Ozone Park, Queens
Ozone Park is a neighborhood located in the southwestern section of the borough of Queens, in New York City, New York, United States. It is located next to the Aqueduct Racetrack in South Ozone Park, a popular spot for Thoroughbred racing; the neighborhood was known for its large Italian-American population. Over the years, it has become a diverse community; the northern border is cited as 103rd Avenue or Atlantic Avenue. Ozone Park is in Queens Community Board 10, covered by New York City Police Department's 106th Precinct, though the section north of 103rd Avenue is in Queens Community Board 9 and covered by the NYPD's 102nd Precinct. Ozone Park is represented by three civic organizations: Our Neighbors Civic Association, Ozone Park Residents Block Association, Ozone Tudor Civic Association; the name "Ozone Park" was chosen for the development to "lure buyers with the idea of refreshing breezes blowing in from the Atlantic Ocean to a park-like community". The "Ozone" in the neighborhood's name referred to a park-like area with cool ocean breezes, an archaic definition, not related to the present-day definition of the alternate form of oxygen.
An area now part of Ozone Park that pre-dated that community was called "Centreville". It was founded in the 1840s and was centered around Centreville Street and the Centreville Community Church. Part of Ozone Park is still called "Centreville". In the 1870s, two immigrants from France named Charles Lalance and Florian Grosjean developed a factory in Woodhaven; the factory manufactured cooking materials and porcelain enamelware, but burned down in a fire in 1876. Lalance and Grosjean built a second factory, as well as a hundred houses for workers, at Atlantic Avenue and 92nd Street in modern-day Ozone Park. During the 1870s, an economic depression caused residents of New York City to look for better housing opportunities in the suburbs of Manhattan and Brooklyn, where housing would be cheaper. In 1880, the New York, Woodhaven & Rockaway Railroad began service on the Montauk Branch and Rockaway Beach Branch from Long Island City to Howard Beach, Queens. Two years two wealthy partners named Benjamin W. Hitchcock and Charles C. Denton bought plots of land around what would become the Woodhaven Junction station.
The Rockaway Beach Branch's Ozone Park station opened in 1883. Advertisements for Ozone Park proclaimed that the development had "pure air" and "no malaria". Called Ozone Park was called "the Harlem of Brooklyn" because at the time, the borough of Queens did not yet exist, Harlem was a thriving Jewish and Italian neighborhood in Manhattan. Hitchcock and Denton chose the "Ozone Park" name because in the 1880s, ozone was associated with breezes from the sea, the Atlantic Ocean was located nearby; the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company's Fulton Street elevated railroad line above Liberty Avenue opened in 1915, with a station at Lefferts Avenue. The elevated train system only charged a 5-cent fare; the nickel fare was another major factor in the development of Ozone Park, as residents could travel across the entire elevated and subway system for 5 cents. After the opening of the elevated line, real estate developers began buying up all the lots on either side of Liberty Avenue in hopes the new station would attract more people to want to live in Ozone Park.
Extensive housing construction occurred in the 1920s. The houses featured enclosed front porches, open back porches and stained-glass windows in the living rooms. Most of the houses were detached or semi-detached built to the same plan, with the living room, dining room and kitchen all in line and three bedrooms and a bath upstairs; the stairs were in the dining room. One of the builders was named Weyerman. During the 1920s, Woodhaven Avenue was the main north-south artery in the area, though its southern terminus was at Liberty Avenue. In conjunction with the extension of Woodhaven Avenue to the Rockaway Peninsula, the avenue was widened to 150 feet and renamed Woodhaven Boulevard; the extension itself, named Cross Bay Boulevard, opened to traffic in 1925. Because Ozone Park was now more accessible by car, the land became much more valuable, leading to a construction boom. Between 1921 and 1930, Ozone Park saw a population increase of over 180% from 40,000 to 112,950 people. With this increase in population came the need for schools and sources of entertainment.
In response to this demand came the construction of John Adams High School in 1930. This school was built just as the construction boom slowed down and right before the Great Depression; the 1,800-seat Cross-Bay Movie Theatre opened in December 1924, a 2,000-seat theater at 102nd Street and Liberty Avenue was built during this time. One area of Ozone Park is known as "The Hole", includes the area bounded by 75th Street, South Conduit Avenue, 78th Street and Linden Boulevard, it is named as such because the houses in this area were built below grade, with a ground level, 30 feet lower than the surrounding area. The area is run-down, suffers from frequent flooding. In the 1930s, the city of New York decided to install sewers and sewer lines in Ozone Park to stop the serious flooding, a major problem. In order to install the sewers, the houses had to be raised an entire floor. Owners were given a stipend to raise their homes but some chose not to do so; the first floor in some of the non-raised homes subsequently became basements.
In 2004, the New York City Departmen
Euclid Avenue (IND Fulton Street Line)
Euclid Avenue is an express station on the IND Fulton Street Line of the New York City Subway, located at the intersection of Euclid and Pitkin Avenues in East New York, Brooklyn. It is served by the A train at all times and is the southern terminal for the C train at all times except nights. During nights, this is the northern terminal for the Lefferts Boulevard shuttle train from Ozone Park, Queens. Construction on the Euclid Avenue station started in 1938, but this part of the Fulton Street Line did not open until 1948; the Fulton Street Line was extended to the east in 1956, connecting to the Fulton Street Elevated via a branch line that runs through the Grant Avenue station. Elevators were installed at Euclid Avenue circa 2000; the station has two island platforms. In terms of railroad directions, this is the southernmost station on the Fulton Street Line; the line was planned to extend further east as a four-track underground line. East of the station, there are connections to the Pitkin Yard as well as to the Fulton Street Elevated.
The tracks themselves dead-end. Euclid Avenue was part of a four-station extension of the Fulton Street subway along Pitkin Avenue, past its original planned terminus at Broadway Junction. Construction of the extension began in 1938. Work on the section of the line between Crystal Street and Grant Avenue, which included the Euclid Avenue station and the Pitkin Yard, began in late 1940. On August 26, 1941, lighting from a severe thunderstorm damaged the temporary timber roofing over the construction site at Pitkin Avenue and Autumn Avenue just east of the station; the lighting ruptured a gas main at the site creating a fire and causing damage to an adjacent building, while two automobiles fell into the exposed tunnel cavern. Construction of the extension was halted in December 1942 due to material shortages caused by World War II. At the time, the section of tunnel between Crystal Street and Grant Avenue was 96% complete. Other parts of the extension were more than 99% complete, but vital equipment had yet to be installed, precluding these stations' openings.
Construction resumed on the extension in November 1946. The delay meant the station received different design features than the rest of the stations along the line, including a different tiling, fluorescent lighting instead of then-standard incandescent lights, improved restroom and phone booth facilities; the station featured a then-modern interlocking technology, known as the "NX" system, wherein train operators would press buttons that automatically adjusted the corresponding switches. In older interlockings throughout the subway system, workers in a separate control tower had to manually adjust the switches using a series of levers within the tower. After several test runs, the station opened to the public in the early morning of November 28, 1948, it became the new terminal of the Fulton Street Line, replacing the former terminal at Broadway–East New York. It became the replacement for the elevated BMT Fulton Street Line's Chestnut Street and Crescent Street stations, which closed on April 26, 1956 when the connection to the eastern Fulton elevated was opened.
In the mid-2000s, an elevator to the street and elevators between the mezzanine and each platform were installed, making the station ADA-accessible. The station has two island platforms, it is the easternmost express station on the IND Fulton Street Line in terms of geographic directions. In terms of railroad directions, Euclid Avenue is the line's southernmost express station, it has the same 10" × 5" eggshell-beige wall tile as do the next three stations west, in contrast to the typical square white tiles seen in the rest of the IND. The tile band, however, is a delicate shade of lilac with a violet border, similar to Delancey Street in Manhattan; the I-beams are tiled with color bands and mini-vertical name tablets reading "Euclid," along with the two-tone border motif. The I-beams are in pairs at the center of the platforms. A crew quarters room is over the railroad south end of both platforms; the station has a crossover in the mezzanine along with an active newsstand and elevators to both platforms.
The station has a control tower at the eastern end of the southbound platform, which monitors trains between Broadway Junction and the station, controls the interlockings east of Euclid Avenue. The tower was the first in the subway system to use "Entrance-Exit" system. In this system, the tower utilizes a 12-foot wide, 3.3-foot tall electric light signal board which features a diagram of the nearby stations and track layout. It operates on direct current and consists of simple knobs and push buttons to control track switches, as opposed to the previous system which ran on alternating current and required a complicated series of levers. Stairways are present from each platform to the mezzanine above the tracks. Fare control is located in the mezzanine. Outside fare control is a street elevator leading to the northeast corner of Pitkin and Euclid Avenues. Street stairs lead to all four corners of the intersection; the Q7, Q8 and B13 bus routes stop outside the station. The next station east for IND Fulton Street service is Grant Avenue, located in Brooklyn.
However, an unfinished station is rumored to exist at 76th Street in nearby Ozone Park, just four blocks east of Grant Avenue. The track work near Euclid Avenue is intricate, allowing trains to enter the Pitkin Yard from both the express and local tracks, with con
Ozone Park–Lefferts Boulevard (IND Fulton Street Line)
Ozone Park–Lefferts Boulevard is an elevated terminal station on the IND Fulton Street Line of the New York City Subway, located at the intersection of Lefferts Boulevard and Liberty Avenue in Queens. It serves as the terminus of the A route's Lefferts Boulevard branch. Despite its name, the station is not located in Ozone Park, but rather in the adjacent neighborhoods of South Ozone Park and Richmond Hill. Lefferts Boulevard was one of the six stations along Liberty Avenue in Queens, from 80th Street through Lefferts Boulevard, as well as the current three track elevated structure, built for the BMT Fulton Street Line in 1915 as part of BMT's portion of the Dual Contracts; the connection to the BMT was severed on April 26, 1956, the IND was extended east from Euclid Avenue via a connecting tunnel and new intermediate station at Grant Avenue, with the new service beginning on April 29, 1956. The station has gone by a number of different names, it opened as Lefferts Avenue. A 1924 system map portrayed the station as "Lefferts Avenue", with "119th St." shown below the name in parentheses, in a smaller print.
By 1948, "Lefferts" and "119" were shown in equal sizes, by 1959 the name was shown as "119 St–Lefferts". Lefferts Avenue was renamed Lefferts Boulevard, the station appears as "Ozone Park–Lefferts Boulevard" on the current official map. In 2014, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority started a renovation project at the Lefferts Boulevard station; the renovation including repairing stairs, floors, windows and painting the station, added 2 ADA-accessible elevators at the intersection of Liberty Avenue and Lefferts Boulevard. This project was scheduled to be completed in April 2016, but delays occurred due to unforeseen field conditions requiring additional work, the completion date was pushed back multiple times; the elevators opened in January 2018. The project cost $29 million; this station is one of the three southern terminals for the A train. Although this is a "south" terminal in railroad directions, Liberty Avenue underneath runs geographically west-southwest to east-northeast, so a train approach the "south" is traveling east-northeast, or more north than south.
This station has two tracks. The tracks at the geographic north end of the station end at bumper blocks. At the geographic south end of the station, the line splits from two tracks to three; the middle express track is not used in revenue service. The full-time entrance is at the geographic east end of the station. Three doors lead to a staircase. Past the bumper blocks, an elevator provides access to that station house. Outside fare control, staircases descend to either western corner of Liberty Avenue and Lefferts Boulevard, while another elevator descends to the northwestern corner of the intersection; the exits at the opposite end has HEET access, with a mezzanine that leads to either western corner of Liberty Avenue and 116th Street, with various offices and transit employee facilities. This mezzanine was renovated by an in-house contract in 1999; the tile colors here are light beige with dark green accents, installed in 1997. Nycsubway.org – IND Fulton Street Line: Lefferts Boulevard Station Reporter — A Lefferts The Subway Nut — Ozone Park–Lefferts Boulevard Pictures Lefferts Boulevard entrance from Google Maps Street View 116th Street entrance from Google Maps Street View Platform from Google Maps Street View
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit known as heavy rail, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of any sort, and, grade separated in tunnels or on elevated railways. Modern services on rapid transit systems are provided on designated lines between stations using electric multiple units on rail tracks, although some systems use guided rubber tires, magnetic levitation, or monorail; the stations have high platforms, without steps inside the trains, requiring custom-made trains in order to minimize gaps between train and platform. They are integrated with other public transport and operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some rapid transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines.
It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people over short distances with little to no use of land. The world's first rapid transit system was the underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a conventional railway in 1863, now forms part of the London Underground. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway a cable-hauled line using static steam engines. China has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world at 31, with over 4,500 km of lines and is responsible for most of the world's rapid transit expansion in the past decade; the world's longest single-operator rapid transit system by route length is the Shanghai Metro. The world's largest single rapid transit service provider by number of stations is the New York City Subway; the busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, the Shanghai Metro, the Guangzhou Metro, the New York City Subway, the Mexico City Metro, the Paris Métro, the Hong Kong MTR.
Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. Rapid transit systems may be named after the medium by which passengers travel in busy central business districts. One of these terms may apply to an entire system if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In most of Britain, a subway is a pedestrian underpass. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway. In most of North America, underground mass transit systems are known as subways; the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. Chicago's commuter rail system that serves the entire metropolitan area is called Metra, while its rapid transit system that serves the city is called the "L". Rapid transit systems such as the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, the Miami Metrorail, the Montreal Metro are called the Metro; the opening of London's steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit.
Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant. Experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam and the natural choice for trains running in tunnels and proved superior for elevated services. In 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, fully underground. Prior to opening the line was to be called the "City and South London Subway", thus introducing the term Subway into railway terminology. Both railways, alongside others, were merged into London Underground; the 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset. The technology spread to other cities in Europe, the United States and Canada, with some railways being converted from steam and others being designed to be electric from the outset. Budapest, Chicago and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services.
Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services. Hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems. In response to cost, engineering considerations and topological challenges some cities have opted to construct tram systems those in Australia, where density in cities was low and suburbs tended to spread out. Since the 1970s, the viability of underground train systems in Australian cities Sydney and Melbourne, has been reconsidered and proposed as a solution to over-capacity. Since the 1960s many new systems were introduced in Europe and Latin America. In the 21st century, most new expansions and systems are located in Asia, with China becoming the world's leader in metro expansion operating some of the largest systems and possessing 60 cities operating, constructing or planning a rapid transit system. Rapid transit is used in cities and metropolitan areas to transport large numbers of people short distances at high frequency.
The extent of the rapid transit system varies between cities, with se
Rockaway Boulevard is a major road in the New York City borough of Queens. Unlike the named Rockaway Beach Boulevard and Rockaway Freeway, it serves mainland Queens, at no point does it enter The Rockaways, it begins as an undivided road at Eldert Lane, a small one-way street that runs along the border between Queens and Brooklyn. West of Atlantic Avenue, it is a two-lane road; when it crosses Atlantic Avenue, it widens to four lanes. Rockaway Boulevard runs east-southeast, it crosses the Belt Parkway. Just south of the parkway, the Queens segment of the Nassau Expressway ends at Rockaway Boulevard, in a Y-shaped, at-grade junction. Rockaway Boulevard becomes a six-lane divided road at this point and continues southeast to the Queens-Nassau border, where it splits. One branch continues as Rockaway Turnpike, the other leads to the southern part of NY 878. Rockaway Boulevard and Rockaway Turnpike were known as Rockaway Road and the Jamaica and Rockaway Turnpike; the portion of Rockaway Turnpike in Queens is now called Sutphin Boulevard.
As Rockaway Boulevard cuts diagonally through the rectangular street grid of southeastern Queens, triangular intersections that were too small to develop were designated as parks. These include Legion Triangle, Dixon Triangle, Ruoff Triangle, Corporal Ruoff Square, Wellbrook Triangle, O'Connell Square, Catholic War Veterans Triangle, Sergeant Colyer Square. Larger parks along the route include Playground One Forty, Baisley Pond Park, Idlewild Park; the Rockaway Boulevard station of the New York City Subway serves the boulevard at the intersection of Cross Bay and Woodhaven Boulevards. In addition, the Q6, Q7, Q113 and Q114 run along parts of the boulevard. Rockaway & Farmers Boulevards
Grant Avenue (IND Fulton Street Line)
Grant Avenue is a station on the IND Fulton Street Line of the New York City Subway. Located at Grant Avenue just north of Pitkin Avenue in City Line, Brooklyn, it is served by the A train at all times. In terms of railroad directions, the station is the line's southernmost stop in Brooklyn; the Fulton Street Line continues east into Queens via the Fulton Street Elevated. The funds to construct the Fulton Street Line east of Broadway Junction, including the Grant Avenue station, were allocated in 1939. Construction of the extension was delayed due to material shortages from World War II; the Fulton Street Line between Broadway Junction and Euclid Avenue opened in 1948. Funding to construct the Grant Avenue station was allocated in 1950, the station opened in 1956. Grant Avenue was built as part of the extension of the IND Fulton Street Line east of Broadway–East New York. Funding for the station was allocated in the New York City Board of Transportation's 1939 Capital Budget, projected to be completed by 1942.
In October 1940, construction began on the portion of the extension along Pitkin Avenue between Crystal Street and Grant Avenue. This included a station at Euclid Avenue and the Pitkin Yard, but did not include a station at Grant Avenue. By this time, the Board acquired private property on the east side of Grant Avenue for subway construction. By 1941, the intersection of Pitkin and Grant Avenues was excavated for subway construction; the opening of the East New York station, completion of all stations east to Euclid Avenue that were then-under construction, was halted in 1942 due to supply shortages from World War II. The extension of the line to Euclid Avenue opened in November 1948, six years late; as part of the extension, the Fulton Line tunnel under Pitkin Avenue was built up to Eldert Lane just past Grant Avenue to facilitate a future subway extension via Pitkin Avenue, while additional trackways were installed in the tunnel just east of Euclid Avenue for a potential connection to the nearby BMT Fulton Street Elevated along Liberty Avenue.
The yet-to-be-built Grant Avenue station was displayed on the signal board in the Euclid Avenue station. In 1949, the Board of Transportation approved a plan to extend the IND Fulton Line along the eastern Fulton El to Lefferts Boulevard; the station was expected to be completed in 1952. Under the original plans, the Grant Avenue station of the BMT elevated would have been preserved as the first station east of the link. In 1950, the New York City Planning Commission approved funding for an extension of the Fulton Line east from Euclid Avenue to Grant Avenue. In late 1952, the Board of Transportation began construction on a connection between the IND and both the Fulton Elevated and the Rockaway Beach Branch of the Long Island Rail Road, which included a new underground Grant Avenue station; the station opened on April 29, 1956, along with the connection to the Fulton Elevated east to Lefferts Boulevard. One month the station facilitated an extension of the line to the Rockaways; the station replaced the former Grant Avenue station on the Fulton Elevated, closed and demolished.
This station has one island platform. The column and wall tiles are textured light green, with "GRANT" in dark green letters going down vertically on columns and horizontally along the wall underneath the tile band; when it opened, the Grant Avenue station featured fluorescent lighting, instead of the incandescent lights that were standard throughout the New York City Subway at the time. East of the station, the line gains a center track from Pitkin Yard, leaves the subway tunnel and ramps up to the elevated tracks along Liberty Avenue. At the tunnel portal, another track from Pitkin Yard merges with the southbound local track; the line continues towards 80th Street station on Liberty Avenue. The two yard tracks are located under the station; the station's only entrance is a 1950s-style brick station-house at street level, located at the northwest corner of Pitkin and Grant Avenues. Inside, there is a token booth, turnstile bank, fluorescent lights and three staircases to the platform; the entrance is located next to a NYCDOT park and ride facility, signed as "Municipal Parking: Grant Avenue," that encompasses both sides of Grant Avenue.
Additional parking was present on then-NYCT property across North Conduit Avenue, which has since been developed. Nycsubway.org – IND Fulton: Grant Avenue The Subway Nut — Grant Avenue Pictures Grant Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View Platform from Google Maps Street View
80th Street (IND Fulton Street Line)
80th Street is a station on the IND Fulton Street Line of the New York City Subway. Located on Liberty Avenue at 80th Street in Ozone Park, Queens, it is served by the A train at all times. 80th Street, which opened on September 25, 1915, was one of the eight stations along Liberty Avenue in Brooklyn and Queens built for the BMT Fulton Street Line. The first two, Crescent Street and Grant Avenue in Brooklyn, were the last two stations on the line from 1894 to 1915. In 1915, the BMT, under their portion of the Dual Contracts, added the current three-track elevated structure along the Queens section of Liberty Avenue, now the only remnant of the line, it ran the previous terminus at Grant Avenue to the present Ozone Park–Lefferts Boulevard station, adding six new stations overall. The connection from this station west to the BMT el was severed on April 26, 1956. To replace that service, the underground IND line was extended east from its previous terminus at Euclid Avenue via a new connecting tunnel and ramp.
An intermediate station called Grant Avenue, was built along this tunnel, right before the point where the track was elevated to connect to the remaining sections of the BMT el. This service began on April 29, 1956; this elevated station has two side platforms and three tracks, but the center track is not used in revenue service. It is the westernmost station in Queens on the IND Fulton Street Line. Both platforms have beige windscreens along their entire lengths and brown canopies with green frames and support columns except for a small section at either ends. Platform signs display 80 Street–Hudson Street, the original name of this station; this station has two entrances/exits. The full-time one is at the south end of the station. Inside fare control, there is one staircase to each platform, a waiting area that allows a free transfer between directions, a turnstile bank. Outside fare control, there is a token booth and two street stairs going down to either western corners of the T-intersection of 80th Street and Liberty Avenue.
The station's other entrance/exit at the north end has one staircase to each platform, a waiting area, two street stairs going down to either western corners of 77th Street and Liberty Avenue. The station house, however, is unstaffed; each staircase landing has an exit-only turnstile to allow passengers to exit the station without having to go through the station house. The station has three tracks: two "local", stopping tracks and one center track that bypasses the station. Part of the trackways to the BMT el still remain as this line curves south into the tunnel to Grant Avenue west of 80th Street; this segment can be found just east of the intersection of Liberty Avenue and 76th Street, as the newer structure curves south. The line enters the tunnel portal at the Brooklyn–Queens border; as the tracks curve toward the tunnel, the center track dips to a lower level from the outer tracks and becomes a yard lead into Pitkin Yard. East of the station, there are switches between the local and "express" tracks.
The switches allow trains to bypass 88 St, the next station, Rockaway Blvd, the following station. However, only Far Rockaway-bound A trains can use this track because there are no switches east of Rockaway Blvd back to the local tracks. Nycsubway.org – IND Fulton: 80th Street-Hudson Street Station Reporter — A Lefferts Station Reporter — A Rockaway The Subway Nut — 80th Street – Hudson Street Pictures 80th Street entrance from Google Maps Street View 77th Street entrance from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View