese classicism. In the 19th century guitar composers such as Johann Kaspar Mertz were influenced by the dominance of the piano. Not until the end of the nineteenth century did the guitar begin to establish its own unique identity. Francisco Tárrega was central to this, sometimes incorporating stylized aspects of flamenco's Moorish influences into his romantic miniatures.
This was part of late 19th century mainstream European musical nationalism. Albéniz and Granados were central to this movement; some classical guitarists play concertos, which are solos written for performance with the accompaniment of an orchestra. Not many classical guitar concertos have been written, which may be laid to the imbalance between the volume of multi-instrumental orchestra as compared to a single guitar; some guitar concertos are nowadays wide known and popular Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez and Fantasía para un gentilhombre. Composers who wrote well known guitar concertos are: Antonio Vivaldi, Mauro Giuliani, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Manuel Ponce, Leo Brouwer and Lennox Berkeley. In the 2000s, contemporary composers are writing guitar concertos. Composers of the Renaissance period who wrote for four course guitar include Alonso Mudarra, Miguel de Fuenllana, Adrian Le Roy and Guillaume de Morlaye; some well known composers of the baroque guitar were Gaspar Sanz, Robert de Visée and Francesco Corbetta.
From 1780 to 1850, the guitar had numerous composers and performers including: Filippo Gragnani, Antoine de Lhoyer, Ferdinando Carulli, Francesco Molino, Fernando Sor, Mauro Giuliani, Niccolò Paganini, Dionisio Aguado, Luigi Legnani, Matteo Carcassi, Napoléon Coste and Johann Kaspar Mertz. Beginning in the 1920s, guitar soloist Andrés Segovia popularized the guitar with tours and early phonograph recordings. Modern classical guitar solo performers who are known for playing modern repertoire include Leo Brouwer, John Schneider, Reinbert Evers, Maria Kämmerling, Siegfried Behrend, David Starobin, Mats Scheidegger, John Williams, Magnus Andersson. Though guitar solos are used in a wide range of genres, the term "guitar solo" refers to electric guitar solos played in blues and in rock. Unlike acoustic guitars like the classical guitar or steel-string guitar, the electric guitar is played through a guitar amplifier to make the instrument loud enough. Guitar amplifiers have preamplifier and tone controls, in some cases, overdrive controls that modify the tone.
The use of a guitar solo as an instrumental interlude was developed by blues musicians such as John Lee Hooker, Muddy Waters, T-Bone Walker, jazz like Charlie Christian. Ernest Tubb's 1940 honky tonk classic, Walking the Floor over You was the first "hit" recording to feature and highlight a solo by a standard electric guitar–though earlier hits featured electric lap steel guitars. Blues master Lonnie Johnson had recorded at least one electric guitar solo, but his innovation was neither much noted nor influential. Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, J
The road crew are the technicians or support personnel who travel with a band on tour in sleeper buses, handle every part of the concert productions except performing the music with the musicians. This catch-all term covers many people: tour managers, production managers, stage managers, front of house and monitor engineers, lighting directors, lighting designers, lighting techs, guitar techs, bass techs, drum techs, keyboard techs, security/bodyguards, truck drivers, merchandise crew, caterers, among others; the road crew are uncredited, though many bands take care to thank their crew in album sleeve liner notes. In some cases, roadies have stepped in to help out with playing onstage. On June 12, 1993, while performing "Bullet in the Head" in Reykjavik, Rage Against the Machine guitarist Tom Morello and bassist Tim Commerford switched out with their guitar and bass technicians, respectively; the Doobie Brothers' lighting roadie, Bobby LaKind became a full member of the band. After observing LaKind goofing around on the congas after a concert, the band took notice of his talent and asked him to join as a sideman for studio sessions in 1976.
He became a full member in 1979 and performed as a vocalist, songwriter and backup drummer for live shows. Pink Floyd listed theirs on the rear sleeve of Ummagumma and recorded them speaking on The Dark Side of the Moon. A roadie delivered the spoken part of the studio version of the song "Sheep", on the Animals album, they had written a song called "Alan's Psychedelic Breakfast" about a roadie, appearing on their 1970 album Atom Heart Mother. Bruce Berry was a professional roadie for the members of Crosby, Nash & Young, both as a group and individually, he died of a heroin overdose on June 4, 1973 and is immortalized in the lyrics of the title track of the album Tonight's the Night by Neil Young:Bruce Berry was a working man He used to load that Econoline van... Pantera, Motörhead and Godsmack go so far as to feature their crew in their tour videos, Motörhead wrote the song " The Road Crew" about their crew. Exceptionally, in the former Manu Chao band Mano Negra, the roadies were included as a part of the band when they signed for Virgin.
Todd Rundgren and Roger Powell invited roadie Jan Michael Alejandro to play piano with them, Ringo Starr and Bill Wyman on a live broadcast of the Jerry Lewis Telethon in Las Vegas. It was viewed by 33 million people, he worked the last Led Zeppelin concert in Knebworth 1979, he was one of the roadies that Jackson Browne wrote about on the Running on Empty Tour. Jan owns Jan-Al Cases with his partner Muffie Alejandro. Jackson Browne on his 1977 tour, "Running on Empty", wrote his famous song "The Load-Out" in order to honor his roadies. Perry Bamonte was a long-serving guitar tech for The Cure, before filling in on keyboards during the final leg of the Disintegration tour after Roger O'Donnell's departure in 1991, he went on to play guitar and keyboards on four Cure albums, including major hit Wish. Coldplay's video Life in Technicolor ii features roadie puppets four times: picking up the cymbal dropped by the drummer, operating the rope that widens the stage, moving a ramp onstage and operating the sound mixer.
Tupac Shakur joined Digital Underground as a roadie, backup singer and dancer in 1990, appeared with the band in the film Nothing but Trouble to begin his rapping career. U2's "One Tree Hill" on the album The Joshua Tree is dedicated to Greg Carroll, a stagehand in New Zealand, he joined The Unforgettable Fire tour, after the tour he stayed in Ireland and became Bono's personal assistant. Stuart Morgan, Adam Clayton's bass tech, filled in for the U2 bassist for a concert in Sydney in 1993. James Hetfield of Metallica has been—at least twice—temporarily replaced in his guitar duties by his roadie John Marshall during his various injuries. Tenacious D wrote the song Roadie on their 2012 Rize of the Fenix album to pay homage to their road crew. A video for the song featured Danny McBride as a stereotypical, long hair, black leather wearing roadie who grew jealous of the band as he watched their success from the sidelines. Violinist Lindsey Stirling starts off her show by introducing every crew member.
Moreover, she puts them on YouTube. A picture of The Allman Brothers Band roadies appears on the back cover of their At Fillmore East album. In 2015, Built to Spill roadies Jason Albertini and Stephen Gere became the bassist and drummer on the album Untethered Moon. A number of roadies have gone on to write music. Greg Page was a roadie for The Cockroaches before band member Anthony Field asked him to join him in attending Macquarie University to become preschool teachers, they both accidentally ended up starting The Wiggles alongside band member Jeff Fatt and fellow student Murray Cook after submitting an album of children's music. David Gilmour was a roadie for Pink Floyd before Nick Mason asked him if he would be interested in joining the band as a guitarist. Krist Novoselic was a roadie for the Melvins before forming Nirvana with Kurt Cobain. Joey DeMaio of Manowar was a pyro-tech for Black Sabbath during their Hell tour. Frank Bello was a roadie and guitar technician for Anthrax before replacing Dan Lilker on Anthrax's second album Spreading the Disease.
Kliph Scurlock of The Flaming Lips was a roadie for the band before being asked to join the band as a drummer on tours. Rick Biddulph was a roadie for Hatfield and the North and Natio
Kiss is an American rock band formed in New York City in January 1973 by Paul Stanley, Gene Simmons, Peter Criss, Ace Frehley. Well known for its members' face paint and stage outfits, the group rose to prominence in the mid-to-late 1970s with their elaborate live performances, which featured fire breathing, blood-spitting, smoking guitars, shooting rockets, levitating drum kits, pyrotechnics; the band has gone through several lineup changes, with Stanley and Simmons the only remaining original members. The original and best-known lineup consisted of Stanley, Simmons and Criss. With their make-up and costumes, they took on the personae of comic book-style characters: The Starchild, The Demon, The Spaceman or Space Ace, The Catman. Due to creative differences, both Criss and Frehley had departed the group by 1982. In 1983, Kiss began performing without makeup and costumes, thinking that it was time to leave the makeup behind; the band accordingly experienced a minor commercial resurgence, their music videos received regular airplay on MTV.
Eric Carr, who had replaced Criss in 1980, died in 1991 of heart cancer and was replaced by Eric Singer. In response to a wave of Kiss nostalgia in the mid-1990s, the original lineup re-united in 1996, which saw the return of their makeup and stage costumes; the resulting Alive/Worldwide Tour was commercially successful. Criss and Frehley have both since left the band again and have been replaced by Singer and Tommy Thayer, respectively; the band has continued with their original stage makeup, with Singer and Thayer using the original Catman and Space Ace makeup, respectively. In September 2018, Kiss announced that, after 45 years of recording and performing, they will embark on their final tour, The End of the Road World Tour, in 2019. Kiss is one of the best-selling bands of all time, having sold more than 100 million records worldwide, including 25 million RIAA-certified albums. On April 10, 2014, the four original members of Kiss were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Kiss traces their roots to Wicked Lester, a New York City-based rock band led by Gene Simmons and Paul Stanley.
They recorded one album, shelved by Epic Records, played a handful of live shows. Simmons and Stanley, feeling a new musical direction was needed, abandoned Wicked Lester in 1972 and began forming a new group. After abandoning the name Wicked Lester late in 1972, Simmons and Stanley came across an ad in the East Coast version of Rolling Stone placed by Peter Criss, a veteran drummer from the New York City scene who had played in the bands Lips and Chelsea. Simmons and Stanley met him in a nightclub. After hearing Criss sing, they thought of him being in the new band. Criss auditioned for and joined their new band; the trio focused on a much harder style of rock than. They began experimenting with their image by wearing makeup and various outfits. In November 1972, the trio played a showcase for Epic Records A&R director Don Ellis, in an effort to secure a record deal. Although the performance went well, Ellis disliked the group's music. In early January 1973, the group added lead guitarist Ace Frehley.
Frehley impressed the group with his first audition, although he showed up wearing two different colored sneakers, one red and one orange. A few weeks after Frehley joined, the classic lineup was solidified as the band to be named Kiss. Stanley came up with the name while Simmons and Criss were driving around New York City. Criss mentioned that he had been in a band called Lips, so Stanley said something to the effect of "What about Kiss?" Frehley created the now-iconic logo, making the "SS" look like lightning bolts, when he went to write the new band name over "Wicked Lester" on a poster outside the club where they were going to play. Stanley designed the logo with a Sharpie and a ruler and accidentally drew the two S's nonparallel because he did it "by eye." The art department asked him if he wanted it to be redrafted to be perfect and he said, "It got us this far, let's leave well enough alone. Our number one rule has always been no rules." The letters happened to look similar to the insignia of the Nazi SS, a symbol, outlawed in Germany by Section 86a of the German criminal code.
Since 1979, most of the band's album covers and merchandise in Germany have used an alternate logo, in which the letters "SS" look like the letters "ZZ" backwards. This logo is used in Austria, Poland, Lithuania and Israel to avoid controversy; the band's name has been the subject of rumors pertaining to alleged hidden meanings. Among these rumors are claims that the name is an acronym for "Knights in Satan's Service", "Kinder SS", or "Kids in Satan's Service". Simmons has denied all of these claims; the first Kiss performance was on January 30, 1973, for an audience of three at the Popcorn Club in Queens. For the first three gigs, January 30 to February 1, they wore little to no makeup. On March 13 of that year, the band recorded a five-song demo tape with producer Eddie Kramer. Former TV director Bill Aucoin, who had seen the group at a handful of showcase concerts in the summer of 1973, offered to become the band's manager in mid-October. Kiss agreed, with the condition. On November 1, 1973, Kiss became the first act signed to
Adam Mitchel Lambert is an American singer and actor. Since 2009, he has sold over 5 million singles worldwide. Lambert rose to fame in 2009 after finishing as runner-up on the eighth season of American Idol; that year, he released his debut album, For Your Entertainment, which debuted at number three on the U. S. Billboard 200; the album spawned several singles, including "Whataya Want from Me", for which he received a Grammy nomination for "Best Male Pop Vocal Performance". In 2012, Lambert released his second studio album; the album premiered at number one on the U. S. Billboard 200, making him the first gay artist to top the album charts. In 2015, Lambert released his third album, The Original High, which debuted at number three on the U. S. Billboard 200 and produced "Ghost Town". Alongside his solo career, Lambert has collaborated with rock band Queen as lead vocalist for Queen + Adam Lambert since 2011, including a successful worldwide tour from 2014 to 2018. Lambert was born in Indiana, on January 29, 1982, to mother Leila, a dental hygienist.
His father is of partial Norwegian descent and his mother is Jewish, with roots in Romania. Lambert was raised in his mother's religion, he has Neil. Shortly after his birth, his family moved to California. Lambert began performing with Metropolitan Educational Theatre network from the age of nine. A few years he began more intense acting and vocal coaching, continuing to perform with both MET2 and what was to become the Broadway Bound Youth Theatre Foundation, as he moved through Mesa Verde Middle School and Mount Carmel High School. There, he became involved with theater and choir, performed vocals with the school's jazz band, competed in the local Air Bands competitions, he appeared in local professional productions such as Hello, Dolly!, The Music Man, Grease and Peter Pan, at venues such as The Starlight, The Lyceum and others. After graduating high school in 2000, he attended California State University, but left after five weeks to move to Los Angeles: "I just decided that what I wanted to do was try to work in the real entertainment world.
Life is all about taking risks to get what you want." At 19, Lambert landed his first professional job, performing on a cruise ship for ten months with Anita Mann Productions. Afterwards, he performed in light opera in California. By 21, he was cast in a European tour of Hair. In 2004, he appeared in the Theatre Under the Stars production of Brigadoon and a Pasadena Playhouse production of 110 in the Shade, before being cast in the role of Joshua in The Ten Commandments: The Musical at the Kodak Theatre alongside Val Kilmer, he came to the attention of the casting director for Wicked, was hired as the understudy for the role of Fiyero and an ensemble member in the first national touring production of the musical from 2005, the Los Angeles production from 2007. He finished performances with the musical in 2008. During this same period, Lambert fronted underground rock band The Citizen Vein with Steve Sidelnyk, Tommy Victor and Monte Pittman, he worked as a demo singer and a session musician. Lambert auditioned for the eighth season of American Idol in San Francisco, California by singing "Rock with You" and "Bohemian Rhapsody".
Advancing to Hollywood week, he performed "What's Up" and "Believe" solo, "Some Kind of Wonderful" in the group effort. Simon Cowell voiced some concern about his theatricality, but Randy Jackson found it "current", he advanced to the top 36 performing " Satisfaction", after which he was voted into the top 13. In the first week of live shows, his rendition of Michael Jackson's "Black or White" was praised by all four judges. For Country week, he sang a sitar-infused version of "Ring of Fire", his Motown night acoustic version of The Miracles' "The Tracks of My Tears" drew praise from judges and a standing ovation from Smokey Robinson, the week's mentor. Advancing to the top 8, he sang the 2001 Michael Andrews and Gary Jules arrangement of "Mad World"; because the show had exceeded its time slot, only Cowell gave a critique, which he did by giving Lambert a standing ovation, the only one he bestowed during his decade-long run as an American Idol judge. After Lambert sang "If I Can't Have You", delivering what DioGuardi called his "most memorable performance", Cowell described his vocals as "immaculate."
For the top 3 show, he performed "One" before Cowell declared, "If you are not in the final next week, it will be one of the biggest upsets". Lambert performed three solos in the finale, a reprise of "Mad World", followed by the 1960s civil rights anthem "A Change Is Gonna Come", to tremendously positive judge reaction. After his performance of the mandatory winner's single, "No Boundaries" Cowell summed up Lambert's journey: "Over the entire season, you've been one of the best, most original contestants we've had on the show; the hope and whole idea of a show like this is to find a worldwide star, I believe we've found that in you". Lambert was announced as the runner-up for the eighth season of American Idol. Upon winning, Kris Allen stated: "Adam deserved this" explaining he thought Lambert deserved to win as much as he did, that Lambert "was the most consistent person all year, he was one of the most gifted performers that I've met". Lambert's version of
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Paul Daniel "Ace" Frehley is an American musician and songwriter best known as the original lead guitarist, occasional lead vocalist and co-founding member of the rock band Kiss. He invented the persona of The Spaceman and played with the group from its inception in 1973 until his departure in 1982. After leaving Kiss, Frehley embarked on a solo career, put on hold when he rejoined Kiss in 1996 for a successful reunion tour. Frehley's second tenure with Kiss lasted until 2002, when he left at the conclusion of what was purported to be the band's Farewell Tour, his most recent solo album, was released on October 19, 2018. Guitar World magazine ranked him as the 14th Greatest Metal Guitarist of All Time. Outside Kiss, Frehley had commercial success, with his first solo album going platinum, his first album with his "Frehley's Comet" band was a big seller. Frehley is known for the use of many "special effects" guitars, including a Gibson Les Paul guitar that emits smoke from the neck humbucker pickup and produces spinning pyrotechnics, a custom Les Paul that emits light based on song tempo.
Paul Daniel Frehley was born and raised in The Bronx of New York City, the youngest of three children of Esther Anna and Carl Daniel Frehley. His father, from Pennsylvania, was the son of Dutch immigrants, his mother is from North Carolina, he has a brother Charles, a classical guitarist. The Frehleys were a musical family, when Frehley received an electric guitar as a Christmas present in 1964, he immersed himself in learning the instrument. "I never went to music school. My mother and father both played piano, his father was the church organist, my brother and sister both played piano and acoustic guitar." Frehley was always surrounded by music. Frehley started playing guitar at age 13, he lists Jimi Hendrix, Albert Lee, Buddy Guy, Jeff Beck, B. B. King, Led Zeppelin, The Rolling Stones, The Who as his main influences. Growing up on the corner of Marion Avenue and 201st Street, off Bedford Park Boulevard and Webster Avenue in the Bedford Park section of the Bronx, Frehley graduated from Grace Lutheran School at age 13.
Two of the high schools he attended were DeWitt Clinton High School on Mosholu Parkway and Theodore Roosevelt High School on Fordham Road. He got the nickname "Ace" in high school from friends who said he was "a real ace" for his ability to get dates. In his high school years, a guidance counselor encouraged him to get into graphic arts, he credited guitar playing for "saving his life" as a member of Kiss. Frehley's earliest bands included The Outrage, The Four Roses, King Kong and The Magic People; when Frehley's band, began getting paying gigs, he dropped out of high school. At the insistence of his family and girlfriend, Frehley returned and earned a diploma. After graduation, Frehley held a string of short-term jobs—mail carrier, furniture deliverer and liquor store delivery person. Frehley spent the early 1970s in a series of local bands including one called Molimo who recorded half an album for RCA Records in 1971. In late 1972, his friend, Chris Cassone, spotted an advertisement for a lead guitarist in The Village Voice and showed the ad to Frehley.
Frehley went to 10 East 23rd Street above the Live Bait Bar. Frehley auditioned for Gene Simmons and Peter Criss for the band. Frehley, who showed up with best friend Chris Cassone, wearing one red and one orange sneaker, was less than impressive visually, but the band liked what they heard from his playing. About three weeks the band named Frehley as their lead guitarist. By January 1973, the band came up with the name Kiss. Frehley designed the band's double-lightning-bolt logo, polished up by Paul Stanley; the band decided to paint their faces for live performances, Frehley decided to start painting silver stars on his eyes. When the group decided to adopt stage personas to match their makeup and costumes, Frehley became Space Ace, his stage persona was known as The Spaceman. While Kiss spent their early days rehearsing and playing in empty clubs, Frehley worked as a part-time cab driver to pay bills. In September 1973, Kiss members began to receive a $50 a week salary from new manager Bill Aucoin, Frehley quit his cabbie job.
Kiss released their debut album, Kiss, in February 1974 – Frehley was credited for writing two songs, "Love Theme from KISS" and a fan classic, "Cold Gin". Due to Frehley's lack of confidence in his own singing voice, Simmons performed the vocals. Frehley wrote or co-wrote several of the band's songs over the next few years but did not record vocals on a song until "Shock Me", which appeared on 1977's Love Gun; as lead guitarist, Frehley was known for his frenetic, atmospheric playing, becoming one of the most popular guitarists in the 1970s and spawning a generation of new players. Frehley stated in the book Kiss: Behind the Mask that many guitarists have told him his playing on 1975's hit Alive! prompted them to pick up the instrument. Frehley is well-recognized for using Gibson Les Paul guitars, including his trademarked model conversion Les Paul Custom, which filled the stage full of smoke during his live guitar solo. Along with the three other Kiss members, Frehley released an eponymous solo album in 1978.
His was the best-selling of the four, the album's lone single—the Russ Ballard-written "New York Groove" recor