Rockefeller family

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Rockefeller family
Current regionNew York, U.S.
Place of originRhineland
MembersJohn D. Rockefeller Sr.
William A. Rockefeller Jr.
John D. Rockefeller Jr.
Connected familiesMcCormick family
Dudley–Winthrop family
Estate(s)Kykuit
The Casements

The Rockefeller family (/ˈrɒkəfɛlər/) is an American industrial, political, and banking family that owns one of the world's largest fortunes. The fortune was initially made in the American petroleum industry during the late 19th and early 20th centuries by John D. Rockefeller and his brother William Rockefeller, primarily through Standard Oil.[1] The family is also known for its long association with, and control of, Chase Manhattan Bank.[2] The Rockefellers are considered to be one of the most powerful families, if not the most powerful family, in the history of the United States.[3]

Family background[edit]

One of the founding members of the Rockefeller family in New York was businessman William Rockefeller Sr., who was born to a Protestant family in Granger, New York. He had six children with his first wife Eliza Davison, the most prominent of which were oil tycoons John D. Rockefeller and William Rockefeller Jr., the co-founders of Standard Oil. John D. Rockefeller (known as "Senior", as opposed to his son John D. Rockefeller Jr., known as "Junior") was a devout Northern Baptist, and he supported many church-based institutions.[4][5][6]

Family wealth[edit]

The combined wealth of the family—their total assets and investments plus the individual wealth of its members—has never been known with any precision. The records of the family archives relating to both the family and individual members' net worth are closed to researchers.[7]

From the outset the family's wealth has been under the complete control of the male members of the dynasty, through the family office. Despite strong-willed wives who had influence over their husbands' decisions—such as the pivotal female figure Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, wife of John D. Rockefeller Jr.—in all cases they received allowances only and were never given even partial responsibility for the family fortune.[8]

Much of the wealth has been locked up in the notable family trust of 1934 (which holds the bulk of the fortune and matures on the death of the fourth generation) and the trust of 1952, both administered by Chase Bank, the corporate successor to Chase Manhattan Bank. These trusts have consisted of shares in the successor companies to Standard Oil and other diversified investments, as well as the family's considerable real estate holdings. They are administered by a trust committee that oversees the fortune.

Management of this fortune today also rests with professional money managers who oversee the principal holding company, Rockefeller Financial Services, which controls all the family's investments, now that Rockefeller Center is no longer owned by the family. The present chairman is David Rockefeller Jr.

In 1992, it had five main arms:

  • Rockefeller & Co. (Money management: Universities have invested some of their endowments in this company);
  • Venrock Associates (Venture Capital: an early investment in Apple Computer was one of many it made in Silicon Valley entrepreneurial start-ups);
  • Rockefeller Trust Company (Manages hundreds of family trusts);
  • Rockefeller Insurance Company (Manages liability insurance for family members);
  • Acadia Risk Management (Insurance Broker: Contracts out policies for the family's vast art collections, real estate and private planes.)[9]

Real estate and institutions[edit]

30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, NY, U.S.
Rockefeller Center at night, December 1934
The Cloisters, Upper Manhattan

The family was heavily involved in numerous real estate construction projects in the U.S. during the 20th century.[10] Chief among them:

Family residences[edit]

Over the generations, the family members have resided in some notable historic homes. A total of 81 Rockefeller residences are on the National Register of Historic Places.[17] Not including all homes owned by the five brothers, some of the more prominent of these residences are:

  • One Beekman Place - The residence of Laurance in New York City.
  • 10 West Fifty-fourth Street - A nine-story single family home, the former residence of Junior before he shifted to 740 Park Avenue, and the largest residence in New York City at the time, it was the home for the five young brothers; it was later given by Junior to the Museum of Modern Art.
  • 740 Park Avenue - Junior and Abby's famed 40-room triplex apartment in the luxury New York City apartment building, which was later sold for a record price.
  • Bassett Hall - The house at Colonial Williamsburg bought by Junior in 1927 and renovated by 1936, it was the favorite residence of both Junior and Abby and is now a house museum at the family-restored Colonial Revival town.
  • The Casements - A three-story house at Ormond Beach in Florida, where Senior spent his last winters, from 1919 until his death.
  • The Eyrie - A sprawling 100-room summer holiday home on Mount Desert Island in Maine, demolished by family members in 1962.
  • Forest Hill - The family's country estate and summer home in Cleveland, Ohio, for four decades; built and occupied by Senior, it burned down in 1917.
  • Golf House at Lakewood, New Jersey - The former three-story clubhouse for the elite Ocean County Hunt and Country Club, which Senior bought in 1902 to play golf on its golf course.
  • Kykuit, also known as the John D. Rockefeller Estate - The landmark six-story, 40-room home on the vast Westchester County family estate, home to four generations of the family.
  • The JY Ranch - The landmark ranch in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, the holiday resort home built by Junior and later owned by Laurance, which was used by all members of the family and had many prominent visitors, including presidents, until Laurance donated it to the federal government in 2001.
  • Rockwood Hall - The former home of William Rockefeller Jr. (demolished in the 1940s).

Politics[edit]

The Population Council, founded by the family in 1952.

Prominent banker and philanthropist David Rockefeller Sr. was the family patriarch until his death in 2017. In 1960, when his brother Nelson Rockefeller was governor of New York, David Sr. successfully pressed for a repeal of a New York state law that restricted Chase Manhattan Bank from operating outside the city. David Sr. was twice offered the post of Treasury secretary by President Richard M. Nixon, but declined on both occasions. In 1979, he used his high-level contacts to bring Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran, who had been overthrown in the Iranian Revolution and was in poor health, for medical treatment in the United States. In 1998, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton for his work on International Executive Service Corps.[18]

Political offices held[edit]

Legacy[edit]

A trademark of the dynasty over its 140-plus years has been the remarkable unity it has maintained, despite major divisions that developed in the late 1970s, and unlike other wealthy families such as the Du Ponts and the Mellons. A primary reason has been the lifelong efforts of "Junior" to not only cleanse the name from the opprobrium stemming from the ruthless practices of Standard Oil, but his tireless efforts to forge family unity even as he allowed his five sons to operate independently. This was partly achieved by regular brothers and family meetings, but it was also because of the high value placed on family unity by first Nelson and John III, and later especially with David.[19]

Regarding achievements, in 1972, on the 100th anniversary of the founding of Andrew Carnegie's philanthropy, the Carnegie Corporation, which has had a long association with the family and its institutions, released a public statement on the influence of the family on not just philanthropy but encompassing a much wider field. Summing up a predominant view amongst the international philanthropic world, albeit one poorly grasped by the public, one sentence of this statement read: "The contributions of the Rockefeller family are staggering in their extraordinary range and in the scope of their contribution to humankind."[20]

John D. Rockefeller gave away US$540 million over his lifetime (in dollar terms of that time), and became the greatest lay benefactor of medicine in history.[21] His son, Junior, also gave away over $537 million over his lifetime, bringing the total philanthropy of just two generations of the family to over $1 billion from 1860 to 1960.[22] Added to this, the New York Times declared in a report in November 2006 that David Rockefeller's total charitable benefactions amount to about $900 million over his lifetime.[23]

The combined personal and social connections of the various family members are vast, both in America and throughout the world, including the most powerful politicians, royalty, public figures, and chief businessmen. Notable figures through Standard Oil alone have included Henry Flagler and Henry H. Rogers. Contemporary figures include Henry Kissinger, Richard Parsons (Chairman and CEO of Time Warner), C. Fred Bergsten, Peter G. Peterson (Senior Chairman of the Blackstone Group), and Paul Volcker.

In 1991, the family was presented with the Honor Award from the National Building Museum for four generations worth of preserving and creating some of the U.S.'s most important buildings and places. David accepted the award on the family's behalf.[24] The ceremony coincided with an exhibition on the family's contributions to the built environment, including John Sr.'s preservation efforts for the Hudson River Palisades, the restoration of Williamsburg, Virginia, construction of Rockefeller Center, and Governor Nelson's efforts to construct low- and middle-income housing in New York state.[25]

The Rockefeller name is imprinted in numerous places throughout the United States, most notably in New York City, but also in Cleveland, where the family originates:

  • Rockefeller Center - A landmark 19-building 22-acre (89,000 m2) complex in the center of Manhattan established by Junior: Older section constructed from 1930–1939; Newer section constructed during the 1960s-1970s;
  • Rockefeller University - Renamed in 1965, this is the distinguished Nobel prize-winning graduate/postgraduate medical school (formerly the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, established by Senior in 1901);
  • Rockefeller Foundation - Founded in 1913, this is the famous philanthropic organization set up by Senior and Junior;
  • Rockefeller Brothers Fund - Founded in 1940 by the third-generation's five sons and one daughter of Junior;
  • Rockefeller Family Fund - Founded in 1967 by members of the family's fourth-generation;
  • Rockefeller Group - A private family-run real estate development company based in New York that originally owned, constructed and managed Rockefeller Center, it is now wholly owned by Mitsubishi Estate Co. Ltd;
  • Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors - is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that advises donors in their philanthropic endeavors throughout the world;
  • Rockefeller Research Laboratories Building - A major research center into cancer that was established in 1986 and named after Laurance, this is situated at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center;
  • Rockefeller Center - Home of the International Student Services office and department of philosophy, politics and law at the State University of New York at Binghamton;
  • Rockefeller Chapel - Completed in 1928, this is the tallest building on the campus of the University of Chicago, established by Senior in 1889;
  • Rockefeller Hall - Established by Senior in 1906, this building houses the Case Western Reserve University Physics Department;
  • Rockefeller Hall - Established by Senior and completed in 1906, this building houses the Cornell University Physics Department;[26]
  • Rockefeller Hall - Established by Senior in 1887, who granted Vassar College a $100,000 ($2.34 million in 2006 dollars) allowance to build additional, much needed lecture space. The final cost of the facility was $99,998.75. It now houses multi-purpose classrooms and departmental offices for political science, philosophy and math;
  • Rockefeller Hall - Established by Senior and completed in 1886, this is the oldest building on the campus of Spelman College;
  • Rockefeller College - Named after John D. Rockefeller III, this is a residential college at Princeton University;
  • Michael C. Rockefeller Arts Center - Completed in 1969 in memory of Nelson Rockefeller's son, this is a cultural center at the State University of New York at Fredonia;
  • The Michael C. Rockefeller Collection and the Department of Primitive Art - Completed in 1982 after being initiated by Nelson, this is a wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art;
  • David and Peggy Rockefeller Building - A tribute to David's wife, Peggy Rockefeller, this is a new (completed in 2004) six-story building housing the main collection and temporary exhibition galleries of the family's Museum of Modern Art;
  • Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden - Completed in 1949 by David, this is a major outdoor feature of the Museum of Modern Art;
  • Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum - Opened in 1957 by Junior, this is a leading folk art museum just outside the historic district of Junior's Colonial Williamsburg;
  • Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Hall - The freshman residence hall on the campus of Spelman College;
  • Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Building - Completed in 1918, it is among other things a student residence hall at Spelman College, after the wife of Senior and after whom the College was named;
  • Rockefeller State Park Preserve - Part of the 3,400-acre (14 km2) family estate in Westchester County, this 1,233-acre (5 km2) preserve was officially handed over to New York State in 1983, although it had previously always been open to the public;
  • Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park - Established as a historical museum of conservation by Laurance during the 1990s.
  • John D. Rockefeller Jr. Memorial Parkway - Established in 1972 through Congressional authorization, connecting Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks;
  • Rockefeller Forest - Funded by Junior, this is located within Humboldt Redwoods State Park, California's largest redwood state park;
  • Either of two US congressional committees {in 1972 - John D. III and 1975 - Nelson dubbed the Rockefeller Commission}.
  • Rockefeller Park, a scenic park featuring gardens dedicated to several world nations along Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. between University Circle and Lake Erie in Cleveland.
  • Winthrop Rockefeller Institute of the University of Arkansas System was established in 2005 with a grant from the Winthrop Rockefeller Charitable Trust. The educational center with conference and lodging facilities is located on Petit Jean Mountain near Morrilton, Arkansas, on the original grounds of Gov. Winthrop Rockefeller's model cattle farm.
  • David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University.
  • Rockefeller Quad at the Loomis Chaffee School
  • Rockefeller Complex library at Niels Bohr Institute, Nørrebro, Copenhagen Municipality in Denmark

John Jr., through his son Nelson, purchased and then donated the land upon which sits the United Nations headquarters, in New York, in 1946. Earlier, in the 1920s, he had also donated a substantial amount towards the restoration and rehabilitation of major buildings in France after World War I, such as the Rheims Cathedral, the Fontainebleau Palace and the Palace of Versailles, for which he was later (1936) awarded France's highest decoration, the Grand Croix of the Legion d'Honneur (subsequently also awarded decades later to his son, David Rockefeller).

He also funded the notable excavations at Luxor in Egypt, as well as establishing a Classical Studies School in Athens. In addition, he provided the funding for the construction of the Palestine Archaeological Museum in East Jerusalem - the Rockefeller Museum.[27]

Conservation[edit]

Beginning with John D. Rockefeller Sr., the family has been a major force in land conservation.[28] Over the generations, it has created more than 20 national parks and open spaces, including the Cloisters, Acadia National Park, Forest Hill Park, the Nature Conservancy, the Rockefeller Forest in California's Humboldt Redwoods State Park (the largest stand of old-growth redwoods), and Grand Teton National Park, among many others. John Jr., and his son Laurance (and his son Laurance Jr. aka Larry) were particularly prominent in this area.

The family was honored for its conservation efforts in November 2005, by the National Audubon Society, one of America's largest and oldest conservation organizations, at which over 30 family members attended. At the event, the society's president, John Flicker, notably stated: "Cumulatively, no other family in America has made the contribution to conservation that the Rockefeller family has made".[28]

In 2016 fifth-generation descendants of John Sr. criticized ExxonMobil, one of the successors to his company Standard Oil, for their record on climate change. The Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the Rockefeller Family Fund both backed reports suggesting that ExxonMobil knew more about the threat of global warming than it had disclosed. David Kaiser, grandson of David Rockefeller Sr. and president of the Rockefeller Family Fund, said that the "...company seems to be morally bankrupt." Valerie Rockefeller Wayne, daughter of former Senator Jay Rockefeller, said, "Because the source of the family wealth is fossil fuels, we feel an enormous moral responsibility for our children, for everyone -- to move forward."[29] The Rockefeller Brothers Fund announced it was divesting from fossil fuels in September 2014 while the Rockefeller Family Fund announced plans to divest in March 2016.[30][31]

The family archives[edit]

The Rockefeller family archives are held at the Rockefeller Archive Center in Pocantico Hills, North Tarrytown, NY.[32] At present, the archives of John D. Rockefeller, Sr., William Rockefeller, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, Abby Rockefeller Mauzé, John D. Rockefeller III, Blanchette Rockefeller, and Nelson Rockefeller are processed and open by appointment to readers in the Archive Center’s reading room. Processed portions of the papers of Laurance Rockefeller are also open. In addition, the Archive Center has a microfilm copy of the Winthrop Rockefeller papers, the originals of which are held at the University of Arkansas, Little Rock. The papers of the family office, known as the Office of the Messrs. Rockefeller, are also open for research, although those portions that relate to living family members are closed.[33]

Members[edit]

Ancestors[edit]

Descendants of John Davison Rockefeller Sr.[edit]

The total number of blood relative descendants as of 2006 was about 150.[citation needed]

Descendants of William Avery Rockefeller Jr.[edit]

An article in the New York Times in 1937 stated that William Rockefeller had, at that time, 28 great-grandchildren.[citation needed]

Spouses[edit]

  • Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman (1839–1915) – John D. Rockefeller Sr.
  • Abby Greene Aldrich (1874–1948) – John D. Rockefeller Jr.
  • Martha Baird Allen (1895–1971) – John D. Rockefeller Jr.
  • Mary Todhunter Clark "Tod" (1907–1999) – Nelson Rockefeller
  • Margaretta "Happy" Fitler (1926–2015) – Nelson Rockefeller
    • Anne Marie Rasmussen – Steven Clark Rockefeller
  • Blanchette Ferry Hooker (1909–1992) – John D. Rockefeller III
  • Mary French (1910–1997) – Laurance Rockefeller
    • Wendy Gordon – Laurance "Larry" Rockefeller Jr.
  • Jievute "Bobo" Paulekiute (1916–2008) – Winthrop Rockefeller
  • Jeannette Edris (1918–1997) – Winthrop Rockefeller
    • Deborah Cluett Sage – Winthrop Paul Rockefeller
    • Lisenne Dudderar – Winthrop Paul Rockefeller
  • Margaret "Peggy" McGrath (1915–1996) – David Rockefeller
    • Diana Newell Rowan – David Rockefeller Jr.
    • Nancy King – Richard Gilder Rockefeller.
  • Sarah Elizabeth "Elsie" Stillman (1872–1935) – William Goodsell Rockefeller
  • Isabel Goodrich Stillman (1876–1935) – Percy Avery Rockefeller

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ World's largest private fortune - see Ron Chernow, Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller Sr., London: Warner Books, 1998. (p.370)
  2. ^ The Political Economy of Third World Intervention: Mines, Money, and U.S. Policy in the Congo Crisis, David N. Gibbs, University of Chicago Press 1991, page 113
  3. ^ The Rockefeller inheritance, Alvin Moscow, Doubleday 1977, page 418
  4. ^ Martin, Albro (1999), "John D. Rockefeller", Encyclopedia Americana, 23
  5. ^ Chernow 1998, p. 52
  6. ^ "The 9 most amazing facts about John D. Rockefeller". Oil Patch Asia. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014.
  7. ^ "Rockefeller Archive Center "Family, JDR"". Rockarch.org. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  8. ^ Women in the family with no control over the family fortune—see Bernice Kert, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller: The Woman in the Family. New York: Random House, 1993. (p.100)
  9. ^ Managing the family wealth, 1992 New York Times article Rockefeller Family Tries to Keep A Vast Fortune From Dissipating (see External Links). (Note: The names and nature of these departments may have changed since 1992.)
  10. ^ The Edifice Complex: The Architecture of Power, By Deyan Sudjic, Penguin, April 7, 2011, page 245–255
  11. ^ "Rockefeller Archive Center "Family, OMR"". Rockarch.org. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  12. ^ "John D. Rockefeller Jr. and the Van Tassel Apartments, Rockefeller Archive Newsletter, Fall 1997" (PDF). Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  13. ^ The Morningside Heights housing project - see David Rockefeller, Memoirs, New York: Random House, 2002. (pp.385-87).
  14. ^ "UChicago.edu, "News, Nobel"". News.uchicago.edu. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  15. ^ Funded colleges and Ivy League universities - see Robert Shaplen, Toward the Well-Being of Mankind: Fifty Years of the Rockefeller Foundation, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964. (passim)
  16. ^ Google Books: Rockefeller and the Internationalization of Mathematics. Books.google.com. April 1, 2003. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  17. ^ "Amazon Books: Forest Hill". Amazon.com. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  18. ^ Smith, Timothy R. "David Rockefeller Sr., steward of family fortune and Chase Manhattan Bank, dies at 101". Washington Post. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
  19. ^ Family unity maintained over the decades - see John Ensor Harr and Peter J. Johnson, The Rockefeller Century: Three Generations of America's Greatest Family, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988. (pp.370-71, passim); David's unifying influence - see Memoirs (pp.346-7)
  20. ^ Carnegie.Org "Rockefellers" Archived August 31, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Greatest benefactor of medicine in history - see Ron Chernow, Titan: op.cit. (p.570)
  22. ^ "Rockefeller Archive Center "JDR Jr"". Rockarch.org. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  23. ^ New York Times, November 21, 2006
  24. ^ Barbara Gamarekian (March 15, 1991). "Museum Honors All Rockefellers and Gifts". Washington Post. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  25. ^ Jene Stonesifer (March 14, 1991). "Rockefellers and Design". Washington Post. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  26. ^ Cornell.Edu "Infobase" Retrieved January 30, 2007.
  27. ^ Restorations and constructions in France, Egypt, Greece and Jerusalem - see Memoirs, (pp.44-48).
  28. ^ a b Depalma, Anthony (November 15, 2005). "They Saved Land Like Rockefellers". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2008.
  29. ^ "Rockefeller descendants speak out against company to which they owe their prosperity". CBS News. December 2, 2016. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  30. ^ Schwartz, John (September 21, 2014). "Rockefellers, Heirs to an Oil Fortune, Will Divest Charity of Fossil Fuels". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  31. ^ Wade, Terry; Driver, Anna. "Rockefeller Family Fund hits Exxon, divests from fossil fuels". Reuters. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  32. ^ Haskell, Mary B. (Winter 1996). "Brother, Can You Share a Dime?: The Rockefeller Family and Libraries". Libraries & Culture. 31 (1): 130–143. JSTOR 25548427.
  33. ^ "DIMES: Online Collections and Catalog of Rockefeller Archive Center". dimes.rockarch.org. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  34. ^ Chernow, R. (1998). Titan: The life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr.
  35. ^ Deutsch, Claudia H. (January 15, 2006). "AT LUNCH WITH: WENDY GORDON; Living Green, but Allowing for Shades of Gray".
  36. ^ a b c d Berger, Joseph, "A Rockefeller Known Not for Wealth but for His Efforts to Help", New York Times, June 23, 2014. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
  37. ^ a b Santora, Marc, "Richard Rockefeller Killed in New York Plane Crash", New York Times, June 13, 2014. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
  38. ^ Fallows, James, "Richard Rockefeller, MD What would you do, if you could do anything? An inspiring answer to that question.", June 14, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2014.

References[edit]

  • Rose, Kenneth W., Select Rockefeller Philanthropies, Booklet (pdf, 23 pages) of the Rockefeller Archive Center, 2004.
  • Origin of Rockenfeld, in German
  • Descendants of Goddard Rockenfeller
  • Listing of University of Chicago Nobel Laureates, News Office, University of Chicago website, undated.
  • Depalma, Anthony, They Saved Land Like Rockefellers, The New York Times Archive, November 15, 2005.
  • Carnegie Corporation of New York, Celebrating 100 years of Andrew Carnegie's Philanthropy - awarding the inaugural Andrew Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy to David and Laurance Rockefeller, 2001.
  • The Rockefeller Archive Center, John D. Rockefeller, Junior, 1874–1960, Overview of his life and philanthropy, 1997.
  • Strom, Stephanie, Manhattan: A Rockefeller Plans a Huge Bequest, The New York Times Archive, November 21, 2006.
  • O'Connell, Dennis, Top 10 Richest Men Of All Time, AskMen.com, undated.

Select bibliography[edit]

  • Abels, Jules. The Rockefeller Billions: The Story of the World's Most Stupendous Fortune. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1965.
  • Aldrich, Nelson W. Jr. Old Money: The Mythology of America's Upper Class. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988.
  • Allen, Gary. The Rockefeller File. Seal Beach, California: 1976 Press, 1976.
  • Boorstin, Daniel J. The Americans: The Democratic Experience. New York: Vintage Books, 1974.
  • Brown, E. Richard. Rockefeller Medicine Men: Medicine and Capitalism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.
  • Caro, Robert A. The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. New York: Vintage, 1975.
  • Chernow, Ron. Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. London: Warner Books, 1998.
  • Collier, Peter, and David Horowitz. The Rockefellers: An American Dynasty. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1976.
  • Elmer, Isabel Lincoln. Cinderella Rockefeller: A Life of Wealth Beyond All Knowing. New York: Freundlich Books, 1987.
  • Ernst, Joseph W., editor. "Dear Father"/"Dear Son:" Correspondence of John D. Rockefeller and John D. Rockefeller Jr. New York: Fordham University Press, with the Rockefeller Archive Center, 1994.
  • Flynn, John T. God's Gold: The Story of Rockefeller and His Times. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1932.
  • Fosdick, Raymond B. John D. Rockefeller Jr.: A Portrait. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1956.
  • Fosdick, Raymond B. The Story of the Rockefeller Foundation. New York: Transaction Publishers, Reprint, 1989.
  • Gates, Frederick Taylor. Chapters in My Life. New York: The Free Press, 1977.
  • Gitelman, Howard M. Legacy of the Ludlow Massacre: A Chapter in American Industrial Relations. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988.
  • Gonzales, Donald J., Chronicled by. The Rockefellers at Williamsburg: Backstage with the Founders, Restorers and World-Renowned Guests. McLean, Virginia: EPM Publications, Inc., 1991.
  • Hanson, Elizabeth. The Rockefeller University Achievements: A Century of Science for the Benefit of Humankind, 1901-2001. New York: The Rockefeller University Press, 2000.
  • Harr, John Ensor, and Peter J. Johnson. The Rockefeller Century: Three Generations of America's Greatest Family. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988.
  • Harr, John Ensor, and Peter J. Johnson. The Rockefeller Conscience: An American Family in Public and in Private. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991.
  • Hawke, David Freeman. John D.: The Founding Father of the Rockefellers. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.
  • Hidy, Ralph W. and Muriel E. Hidy. Pioneering in Big Business: History of Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), 1882-1911. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1955.
  • Jonas, Gerald. The Circuit Riders: Rockefeller Money and the Rise of Modern Science. New York: W.W.Norton and Co., 1989.
  • Josephson, Emanuel M. The Federal Reserve Conspiracy and the Rockefellers: Their Gold Corner. New York: Chedney Press, 1968.
  • Josephson, Matthew. The Robber Barons. London: Harcourt, 1962.
  • Kert, Bernice. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller: The Woman in the Family. New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Klein, Henry H. Dynastic America and Those Who Own It. New York: Kessinger Publishing, [1921] Reprint, 2003.
  • Kutz, Myer. Rockefeller Power: America's Chosen Family. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974.
  • Lundberg, Ferdinand. America's Sixty Families. New York: Vanguard Press, 1937.
  • Lundberg, Ferdinand. The Rich and the Super-Rich: A Study in the Power of Money Today. New York: Lyle Stuart, 1968.
  • Lundberg, Ferdinand. The Rockefeller Syndrome. Secaucus, New Jersey: Lyle Stuart, Inc., 1975.
  • Manchester, William R. A Rockefeller Family Portrait: From John D. to Nelson. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1959.
  • Moscow, Alvin. The Rockefeller Inheritance. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1977.
  • Nevins, Allan. John D. Rockefeller: The Heroic Age of American Enterprise. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1940.
  • Nevins, Allan. Study In Power: John D. Rockefeller, Industrialist and Philanthropist. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953.
  • Okrent, Daniel. Great Fortune: The Epic of Rockefeller Center. New York: Viking Press, 2003.
  • Reich, Cary. The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller: Worlds to Conquer 1908-1958. New York: Doubleday, 1996.
  • Roberts, Ann Rockefeller. The Rockefeller Family Home: Kykuit. New York: Abbeville Publishing Group, 1998.
  • Rockefeller, David. Memoirs. New York: Random House, 2002.
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