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Rock paper scissors

Rock paper scissors is a hand game played between two people, in which each player forms one of three shapes with an outstretched hand. These shapes are "rock", "paper", "scissors". "Scissors" is identical to the two-fingered V sign except that it is pointed horizontally instead of being held upright in the air. A simultaneous, zero-sum game, it has only two possible outcomes: a draw, or a win for one player and a loss for the other. A player who decides to play rock will beat another player who has chosen scissors, but will lose to one who has played paper. If both players choose the same shape, the game is tied and is immediately replayed to break the tie; the type of game originated in China and spread with increased contact with East Asia, while developing different variants in signs over time. Other names for the game in the English-speaking world include roshambo and other orderings of the three items, with "rock" sometimes being called "stone". Rock paper scissors is used as a fair choosing method between two people, similar to coin flipping, drawing straws, or throwing dice in order to settle a dispute or make an unbiased group decision.

Unlike random selection methods, rock paper scissors can be played with a degree of skill by recognizing and exploiting non-random behavior in opponents. The players count aloud to three, or speak the name of the game. Sometimes, people will say "Go!" or "Shoot!" after "Scissors!". Each time either raising one hand in a fist and swinging it down on the count or holding it behind, they "throw" by extending it towards their opponent. Variations include a version where players use only three counts before throwing their gesture, or a version where they shake their hands three times before "throwing"; the first known mention of the game was in the book Wuzazu by the Chinese Ming-dynasty writer Xie Zhaozhi, who wrote that the game dated back to the time of the Chinese Han dynasty. In the book, the game was called shoushiling. Li Rihua's book Note of Liuyanzhai mentions this game, calling it shoushiling, huozhitou, or huaquan. Throughout Japanese history there are frequent references to sansukumi-ken, meaning ken games where "the three who are afraid of one another".

This type of game originated in China before being imported to Japan and subsequently becoming popular among the Japanese. The earliest Japanese sansukumi-ken game was known as mushi-ken, imported directly from China. In mushi-ken the "frog" is superseded by the "slug", which, in turn is superseded by the "snake", superseded by the "frog". Although this game was imported from China the Japanese version differs in the animals represented. In adopting the game, the original Chinese characters for the poisonous centipede were confused with the characters for the slug; the most popular sansukumi-ken game in Japan was kitsune-ken. In the game, a supernatural fox called a kitsune defeats the village head, the village head defeats the hunter, the hunter defeats the fox. Kitsune-ken, unlike mushi-ken or rock–paper–scissors, is played by making gestures with both hands. Today, the best-known sansukumi-ken is called jan-ken, a variation of the Chinese games introduced in the 17th century. Jan-ken uses the rock and scissors signs and is the game that the modern version of rock paper scissors derives from directly.

Hand-games using gestures to represent the three conflicting elements of rock and scissors have been most common since the modern version of the game was created in the late 19th century, between the Edo and Meiji periods. By the early 20th century, rock paper scissors had spread beyond Asia through increased Japanese contact with the west, its English-language name is therefore taken from a translation of the names of the three Japanese hand-gestures for rock and scissors: elsewhere in Asia the open-palm gesture represents "cloth" rather than "paper". The shape of the scissors is adopted from the Japanese style. A 1921 article about cricket in the Sydney Morning Herald described "stone and paper" as a "Teutonic method of drawing lots", which the writer "came across when travelling on the Continent once". Another article, from the same year, in the Washington Herald described it as a method of "Chinese gambling". In Britain in 1924 it was described in a letter to The Times as a hand game of Mediterranean origin, called "zhot".

A reader wrote in to say that the game "zhot" referred to was evidently Jan-ken-pon, which she had seen played throughout Japan. Although at this date the game appears to have been new enough to British readers to need explaining, the appearance by 1927 of a popular thriller with the title Scissors Cut Paper, followed by Stone Blunts Scissors, suggests it became popular. In 1927 La Vie au patronage, a children's magazine in France, described it in detail, referring to it as a "jeu japonais", its French name, "Chi-fou-mi", is based on the Old Japanese words for "one, three". A 1932 New York Times article o


Kiznaiver is a 2016 Japanese anime television series produced by Trigger and Crunchyroll and written by Mari Okada. The series features character designs by Shirow Miwa, it features the directorial debut of Hiroshi Kobayashi, assistant director of the anime Rage of Bahamut and episode director for Kill la Kill. Kiznaiver follows seven high school students who are chosen to be a part of an experimental program promoting world peace which creates bonds between people by forcing them to share each other's pain, it is thematically similar to Trigger's previous works, which deal with problems attributed to character interaction. The series' title and premise are based upon the Japanese words for "wound/scar", "bond/connection". Kiznaiver takes place in the fictional Japanese town of Sugomori City. While the city appears to be normal, it was created to test a large-scale experiment known as the Kizna System, which connects people through shared pain and suffering, both physical and emotional; those who are connected to the system are called "Kiznaivers".

A few days before the start of summer vacation, a mysterious and emotionless girl, Noriko Sonozaki, tells high school student Katsuhira Agata and several of his classmates that they have been selected to become Kiznaivers. Sharing each other's pain allows them to build bonds between their differing lives and personalities. Katsuhira Agata Voiced by: Yūki Kaji, his Japanese sin is the Imbecile. Noriko Sonozaki Voiced by: Hibiku Yamamura, she is in charge of the Kizna System and therefore brings the seven Kiznaivers together through various missions. Chidori Takashiro Voiced by: Yuka Terasaki, her Japanese sin is the Goody Two-Shoes. Hajime Tenga Voiced by: Tomoaki Maeno, his Japanese sin is the Musclehead Thug. Nico Niiyama Voiced by: Misaki Kuno, her Japanese sin is the Eccentric Headcase. Tsuguhito Yuta Voiced by: Nobunaga Shimazaki, his Japanese sin is the Two-Faced Normie. Honoka Maki Voiced by: Rina Satō, her Japanese sin is the High-and-Mighty. Yoshiharu Hisomu Voiced by: Kōtarō Nishiyama, his Japanese sin is the Immoralist.

Kazunao Yamada Voiced by: Junichi Suwabe. He is Urushibara's colleague and a member of the Kizna Committee, moonlighting as the high school chemistry teacher. Mutsumi Urushibara Voiced by: Mie Sonozaki, she is Yamada's colleague and a member of the Kizna Committee, moonlighting as the high school counselor. A tie-in manga by Roji Karegishi was published by Crunchyroll digitally and by Kadokawa Shoten in their Dengeki Maoh magazine, it premiered on March 25, 2016. and ended on February 27, 2017. It was compiled in two volumes. A gag manga featuring the characters in chibi form called "Mini! Kiznaiver Gekijō" is drawn by S. Kosugi and serialized on Dengeki Comics NEXT; the tankōbon version was released on June 6, 2016. Crunchyroll took the English license for it, titled "Mini! KIZNAIVER Theater". Kiznaiver is an original anime series from Trigger, it is written by Mari Okada. While Shirow Miwa provides original character design, Mai Yoneyama adapted it into anime; the opening theme is Lay Your Hands on Me by Boom Boom Satellites, the ending theme is Hajimari no Sokudo by Sangatsu no Phantasia.

The anime has been licensed in the UK by Anime Limited. Official website Kiznaiver at Anime News Network's encyclopedia

Mexican jay

The Mexican jay known as the gray-breasted jay, is a New World jay native to the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, Central Plateau of Mexico and parts of the southwestern United States. In May 2011, the American Ornithologists' Union voted to split the Mexican jay into two species, one retaining the common name Mexican jay and one called the Transvolcanic jay; the Mexican jay is a medium-sized jay with pale gray underparts. It has an unstreaked throat and breast, it feeds on acorns and pine nuts, but includes many other plant and animal foods in its diet. It has a cooperative breeding system where the parents are assisted by other birds to raise their young; this is a common species with a wide range and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern". A recent decision by the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list Committee elevated some populations of the Mexican jay to a separate species, called the Transvolcanic jay, based on diagnosable phenotypic differences in plumage and morphology, millions of years of genetic divergence and no evidence for interbreeding with Mexican jays.

The Transvolcanic jay inhabits montane forest in the Transvolcanic Belt of central Mexico. Populations to the north retained the common name Mexican jay, but the Latin name changed to A. wollweberi. This was because the type specimen was a Transvolcanic jay, meaning that this species had precedent for the original Latin name A. ultramarina. Thus, as of this decision, there are now five described subspecies of Mexican jays that are divided into three divergent groups. Marked differences in size, color and genetics have led some authors to consider at least two of these groups as separate species; the three groups inhabit three distinct mountainous regions in central Mexico. Genetic breaks in mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA occur abruptly between the groups, indicating some barriers to genetic exchange. Size variation among the groups does not always follow Bergmann's rule, with more southerly populations in the Sierra Madre Oriental being larger than populations to the north. Mexican jays do not seem to follow Gloger's rule either, as populations in arid habitat in southwestern Texas are blue.

On the other hand, Mexican jays in Arizona - arid habitat - have a washed-out appearance, in accordance with Gloger's rule. Western groupSierra Madre Occidental in northern north to central Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Southern and eastern limits in Jalisco deserve further study. Juveniles have a pink/pale base to the otherwise black bill for up to two years. Eggs are unspeckled, unlike Eastern group where speckled eggs are common. Aphelocoma wollweberi gracilisE Nayarit and N Jalisco Smallest of the Western subspecies with a distinct, high-pitched vocalization. Aphelocoma wollweberi wollweberiDurango and Zacatecas Intermediate in size. Aphelocoma wollweberi arizonaeSonora and Chihuahua north to Arizona and New Mexico, United States Largest and most pale of all subspecies. Eastern groupSierra Madre Oriental in Nuevo León and W Tamaulipas north to Texas. Juveniles have an all-black exterior to the bill after fledging, but roof of inner upper mandible can remain white for up to two years.

Reports of less social behavior compared to other groups are over-stated and credible accounts of cooperative breeding and large flock sizes exist. Plain and white eggs have been observed in a single study area. Aphelocoma wollweberi couchiiSmaller than preceding. Population of latter species distinguishable by more contrasting markings and ecological preferences. Egg color may range from plain blue to nile blue with pale brownish speckling, most heavy on blunt half. Gives rattle call similar to western scrub-jays. Central Plateau group Central Plateau in Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, eastern Jalisco. Similar to Eastern group but larger in most features. Distinguishable in morphology and plumage in ~80% of specimens. There is an area of apparent hybridization in San Luis Potosi. Aphelocoma wollweberi potosina The Mexican jay is a medium-large passerine similar in size to most other jays, with a blue head, blue-gray mantle, blue wings and tail, pale gray breast and underparts; the sexes are morphologically similar, juveniles differ only in having less blue coloration and, in some populations, a pink/pale bill that progressively becomes more black with age.

Some field guides misreport this color as yellow because the pale bill becomes yellow in museum study skins. The iris is brown and legs are black, it is most distinguished from the similar western scrub jay by the plain throat and breast, the mantle contrasting less with the head and wings. Its range somewhat overlaps with the western scrub-jays, where they co-occur, the two species seem to show ecological and morphological character displacement, it is native to the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, Central Plateau of Mexico as well as eastern Arizona, western New Mexico and western Texas in the United States. Its preferred habitat is montane pine-oak forest. In the winter, the Mexican jay's diet consists of acorns and pine nuts, which are stored in the autumn. However, they are omnivorous in all seasons and their diet includes a wide variety of plant and animal matter, including invertebrates, small amph

Ferdinando Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua

Ferdinand I Gonzaga was Duke of Mantua and Duke of Montferrat from 1612 until his death. Born in Mantua, he was the son of Eleonora de' Medici, he was appointed a cardinal at the age of 20. A few years after his elder brother, Duke Francesco IV, died in 1612 without heirs, he renounced the ecclesiastical career and succeeded his brother in both the Duchy of Mantua and the Duchy of Montferrat. In 1616 he secretly married Camilla Faà di Bruno, their son Francesco Giacinto Teodoro Giovanni Gonzaga, although accepted at court, was not made Ferdinando's heir. He died of the plague—or was murdered—during the 1630 siege of Mantua. On 16 February 1617 he married Catherine de' Medici, the daughter of Ferdinand I, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Ferdinand Gonzaga died in 1626, his younger brother Vincenzo II inherited the duchy. In 1616 he married Camilla Faà di Bruno, had a son: Francesco Giacinto Gonzaga, Lord of Bianzè since 1624, benefited Priest of St. Benedict Polirone. Grand Master of the Order of the Redeemer Knight of Order of Malta

Detroit Free Press v. Ashcroft

Detroit Free Press v. Ashcroft was a case, heard before the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in August 2002; the plaintiffs, Detroit Free Press, Detroit News, Michigan Representative John Conyers, Rabih Haddad argued that it was a violation of the First Amendment for the defendants, Attorney General Ashcroft, Chief Immigration Judge Creppy, Immigration Judge Elizabeth Hacker, to apply a blanket ruling of the Creppy Directive in order to keep immigration hearings closed to the press and the public. The case affirmed 3-0 that the blanket application of the Creppy Directive to all immigration hearings was unconstitutional. During the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the US launched an effort to counter terrorist activity, including one to limit those that could attend the deportation hearings of foreign aliens. Under the lead of Attorney General John Ashcroft, Chief Immigration Judge Michael Creppy directed all immigration judges to close to the public and the press all immigration hearings that were thought to be of "special interest" to the September 11 investigation.

Special interest cases were defined as "those where the alien is suspected of having connections to, or information about, terrorist organizations that are plotting against the United States." These cases were intended to be handled "in secret, closed off from the public" to uphold a "compelling government interest" of national security. Officials closed the cases to any public or press and removed them from the court's docket, eliminating public records of the case; this rule of closed deportation hearings became known as the "Creppy Directive." On December 14, 2001, Rabih Haddad, a Lebanese national, was arrested after his temporary visa had expired. He was operating an Islamic charity, suspected to be channeling funds to a terrorist organization. In light of the recent September 11 attacks and the Creppy Directive, the Government labeled his case as special interest. Haddad was denied bail and detained, his case was closed from public and the press. Believing this closure to be a violation to First Amendment rights to speech and press, The Detroit News, Detroit Free Press, Metro Times and Michigan Representative John Conyers filed a suit against John Ashcroft, Michael Creppy, Immigration Judge Elizabeth Hacker claiming that the Creppy Directive was unconstitutional.

Haddad, the newspapers' plaintiffs, Rep. Conyer filed complaints and asserted claims under the following provisions: the Administrative Procedures Act, 5 U. S. C. § 551 et seq.. S. C. § 1101 et seq. and the regulations promulgated thereunder, 8 C. F. R. §§3.27 & 240.10. In response, the Government cited several cases to prove precedent that Congress had broad authority over immigration hearings; the Chinese Exclusion Case – During the Gold Rush, many Chinese immigrated to China. In response, California lawmakers petitioned Congress to stop the influx of immigrants; the petition charged that the “presence of Chinese laborers had a baneful effect on the state.” Thus, Congress gave the Government the “power to expel or exclude aliens.” This power was said be a fundamental sovereign attribute, not a provision of the Constitution. In its holding, the court said. Kleindienst v. Mandel – Mandel, a Belgian citizen and self-proclaimed revolutionary Marxist, sought entry to speak at a conference at Stanford University.

He applied for a non-immigrant visa and was denied by a provision of the Immigration and Nationality Act and by the court after several professors alleged this denial violated their 1st Amendment rights. The court acknowledged that Mandel's 1st Amendment rights were involved, but it still affirmed the conviction; the Sixth Court of Appeals acknowledged that both cases gave Congress broad authority over immigration, but said they were not analogous to this case. The Chinese Exclusion Case held; the Kleindienst case was one of exclusion, the question of the Creppy Directive does not affect the outcome of deportation hearings, just how they are conducted. The 5th Amendment states; this is true for aliens in the US. Aliens attempting to enter the US are not considered “persons” within the meaning of the 5th Amendment; the Sixth Court found that since Haddad had established residence in the US, he was entitled to the 5th Amendment's guarantee of due process. In the court's opinion of Kwock Jan Fat v. White, it “warned of the danger of secret hearings, given the government’s extraordinary power.”

Thus, the court said. The Richmond Newspaper Test determines whether the press and public have a 1st Amendment right to access criminal hearings; the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals found that deportation hearings may use this same test. It must answer two questions: Have the hearings been traditionally open to the public? Does public access to the hearing play a positive role in the process? The court found that hearings have been traditionally open to the public and that public access does play a positive role in the process. In the court's dicta for Kwock Jan Fat v. White, it warned of the dangers of secret hearings, because they give the government extraordinary power; the court found that the Creppy Directive was unconstitutional because it took away the freedom of the press, which the courts said, serves as a check to judicial power. The 6th Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed 3-0 that the blanket use of the Creppy Directive was unconstitutional, it further held that in order

The Neonai

The Neonai is the fifth studio album by the gothic metal band Lake of Tears. It was released in 2002, being finished off by Daniel Brennare alone, with little help from the other band members; the album was hastily completed to honor the band's contract with Black Mark Production. The band had been on a temporary hiatus since 2000 and Brennare focused on the songs he thought would be most produced and mastered; as a result, unlike earlier work by Lake of Tears, the album features a drum machine, a minimal guitar approach, heavy use of keyboards and electronic equipment. It featured some of the band's more memorable tunes, although they differ from the "classic" Lake of Tears sound and feel. A remixed version of the song "Sorcerers" was released as a single, with "Nathalie and the Fireflies" as a B-side. All songs arranged by Ulf Wahlberg and Lake of Tears. Daniel Brennare - vocals, guitar Mikael Larsson - bass Johan Oudhuis - drums Jennie Tebler - additional vocals Ulf Wahlberg - keyboards, engineering Magnus Sahlgren - guitars Necrolord - cover art Claes Persson - mastering Stig Börje Forsberg - producer Encyclopaedia Metallum bands by letter - L - Lake of Tears - The Neonai