Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew from the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew from a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements, glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style, the diverse and enduring subgenre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume and speed. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s; the 2010s saw a slow decline in the cultural relevancy of the genre, being usurped by hip-hop as the most popular genre in the United States in 2017. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s.
1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity; the sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group.
Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four. Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition."
Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues. Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to
The Pepperdine Graziadio Business School known as, Graziadio School, is the graduate school of business at Pepperdine University in Malibu, California. The school offers Doctorate, MBA, MS, executive degree programs, it is one of the largest graduate business schools in Southern California with more than 41,000 alumni, is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The business school was established in 1969 and named in honor of George L. Graziadio, Jr. after he donated US$15 million in 1996. The Graziadio School is recognized as a top business school by U. S. News & World Report, Forbes and Princeton Review; the Pepperdine Graziadio Business School is headquartered in West Los Angeles at the Howard Hughes Center next to Interstate 405. The West Los Angeles campus, along with campuses in Encino, San Jose, Calabasas, host the school's part-time programs. Full-time programs are headquartered at the main Pepperdine University campus in Malibu. International programs take place at various international universities each trimester.
Forbes ranked the Graziadio School as #65 in the nation for return on investment in their 2017 "Best Business Schools" survey. In its 2017 edition of The Best 294 Business Schools, The Princeton Review ranked the Graziadio School among the nation's top graduate business programs. Pepperdine Graziadio was ranked #7 on the “Most Competitive Students” list and #8 Most Beautiful Campus. Bloomberg Businessweek ranked the Graziadio School #84 as one of 2017's Best Business Schools. In its 2017 Universities Report, Pitchbook named the MBA program at Pepperdine Graziadio #25 for founders produced, #18 for female founders; the Center for Applied Research supports the mission of the Pepperdine Graziadio Business School to advance responsible business practice and support knowledge and education that has direct application and relevance for working professionals and their organizations. Current Projects and Research Studies Private Capital Markets Project - The annual survey is conducted by Pepperdine Graziadio with the primary mission to research the cost of capital across market types and the investment expectations of held business owners.
Private Capital Access Index Report - Quarterly indicator produced by Pepperdine Graziadio with the support of Dun & Bradstreet. The index is designed to measure the demand for and health of the private capital markets; the purpose of the Private Capital Index is to gauge the demand of small and medium-sized businesses for financing needs, the level of accessibility of private capital, the transparency and efficiency of private financing markets. Economic Forecast - part of the Private Capital Access survey conducted quarterly with Dun & Bradstreet; the purpose of the economic forecast is to produce newsworthy predictions about the year ahead. The Market Pulse Report - In partnership with International Brokers Business Association and M&A, the Market Pulse Report was created to gain an accurate understanding of the market conditions for businesses being sold in Main Street and the lower middle market; the national survey was conducted with the intent of providing a valuable resource to business owners and their advisors.
The Center for Teaching and Learning Excellence at the Graziadio School was established with the mission of promoting innovation in business education. The center provides faculty with training and development opportunities, collects data on learning assurances, conducts research; the Graziadio Business Review is an online peer-reviewed journal of applied business research published by the Graziadio School since 1998. List of business schools in the United States Pepperdine University
"A Star Is Burns" is the eighteenth episode of The Simpsons' sixth season. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on March 5, 1995. In the episode, Springfield decides to hold a film festival, famed critic Jay Sherman is invited to be a judge; the story involves a crossover with the animated series The Critic. Jay Sherman was the main character on the show; the Critic was created by Al Jean and Mike Reiss, who had written for The Simpsons but left following the fourth season, produced by James L. Brooks, a producer for The Simpsons; the show had premiered on the American Broadcasting Company network in January 1994 but was canceled despite positive critical reception. The series was switched over to Fox, put in the timeslot directly after The Simpsons. Brooks pitched a crossover episode as a way to promote The Critic and decided that a film festival would be a good way to introduce Sherman. Matt Groening, creator of The Simpsons has criticized this episode, feeling that it was just an advertisement for The Critic, that people would incorrectly associate the show with him.
When he was unsuccessful in getting the program pulled, he had his name removed from the credits and went public with his concerns criticizing James L. Brooks; the episode was the first episode to be written by Ken Keeler. Jon Lovitz, the star of The Critic, guest stars as Jay Sherman, while Maurice LaMarche has a few minor roles; the episode received mixed reviews from critics, many of whom felt the crossover was out of place on the show, although Barney's film festival entry was well received. In response to Springfield being named the least cultural city in the United States, a town meeting is held to decide a course of action, where Marge proposes that Springfield host a film festival showcasing films made by the townspeople. Marge is made the head of the festival's judging panel, invites New York film critic Jay Sherman to be a special guest critic. Jay's presence makes; the film festival commences, many of the townspeople, including Mr. Burns and Hans Moleman, enter films. Festival attendees are touched by Barney Gumble's artistic introspective film about alcoholism, titled Pukahontas, which Marge and Jay foresee to be the eventual winner.
Burns' film, directed by Steven Spielberg's non-union Mexican counterpart "Señor Spielbergo", is A Burns for All Seasons, a big-budget pastiche of famous Hollywood productions intended to glorify him. He bribes two of the judges, Krusty the Clown and Mayor Quimby, to vote for it, leading to a deadlock. Left with the tie-breaking vote, Homer enthusiastically votes for Hans' aptly-named Man Getting Hit by Football, but Marge and Jay convince him to reconsider and Pukahontas is named the winner. Barney declares that his victory has inspired him to give up drinking, but forgets his promise when Quimby reveals his prize to be a lifetime supply of Duff Beer. Sherman prepares to return to New York, the Simpsons thank him for his help in making the festival a success. Marge suggests. Contrary to her statement, he submits A Burns for All Seasons to the Academy Awards. At the ceremony, the winner is announced to be George C. Scott, based on his performance in a remake of Man Getting Hit by Football; the Critic was a short-lived animated series that revolved around the life of movie critic Jay Sherman.
It was created by Al Jean and Mike Reiss, who had written for The Simpsons but left after the fourth season, executive produced by James L. Brooks. Jon Lovitz, who had guest starred in several episodes of The Simpsons, starred as Jay Sherman, it featured the voices of The Simpsons regulars Nancy Cartwright, Doris Grau, Russi Taylor, it was first broadcast on ABC in January 1994, was well received by critics. However, the series did not catch on with viewers and it was put on hiatus after six weeks, it completed airing its initial production run. For the second season of The Critic, James L. Brooks cut a deal with the Fox network to have the series switch over; the episode was pitched by Brooks, who had wanted a crossover that would help launch The Critic on Fox, he thought having a film festival in Springfield would be a good way to introduce Sherman. After Brooks pitched the episode, the script was written by Ken Keeler. Although David Mirkin was executive producer for most of the sixth season, the episode was executive produced by Al Jean and Mike Reiss.
Jay Sherman's appearance was Simpsonized: he was made yellow and given an overbite. The episode contains a meta-reference to the fact that it is a crossover episode in a conversation Bart has with Sherman: Announcer: Coming up next, The Flintstones meet The Jetsons. Bart: Uh oh. I smell another cheap cartoon crossover. Homer: Bart Simpson, meet the critic. Jay: Hello. Bart: Hey man, I love your show. I think all kids should watch it! Ew, I feel so dirty; the joke was pitched by Al Jean. Alongside Jon Lovitz, the episode guest stars Maurice LaMarche, a regular on The Critic, who voices George C. Scott as well as Jay Sherman's belch. Phil Hartman makes a brief appearance as an actor resembling Charlton Heston portraying Judah Ben-Hur in Mr. Burns' film. Rainier Wolfcastle's line, "on closer inspection, these are loafers", was ad-libbed by Dan Castellaneta, providing the voice of the chara