Rockdale railway station
Rockdale railway station is a heritage-listed railway station located on the Illawarra line, serving the Sydney suburb of Rockdale in Bayside Council. It is served by Sydney Trains T4 line services, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Rockdale station opened on 15 October 1884 on the same date as the Illawarra line from Redfern to Hurstville with two side platforms. At the opening of Rockdale Railway Station, a goods shed and siding was provided on the eastern side. Rockdale station is unusual in that it provided a rail connection for coal transfer and passengers for Saywell's Private Tramway; this was a steam powered tramway operation, which began running from Rockdale to Brighton on Botany Bay from 1885. In 1887 another tramway service from Rockdale to Sans Souci began operation. In 1899 Thomas Saywell converted his steam trams to electricity. In 1937 the tram service from Rockdale to Sans Souci was replaced by a trolley bus service, the tramway to Brighton closed in 1938.
In the latter years of the tramway's operation, the rail connection was used for the transfer of Departmental rolling stock to the tramways in the area. In 1907, the northbound platform was converted to an island with a new southbound track; the former southbound track became the northbound track, with the former southbound platform becoming a refuge siding. In 1908, Platform 3 was converted to an island platform and an additional track laid along its western face. Rockdale now had four platform numbers. In 1923, a terminus platform was erected, when the Illawarra line was quadruplicated from Wolli Creek and the level crossing at Frederick Street was replaced by a bridge. During the 1920s a siding for the State Meat Depot was added to Rockdale Railway Station, as was the Municipal Council's siding in 1923. In 1928 a siding was added for the small companies of Carroll Lynn and the Warne Family Company. In 1920 a steel footbridge from the Maitland District was re-erected, followed in 1922 by the timber overhead booking office.
In 1923 quadruplication of the line was undertaken, new platforms added for the quadruplication. The original signal box was built on the north end of Platform 2-3 but in 1923 was replaced by the present brick elevated box on the western side of the line, east of the T junction of Railway Street and Oakura Street. In 1923 a new Platform No. 1 with brick waiting shed was built along with another siding, both having "dead-end" sidings for carriage storage. In 1926 the lines were electrified, the tramway link was disconnected in 1938. There were only minor changes until abolition of the goods yard in 1979. In February 1993 Rockdale Signal Box was abolished, its frame consisted of a combination of pistol grip and large mechanical levers, the last example in New South Wales. In 2005 alterations were undertaken to the station to install lifts and new access stairs and additional platform and stair canopies, canopies to the overhead footbridge and station entrance areas; the 1925 power signal box and dead-end sidings and remains of structures relating to goods sidings and tram rolling stock, are no longer extant.
Transdev NSW operate two routes to and from Rockdale station: 452: to Beverly Hills station via Bexley & Hurstville 453: to Percival Street, BexleyTransit Systems operate ten routes via Rockdale station: 420 Westfield Burwood to Westfield Eastgardens via Sydney Airport. 420N Westfield Burwood to Westfield Eastgardens Night service. 422: to Central station 473: to Campsie 476: to Dolls Point 477: to Miranda via Sans Souci 478: to Miranda via Monterey 479: Rockdale Plaza to Brighton 492: to Drummoyne 493: to Roselands Shopping CentreRockdale station is served by three NightRide routes: N10: Sutherland station to City N11: Cronulla station to City N20: Riverwood station to City The heritage-listed station precinct includes the Platform 1 building, the Platform 2/3 building, the Platform 4/5 building, the overhead booking office, the footbridge, the platforms and the Signal Box. Rockdale Railway Station is located between Railway Street on the west and Geeves Avenue on the east and is accessed from both streets via a footbridge and modern lifts.
The station has three island platforms. Along both Railway Street and Geeves Avenue adjacent to the station are extensive bus shelters. Adjacent and to the south of the western entry to the station is a distinctive 2-storey brick Inter-War Functionalist style retail building. Platform 1 Building A small brick platform building with an unpainted brick wall on the main west elevation, painted brickwork on the other elevations; the building is built to the platform edge on the east side. The building has a gabled corrugated steel roof, with gable ends to north and south, a cantilevered awning on the west side only; the awning is on steel brackets mounted on stucco features timber valences at each end. The building features rectangular timber louvred vents to the gable ends. There are three timber framed double hung windows covered over on the east elevation; the building's west elevation features stucco mouldings, timber double doors with glazed upper panels. An old telephone is mounted below the awning.
Platform 2/3 Building The island platform building is a painted brick building with a gabled corrugated steel roof, with gable ends at north and south ends. There are no extant chimneys; the building has cantilevered awnings on east and west sides mounted on steel brackets in turn mounted on stucco wall brackets. The building has timber framed double hung windows with 16-pane top sashes with multicoloured glazin
Douglas Babbington Gardiner was an Australian architect active in the mid 20th century as a partner of Bates Smart & McCutcheon. Gardiner was born in Sydney, New South Wales and spent his early years living in Harrow Road, Bexley, his father, Edward John Gardiner, a long-serving Mayor of Rockdale, mother Mary Estelle built a new house c.1912–1916 at 18 Oakura Street. During this period, Gardiner attended Newington College, he was articled to Peddle and Walker and graduated in architecture from Sydney Technical College. In 1926, Gardiner travelled abroad and worked in New York City for York and Sawyer and in London for Joseph Emberton. On his return to Sydney in 1929, he worked in the office of Emil Sodersten and with Hennessy & Hennessy. In the 1930s he lived next door to his old family home at 16 Oakura Street and worked for himself in private practice. In 1940, construction commenced on a new Rockdale Town Hall to his design. During World War II he served as an architect in the US Army Corps of Engineers in the south-west Pacific area and met Osborn McCutcheon.
At war's end, Gardiner was appointed a partner at Bates McCutcheon. His work within the firm included: MLC Limited Buildings in, Ballarat and Morwell in Victoria and Newcastle and Wollongong in NSW.
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Kogarah, New South Wales
Kogarah is a suburb of southern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Kogarah is located 14 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district and is considered to be the centre of the St George area. Kogarah took its name from a small bay on the northern shore of the Georges River; the suburb stretched to the bay but has since been divided up to form the separate suburbs of Kogarah Bay and Beverley Park. Kogarah has a mixture of residential and light industrial areas, it is known for its large number of schools and health care services. The NRL side, St George Illawarra Dragons have their Sydney office based at nearby Jubilee Oval referred to as Kogarah Oval. Kogarah features all types of residential developments from low density detached houses, to medium density flats and high density high-rise apartments. Kogarah is derived from an Aboriginal word meaning place of reeds, it had been written as'Coggera','Cogerah' and'Kuggerah' but the current spelling was settled when the railway line came through the area in the 1880s.
Early land grants in the area were made to John Townson who received 910 hectares from 1808 to 1810, centred on Hurstville and James Chandler, whose neighbouring estate was centred on Bexley. The district provided fruit and oysters for Sydney. In 1869, St Paul's Church of England opened on Rocky Point Road, it was built on 0.81 hectares of land given to the church by William Wolfen the Swedish Consul to Sydney, who owned 320 hectares in Kogarah. The suburb grew around the Gardeners Arms Hotel. Kogarah became a municipality in 1885; the former neighbourhood of Moorefield is now part of Kogarah. It was a 24-hectare land grant from Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1812 to Patrick Moore, who built a fine house there; the Moorefield racecourse built by a descendant opened in 1888. Brigadier General John Lamrock CB VD was appointed secretary of the Moorefield Race Club in 1912 and remained in that position until early in 1935; the Moorefield estate was subdivided in the 1950s and the Department of Education purchased 7.7 hectares, where it built two high schools and college of further education.
Moorefields Girls High School was erected there in 1955 on the former site of Moore's farm. Kogarah has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Toomevara Lane: Toomevara Lane Chinese Market Gardens Kogarah's main shopping area is located around Kogarah railway station on Railway Parade, Regent Street and on the opposite side of the railway line on Station Street; the commercial area extends to surrounding streets such as Montgomery and Belgrave Streets. Kogarah Town Centre is a shopping centre on Railway Parade; this commercial area includes the St. George Bank national headquarters in a large office building in Montgomery Street, a large employer in the area. Many high rise apartment buildings have been built around the commercial area in recent years; the noted builder, James Goyen, had his works depot at 18 Montgomery Street, at 4 Montgomery Street. He built the original building of. Commercial and light industrial developments are located along the Princes Highway and Rocky Point Road.
The Darrell Lea Chocolate factory is located in Rocky Point Road. Surrounding streets feature more industrial developments. A small group of shops is located on President Avenue, sometimes referred to as Moorefield. St George Hospital is a major regional hospital, that serves the whole St George area but accepts patients from other regions in New South Wales. St George Private Hospital is located nearby. Many medical centres, doctor's surgeries and specialists’ rooms and related services are located in the surrounding area. Kogarah Police Station and Kogarah Local Court are located on Montgomery Street; the local court serves the whole of the St George area and as such many barristers and solicitors have their offices in Kogarah. A historic fire station is located in Gray Street and another heritage building, the Kogarah School of the Arts is in Bowns Road; the Kogarah Mecca cinema was a landmark building, located opposite the railway station in Station Street. The cinema was used by local schools for important events such as Speech Day.
The cinema complex was closed for business in 2004 and its proprietor sentenced, on appeal, to nine years jail for sexual offences upon boys in its candy bar store room, projection room, toilets among other places in the period since 1980. The Kogarah Hotel is located on Railway Parade, it was the Railway Parade Hotel to 1954, the Kogarah Rex Hotel to 1964. The Kogarah Town Centre is Kogarah's largest shopping centre, it includes two supermarkets, a tavern, along with a multitude of specialty stores. It provides easy access to Kogarah railway station. Kogarah Town Centre was under a complete overhaul, with renovations of the whole complex, it was completed in mid-2012, with the supermarket chain, opening on the ground floor, along with fast-food chain Oporto. An expansion of Kogarah Tavern & Woolworths was included in this overhaul; the Coffee Club was added onto level one. Kogarah Town Square is located in Belgrave Street, it is surrounded by residential developments and is anchored by the Kogarah Library and Cultural Centre.
There is a small shopping arcade below one of the residential buildings. The square is surrounded by shops, cafes, restaurants and a karaoke venue; when it was com
City of Rockdale
The City of Rockdale was a local government area in southern and St George regions of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The city centre was located 12 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, on the western shores of Botany Bay. First proclaimed on 13 January 1871, Rockdale was known as the Municipality of West Botany until 1887 and the Municipality of Rockdale before being proclaimed as a City in 1995. Rockdale was amalgamated with the neighbouring City of Botany Bay on 9 September 2016 to form the new municipality of Bayside Council; the last Mayor of the City of Rockdale at amalgamation was Cr. Bill Saravinovski, a member of the Labor Party. Suburbs in the City of Rockdale were: The City of Rockdale managed and maintained the following localities: The City of Rockdale was proclaimed as the "Municipal District of West Botany" on 13 January 1871 and covered 23 square kilometres with two Wards, West Botany Ward and Arncliffe Ward; the proclamation followed a petition signed by 85 residents calling for incorporation, published in the Government Gazette on 22 August 1870.
The first election was held on 8 February 1871 at the Tempe Family Hotel on Rocky Point Road. The Mayor of Marrickville, Charles St Julian, was appointed Returning Officer for the first election of six aldermen and two auditors, declared on 14 February 1871: On 28 February 1871, Frederick Keene was appointed the first Clerk. Thomas Willmot was appointed Clerk on 13 August 1872. Thomas Leeder was appointed Clerk on 7 August 1877. Percival Somerville was appointed Clerk on 23 March 1905. On 17 December 1886, West Botany Ward was split in two, adding Rockdale Ward and Scarborough Ward and bringing the number of Aldermen from six to nine. Among the main developers during this period was Frederick Jamison Gibbes, a member of parliament whose name is perpetuated by Gibbes Street in Banksia. From 1872, Council met in the first Council Chambers, a small purpose-built stone building on the western side of Rocky Point Road, Arncliffe built by Christopher Bush of St Peters, it continued in use until 11 December 1888, when a new Town Hall was opened by the Mayor, William George Judd, on the corner of Rocky Point Road and Bryant Street, Rockdale.
The old Council Chambers building was sold in 1904. The name "Rockdale" for the West Botany area was first suggested in 1878, that name gained more credence when the local railway station on the new Illawarra rail line, opened on 15 October 1884, was given the name Rockdale. However, by the time the neighbouring Boroughs of Botany and North Botany were proclaimed on 29 March 1888, it was clear that a name change was desirable. On 17 May 1888 the Parliament of New South Wales passed the Rockdale Municipality Naming Act, West Botany became the "Municipal District of Rockdale". On 31 December 1900, a fourth ward was added, Hopetoun Ward, named after the soon-to-be first Governor-General of Australia, bringing the number of aldermen to twelve; the 1887 Town Hall was replaced by the current Rockdale Town Hall in 1940, was designed by Rockdale architect Douglas Gardiner. The area of the municipality was reduced when the mouth of Cooks River was moved further south of its original position in the mid-1940s, to allow for the extension of Sydney Airport at Mascot.
Under the Local Government Act 1948, the Municipality of Bexley, located to the West and had separated from Hurstville in 1900, became the First Ward of Rockdale Municipality. Rockdale was declared a city in 1995 as the "City of Rockdale". During 2002, two elected officials of Rockdale City Council were at the centre of an Independent Commission Against Corruption inquiry; the inquiry revealed that the Deputy Mayor, Adam McCormick and Councillor Andrew Smyrnis engaged in corrupt conduct with two property developers Con Chartofillis and Terry Andriotakis via two intermediaries, Manuel Limberis and Tony Retsos. The ICAC recommended to the New South Wales Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions that charges be laid against all six individuals under the Crimes Act 1900 and the ICAC Act 1998 s 87. Both councillors resigned from Council and a by-election was held on 31 August 2002 to replace the two disgraced councillors. Following consideration of the briefs and evidence involved, the DPP commenced action.
It was successful in recording convictions, the known determinations made by the Courts are as follows: Smyrnis was sentenced to two years periodic detention. Retsos was sentenced to three years periodic detention. McCormick, protested his innocence. McCormick was sentenced to a maximum of five years in custody for receiving $70,000 in bribes in return for delivering Labor Party support for a development application and for lying to the inquiry. A 2015 review of local government boundaries by the NSW Government Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal recommended that the City of Botany Bay merge with the City of Rockdale to form a new council with an area of 50 square kilometres and support a population of 153,000. In response to the merger proposal, Rockdale Council indicated their preference to merge with the City of Kogarah and the City of Hurstville, forming a single "St George Council". With the proclamation of the majority of council amalgamations on 12 May 2016, Botany Bay Council appealed the decision in the Supreme Court of New South Wales, thereby delaying the proposed amalgamation until a decision was made by the Court.
The Supreme Court rejected the appeal in early September 2016, the Minister for Local Government, Paul Toole, moved to proclaim the formation of Bayside Council on 9 Septemb
Trams in Sydney
The Sydney tramway network served the inner suburbs of Sydney, Australia from 1879 until 1961. In its heyday, it was the largest in Australia, the second largest in the Commonwealth of Nations, one of the largest in the world; the network was worked, with about 1,600 cars in service at any one time at its peak during the 1930s. Patronage peaked in 1945 at 405 million passenger journeys, it had a maximum street mileage of 181 miles, in 1923. Sydney's first tram was horse-drawn, running from the old Sydney railway station to Circular Quay along Pitt Street. Built in 1861, the design was compromised by the desire to haul railway freight wagons along the line to supply city businesses and return cargo from the docks at Circular Quay with passenger traffic as an afterthought; this resulted in a track that protruded from the road surface and it caused damage to the wheels of wagons trying to cross it. Hard campaigning by competing Horse Omnibus owners – as well as a fatal accident involving the leading Australian musician Isaac Nathan in 1864 – led to closure in 1866.
In 1879 a steam tramway was established in conjunction with the upcoming International Exhibition, to be held in the Domain/Botanical Gardens area of Sydney. Planned by the government to be removed after the exhibition, the success of the steam tramway led to the system being expanded through the city and inner suburbs during the 1880's and 1890's; the Steam Trams in Sydney comprised a Baldwin locomotive hauling one or more trailers of either single deck or double deck construction. Preserved Sydney Steam Trams are Motor 1A, owned by the Powerhouse Museum and is stored at the "Discovery Centre" at Castle Hill, however it is on loan to the Sydney Tramway Museum at Loftus NSW, Motor 100A at the Museum of Transport and Technology, Auckland New Zealand as it was sold to Wanganui Tramways in 1910 and Motor 103A which operates with a former trailer car 93B at Valley Heights Rail Museum after being at Parramatta Park. Two cable tram routes were built in Sydney; the first route ran from King Street Wharf on the eastern side of Darling Harbour to Ocean Street Edgecliff.
The second route from the original Milsons Point ferry wharf in North Sydney to Falcon Street North Sydney, extended to Crows Nest. Constitution of lines north of harbour were due to the steep terrain involved from Milsons Point to North Sydney. Cable Trailer 23 is preserved at the Sydney Tramway Museum at Loftus NSW. Additionally, horse trams operated between Newtown and St Peters railway stations in the 1890s and between Manly and North Manly from 1903 to 1907; however these two instances, the operation of horse tram services were acting as replacements for the existing steam trams services on these lines due to the low patronage during the indicated years. The Sydney tram power supply system was built using New York City subway electrical equipment, adapted for tram usage. A generating plant was installed at White Bay Power Stations. Electrification started in 1898, most of the system was converted by 1910. An exception was the owned Parramatta line built by Charles Edward Jeanneret in 1881 to Redbank Wharf where the steam tram remained until 1943, operate by the Sydney Ferries Ltd.
After experimentation with 3 trams all fitted with different equipment from different manufacturers, full-time services began with C-class saloon cars, followed by D-class combination cars. In contrast to other cities that started with combination cars and toastracks quickly abandoned them for drop-centre and saloon cars, Sydney started by going the other way. Footboard trams continued to be introduced, notably the single truck E-class, J-class and the K-class, the more famous O-class, O/P-class, P-class and L/P-class bogie trams that required the conductor to collect fares from the footboard running along the side of the tram, as they had no corridor through the middle connecting each compartment. Revered though footboard trams were for the number of passengers they could move, they were deathtraps for the conductors working them. On average, each day one conductor fell or was knocked off the footboard by passing motor vehicles as they became more popular; the majority suffered a fractured skull.
In the three years 1923, 1924, 1925, there were 282, 289, 233 accidents to conductors on NSW tramways. From 1916 to 1932, there were 4,097 accidents to tram employees, from 1923 to 1931 there were 10,228 accidents to passengers having falls when alighting or boarding. 63 of the falls were fatal. Of the more than 100 falls reported of conductors, one quarter died from their injuries, it was not until 1933 with the introduction of R-class tram 1938 that the drop-centre saloon tram used elsewhere in Australia, came to Sydney. So, footboard trams continued in wide use until the late 1950s, despite calls as early as 1934 by the tram union for them to be modified. A part from the G,H and M classes, one of every electric tram class have been preserved by the Sydney Tramway Museum at Loftus NSW. By the 1920s, the system had reached its maximum extent. In many ways, the Sydney tram system was a victim of its own success; the overcrowded and heaving trams running at a high frequency, in competition with growing private motor car and bus use, ended up being blamed for the congestion caused by the latter.
Competition from the private car and unregulated private bus operators created the perception of traffic congestion which begun the gradual closure of lines from the late 1930s. Material shortages and lack of funding caused by the Second World Wa