The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th
Lahaul and Spiti district
The district of Lahaul-Spiti in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh consists of the two separate districts of Lahaul and Spiti. The present administrative centre is Keylong in Lahaul. Before the two districts were merged, Kardang was the capital of Lahaul, Dhankar the capital of Spiti; the district was formed in 1960, is the fourth least populous district in India. Kunzum la or the Kunzum Pass is the entrance pass to the Spiti Valley from Lahaul, it is 21 km from Chandra Tal. This district is connected to Manali through the Rohtang Pass. To the south, Spiti ends 24 km from Tabo, at the Sumdo where the road enters Kinnaur and joins with National Highway No. 22. The two valleys are quite different in character. Spiti is more barren and difficult to cross, with an average elevation of the valley floor of 4,270 m, it is enclosed between lofty ranges, with the Spiti river rushing out of a gorge in the southeast to meet the Sutlej River. It is a typical mountain desert area with an average annual rainfall of only 170 mm.
The harsh conditions of Lahaul permit only scattered tufts of hardy grasses and shrubs to grow below 4 km. Glacier lines are found at 5 km. Due to certain changes in climate, nowadays people are being able to grow some vegetables in the Lahaul valley e.g. cabbage, green peas, tomato and all types of leafy vegetables. The main cash crops are potatoes and green peas; the valley has snow leopards, foxes ibex, Himalayan brown bear, Musk Deer, Himalayan blue sheep. There are two important protected areas in the region that are a home to snow leopard and its prey including the Pin Valley National Park and Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary. Animals such as yaks and dzos roam across the wild Lingti plains. However, over-hunting and a decrease in food supplies has led to a large decrease in the population of the Tibetan antelope, kiangs, musk deer, snow leopards in these regions, reducing them to the status of endangered species. Due to ardent religious beliefs, the locals of Spiti do not hunt these wild animals.
Apart from the exotic wildlife, the Valley of Spiti is known for its wealth of flora and the profusion of wild flowers. Some of the most common species found here include Causinia thomsonii, Seseli trilobum, Crepis flexuosa, Caragana brevifolia and Krascheninikovia ceratoides. There are more than 62 species of medicinal plants found here. According to the 2011 census Lahaul and Spiti district has a population of 31,528 equal to the nation of San Marino; this gives it a ranking of 638th in India. The district has a population density of 2 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was -5.1%. Lahul and Spiti has a sex ratio of 916 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 77.24%. The language and populations of Lahaul and Spiti are related; the Lahaulis are of Tibetan and Indo-Aryan, while the Spiti Bhot are more similar to the Tibetans, owing to their proximity to Tibet. The district has a H. P. state legislative law in place to curb antique loot, by suspecting travellers given past incidences.
In pre-independence era, the ethnic tribal belt was into the British lahaul and the chamba lahaul, merged with Punjab post 1947. This is second largest district in Indian union; the languages of both the Lahauli and Spiti is Bhoti, Spiti Bhoti, it belongs to the Tibetan family. They are similar to the Ladakhi and Tibetans culturally, as they had been placed under the rule of the Guge and Ladakh kingdoms at occasional intervals. Among the Lahaulis, the family acts as the basic unit of kinship; the extended family system is common, evolved from the polyandric system of the past. The family is headed by a senior male member, known as the Yunda, while his wife, known as the Yundamo, attains authority by being the oldest member in the generation; the clan system known as Rhus, plays another major role in the Lahauli society. The Spiti Bhot community has an inheritance system, otherwise unique to the Tibetans. Upon the death of both parents, only the eldest son will inherit the family property, while the eldest daughter inherits the mother's jewellery, the younger siblings inherit nothing.
Men fall back on the social security system of the Trans-Himalayan Gompas. The lifestyles of the Lahauli and Spiti Bhot are similar. Polyandry was practiced by the Lahaulis in the past, although this practice has been dying out; the Spiti Bhot do not practice polyandry any more, although it is accepted in a few isolated regions. Divorces are accomplished by a simple ceremony performed in the presence of village elders. Divorce can be sought by either partner; the husband has to pay compensation to his ex-wife. However, this is uncommon among the Lahaulis. Agriculture is the main source of livelihood. Potato farming is common. Occupations include animal husbandry, working in government programs, government services, other businesses and crafts that include weaving. Houses are constructed in the Tibetan architectural style, as the land in Lahul and Spiti is mountainous and quite prone to earthquakes. Most of the Lahaulis follow a combination of Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism of the Drukpa Kagyu order, while the Spiti Bhotia follow Tibetan Buddhism of the Gelugpa order.
Within Lahoul, the Todh-Gahr region had the strongest Buddhist influence, owing to its close proximity to Spiti. Lahoul has temples such as Trilokinath temple, where pilgrims worship a certain god in different manifestations, notably in the form of Shiva and Avalokiteshvara
A rock shed is a civil engineering structure used in mountainous areas where rock slides and land slides create highway closure problems. A rock shed is built over a roadway, in the path of the slide, they are used to protect railroads. They are designed as a heavy reinforced concrete covering over the road, protecting the surface and vehicles from damage due to the falling rocks with a sloping surface to deflect slip material beyond the road, however an alternative is to include an impact-absorbing layer above the ceiling. A further use of this type of structure may be seen protecting the A4 road. A4 road where it passes under the Clifton Suspension Bridge, England, constructed in 1980 California State Route 1 at Pitkins Curve, constructed in 2014 Ferguson Rock Shed, to rectify a closure of California State Route 140 by a landslide in 2006, completion expected in 2020 Avalanche dam Rock shelter Snow shed
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group. Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors, he was the first to recognize the difference between conscious selective breeding in which humans directly select for desirable traits, unconscious selection where traits evolve as a by-product of natural selection or from selection on other traits. There is a genetic difference between wild populations. There is such a difference between the domestication traits that researchers believe to have been essential at the early stages of domestication, the improvement traits that have appeared since the split between wild and domestic populations. Domestication traits are fixed within all domesticates, were selected during the initial episode of domestication of that animal or plant, whereas improvement traits are present only in a proportion of domesticates, though they may be fixed in individual breeds or regional populations.
The dog was the first domesticated vertebrate, was established across Eurasia before the end of the Late Pleistocene era, well before cultivation and before the domestication of other animals. The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks – including donkeys, horses and Old World camelids, goats and pigs – was common. Given its importance to humans and its value as a model of evolutionary and demographic change, domestication has attracted scientists from archaeology, anthropology, zoology and the environmental sciences. Among birds, the major domestic species today is the chicken, important for meat and eggs, though economically valuable poultry include the turkey and numerous other species. Birds are widely kept as cagebirds, from songbirds to parrots; the longest established invertebrate domesticates are the silkworm. Terrestrial snails are raised for food, while species from several phyla are kept for research, others are bred for biological control.
The domestication of plants began at least 12,000 years ago with cereals in the Middle East, the bottle gourd in Asia. Agriculture developed in at least 11 different centres around the world, domesticating different crops and animals. Domestication, from the Latin domesticus,'belonging to the house', is "a sustained multi-generational, mutualistic relationship in which one organism assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another organism in order to secure a more predictable supply of a resource of interest, through which the partner organism gains advantage over individuals that remain outside this relationship, thereby benefitting and increasing the fitness of both the domesticator and the target domesticate." This definition recognizes both the biological and the cultural components of the domestication process and the impacts on both humans and the domesticated animals and plants. All past definitions of domestication have included a relationship between humans with plants and animals, but their differences lay in, considered as the lead partner in the relationship.
This new definition recognizes a mutualistic relationship. Domestication has vastly enhanced the reproductive output of crop plants and pets far beyond that of their wild progenitors. Domesticates have provided humans with resources that they could more predictably and securely control and redistribute, the advantage that had fueled a population explosion of the agro-pastoralists and their spread to all corners of the planet. Houseplants and ornamentals are plants domesticated for aesthetic enjoyment in and around the home, while those domesticated for large-scale food production are called crops. Domesticated plants deliberately altered or selected for special desirable characteristics are cultigens. Animals domesticated for home companionship are called pets, while those domesticated for food or work are known as livestock; this biological mutualism is not restricted to humans with domestic crops and livestock but is well-documented in nonhuman species among a number of social insect domesticators and their plant and animal domesticates, for example the ant–fungus mutualism that exists between leafcutter ants and certain fungi.
Domestication syndrome is the suite of phenotypic traits arising during domestication that distinguish crops from their wild ancestors. The term is applied to vertebrate animals, includes increased docility and tameness, coat color changes, reductions in tooth size, changes in craniofacial morphology, alterations in ear and tail form, more frequent and nonseasonal estrus cycles, alterations in adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, changed concentrations of several neurotransmitters, prolongations in juvenile behavior, reductions in both total brain size and of particular brain regions; the domestication of animals and plants began with the wolf at least 15,000 years before present, which led to a rapid shift in the evolution and demography of both humans and numerous species of animals and plants. The sudden appearance of the domestic dog in the archaeological record was followed by livestock and crop domestication, the transition of humans from foraging to farming in different places and times across the planet.
Around 10,000 YBP, a new way of life emerged for humans through the management and exploitation of plant and an
Indian Cave State Park
Indian Cave State Park is a public recreation and historic preservation area bordering the Missouri River in Nebraska that preserves a cave with prehistoric petroglyphs and the reconstructed village of St. Deroin established in 1853 and part of the former Nemaha Half-Breed Reservation; the state park lies eight miles east of Shubert. The park's 3,052 acres straddle the county line between Nemaha and Richardson counties in the southeast corner of the state; some of the carvings within Indian Cave are believed to be several thousand years old, but their exact period and cultural affiliations are undetermined. The park offers horseback riding, hiking trails and picnic facilities, fishing areas and winter skiing. Indian Cave State Park Nebraska Game and Parks Commission Indian Cave State Park Map Nebraska Game and Parks Commission
The ard, ard plough, or scratch plough is a simple light plough without a mouldboard. It is symmetrical on either side of its line of draft and is fitted with a symmetrical share that traces a shallow furrow but does not invert the soil, it began to be replaced in most of Europe by the carruca turnplough from the 7th century. In its simplest form it resembles a hoe, consisting of a draft-pole pierced with a nearly vertical, spiked head, dragged through the soil by draft animals and rarely by people; the ard-head is at one end a stilt for steering and at the other a share which gouges the surface ground. More sophisticated models have a composite pole, where the section attached to the head is called the draft-beam, the share may be made of stone or iron; some have two separate stilts for handles. The share comes in two basic forms: a socket share slipped over the nose of the ard-head. Additionally, a slender protruding chisel can be fitted over the top of the mainshare. Rather than cutting and turning the soil to produce ridged furrows, the ard breaks up a narrow strip of soil and cuts a shallow furrow, leaving intervening strips undisturbed.
The ard is not suited for clearing new land, so grass and undergrowth are removed with hoes or mattocks. Cross-ploughing is necessary to break the soil up better, where the soil is tilled twice at right angles to the original direction; this results in square or diamond-shaped fields and is effective at clearing annual weeds. The ard's shallow furrows are ideal for most cereals, if the seed is sown broadcast, the ard can be used to cover the seed in rows. In fact, the ard may have been invented in the Near East to cover seed rather than till; that would explain. The ard is most useful on light soils such as loams or sands, or in mountain fields where the soil is thin, can be safely used in areas where deep ploughing would turn up hardpan or would cause salination or erosion. Ards may be drawn by oxen, water buffalo, camels, or other animals. Ards come in a number of varieties. Based on use, there are two kinds: the tilth ard, for cutting furrows in cleared land, the rip ard, or sod buster, which has a hooked share that gouges deeper into the soil and more clears virgin or fallow land.
The two were in early times used in conjunction with each other. Third is the seed drill ard, used in Mesopotamia, which added a funnel for dropping seed in the furrows as the ard cut them; the earliest and most basic tilth ards are the two-piece models: bow ard, made of a bow-shaped draft-pole pierced by a spear-like head developing a composite body with a separate head and stilt inserted in the pole. The bow ard is the weaker and earlier of the two, it is used for shallow tillage with a tang share, in dry, stony soils. It is restricted to the Mediterranean, Ethiopia and eastern India and Sumatra; the more widespread body ard and heavier for deeper tillage has a socket share, sometimes laterally extended or has serrated wings for better mixing of soil and cutting of weeds. It had a short portion of the body, first made to slide on the furrow bottom and developed into a horizontal body; the body ard dominates in Portugal, western Spain, the Balkans, Sri Lanka, Thailand and most of Latin America.
The bow ard favored the development of a long horizontal sole body sliding on the ground. This led to the sole ard, first attested in Bronze Age Cyprus, being single-handled and consisting of a flat sole into which were set the draft-pole and stilt, meaning there were three separate pieces, their use in Ancient Greek agriculture was described by Hesiod. In northern Europe the single-handled crook ard was favored, consisting of a stilt inserted into a pole with a crook-shaft, i.e. the pole had a curved shape and had a natural crook tip that served as a share. Variations of the sole ard come in two types: the triangular and quadrangular ards; the triangular ard has a horizontal sole body holding the beam and stilt which cross each other, forming a triangle at the base. The quandrangular ard has a horizontal sole body connected to a straight, nearly parallel beam by a stilt and a brace. Evidence of its use in prehistory is sometimes found at archaeological sites where the long, shallow scratches it makes can be seen cutting into the subsoil.
The ard first appears in the mid-Neolithic and is related to the domestication of cattle. It spread with animal traction in general across the cereal-growing cultures of the Neolithic Old World, its exact point of origin is unknown, but it spread throughout West Asia, South Asia and Europe in the late Neolithic and early Chalcolithic. Evidence appears in the Near East in the 6th millennium BC. Iron versions appeared c. 2300 BC both in 3rd-dynasty Egypt. In Europe, the earliest known wooden ard dates from around 2300-2000 BC, but the earliest scratch marks date from 3500-3000 BC. All of these were bow ards depicted in the rock drawings of Bohuslän, Fontanalba, France; the first bow ards were adapted from hoes and like instruments a
Mesa Verde National Park
Mesa Verde National Park is an American national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Montezuma County, Colorado. The park protects some of the best-preserved Ancestral Puebloan archaeological sites in the United States. Established by Congress and President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, the park occupies 52,485 acres near the Four Corners region of the American Southwest. With more than 5,000 sites, including 600 cliff dwellings, it is the largest archaeological preserve in the United States. Mesa Verde is best known for structures such as Cliff Palace, thought to be the largest cliff dwelling in North America. Starting c. 7500 BCE Mesa Verde was seasonally inhabited by a group of nomadic Paleo-Indians known as the Foothills Mountain Complex. The variety of projectile points found in the region indicates they were influenced by surrounding areas, including the Great Basin, the San Juan Basin, the Rio Grande Valley. Archaic people established semi-permanent rockshelters in and around the mesa.
By 1000 BCE, the Basketmaker culture emerged from the local Archaic population, by 750 CE the Ancestral Puebloans had developed from the Basketmaker culture. The Mesa Verdeans survived using a combination of hunting and subsistence farming of crops such as corn and squash, they built the mesa's first pueblos sometime after 650, by the end of the 12th century, they began to construct the massive cliff dwellings for which the park is best known. By 1285, following a period of social and environmental instability driven by a series of severe and prolonged droughts, they abandoned the area and moved south to locations in Arizona and New Mexico, including Rio Chama, Pajarito Plateau, Santa Fe; the first occupants of the Mesa Verde region, which spans from southeastern Utah to northwestern New Mexico, were nomadic Paleo-Indians who arrived in the area c. 9500 BCE. They followed herds of big game and camped near rivers and streams, many of which dried up as the glaciers that once covered parts of the San Juan Mountains receded.
The earliest Paleo-Indians were the Clovis culture and Folsom tradition, defined by the way in which they fashioned projectile points. Although they left evidence of their presence throughout the region, there is little indication that they lived in central Mesa Verde during this time. After 9600 BCE, the area's environment grew warmer and drier, a change that brought to central Mesa Verde pine forests and the animals that thrive in them. Paleo-Indians began inhabiting the mesa in increasing numbers c. 7500, though it is unclear whether they were seasonal occupants or year-round residents. Development of the atlatl during this period made it easier for them to hunt smaller game, a crucial advance at a time when most of the region's big game had disappeared from the landscape. 6000 BCE marks the beginning of the Archaic period in North America. Archaeologists differ as to the origin of the Mesa Verde Archaic population; the Archaic people developed locally, but were influenced by contact and intermarriage with immigrants from these outlying areas.
The early Archaic people living near Mesa Verde utilized the atlatl and harvested a wider variety of plants and animals than the Paleo-Indians had, while retaining their nomadic lifestyle. They inhabited the outlying areas of the Mesa Verde region, but the mountains, mesa tops, canyons, where they created rockshelters and rock art, left evidence of animal processing and chert knapping. Environmental stability during the period drove population migration. Major warming and drying from 5000 to 2500 might have led middle Archaic people to seek the cooler climate of Mesa Verde, whose higher elevation brought increased snowpack that, when coupled with spring rains, provided plentiful amounts of water. By the late Archaic, more people were living in semi-permanent rockshelters that preserved perishable goods such as baskets and mats, they started to make a variety of twig figurines that resembled sheep or deer. The late Archaic is marked by increased trade in exotic materials such as turquoise. Marine shells and abalone from the Pacific coast made their way to Mesa Verde from Arizona, the Archaic people worked them into necklaces and pendants.
Rock art flourished, people lived in rudimentary houses made of mud and wood. Their early attempts at plant domestication developed into the sustained agriculture that marked the end of the Archaic period, c. 1000. With the introduction of corn to the Mesa Verde region c. 1000 BCE and the trend away from nomadism toward permanent pithouse settlements, the Archaic Mesa Verdeans transitioned into what archaeologists call the Basketmaker culture. Basketmaker II people are characterized by their combination of foraging and farming skills, use of the atlatl, creation of finely woven baskets in the absence of earthen pottery. By 300, corn had become the preeminent staple of the Basketmaker II people's diet, which relied less and less on wild food sources and more on domesticated crops. In addition to the fine basketry for which they were named, Basketmaker II people fashioned a variety of household items from plant and animal materials, including sandals, pouches and blankets, they made clay pipes and gaming pieces.
Basketmaker men were short and muscular, averaging less than 5.5 feet tall. Their skeletal remains reveal signs of hard labor and extensive travel, incl