Tiki culture began as a 20th-century American social construct, born out of the demise of the Volstead Act and manifesting itself in the form of exotically decorated bars and restaurants that catered to a longing for travel to tropical regions. Starting in California in the 1930s and spreading around the world, it was inspired by nautical living and touristic sentiment towards an idealized South Pacific in general as viewed through a Hollywood lens focused on beautiful scenery, forbidden love and faux danger. Visual aesthetics, complex alcoholic drinks, escapism play central roles. Over time it selectively incorporated more cultural elements of other regions that affected Polynesia, such as south-east Asia and the Andes. Tiki mugs and the assumed symbolism of their carvings started to become more identified with this form of themed leisure during the 1950s. Most tiki mugs are not accurate representations of tiki but are stylized forms of Oceananic art as interpreted by others, their association is therefore loose and theatric, with no true spiritual meaning for Westerners dining at "tiki" establishments.
Tiki culture has changed over time, influenced by World War II, the atomic age, the space age as new reasons for escapism grew. While the allure for the exotic continues to play a strong role in evolving 21st century tiki culture, it relies on people interested in history, urban archeology, various forms of newer subcultures based on retroism. What would come to be known as Tiki culture in the United States began on the heel end of prohibition in 1933 with the opening of Don's Beachcomber, a Polynesian-themed bar and restaurant in Hollywood, California; the proprietor was Ernest Raymond Beaumont-Gantt, a young man from Texas and New Orleans who had done some rum-running with his father and had claimed to have sailed throughout much of the Pacific Ocean. The restaurant's name was changed to Don the Beachcomber, Ernest changed his name to Donn Beach, his restaurant featured Cantonese cuisine and exotic rum cocktails and punch drinks, with a decor of flaming torches, rattan furniture, flower leis, brightly colored fabrics that looked like imagery out of the popular movies that were helping to fuel the desires of the average American to travel the Pacific.
Movies leading up to this period included White Shadows in the South Seas, The Love Trader, Bird of Paradise. Beach interacted with movie stars, inviting them to his home for luau-like dinners and becoming friends with actors such as Clark Gable. Hei Tiki was released in 1935, with a NY Times review describing the plot as being about "a chieftain's daughter, declared tabu and destined to be the bride of the war god", it attributed the title to mean "love charm", in reference to Hei-tiki pendants sometimes associated with fertility. In 1936, a restaurant owner from Oakland, California named Victor Bergeron ate at the Don the Beachcomber restaurant; as stated in Bergeron's biography: "We went to a place called the South Seas...and visited Don the Beachcomber in Hollywood. In fact, I bought some stuff from Don the Beachcomber; when I got back to Oakland I told my wife what I had seen, we agreed to change the name of our restaurant and our decor." The renamed restaurant, as well as his new nickname, became.
Bergeron adopted the new persona in a manner to imitate Beach's theatrics and further perpetuate the illusions of Hollywood, telling people that the wooden leg he had lost to tuberculosis had in fact been the result of being attacked by a shark. Waikiki Wedding, starring Bing Crosby and Martha Raye was released in 1937 with the popular song Blue Hawaii, as was Her Jungle Love in 1938, starring Dorothy Lamour. Other restaurants such as Clifton's Cafeteria had begun introducing grand decorations based on non-traditional and "kitschy" themes, it was remodeled in 1939 to become Clifton's South Seas. The exterior and interior were decorated with 12 waterfalls, volcanic rock, tropical foliage. Tiki historian Sven Kirsten claims that Clifton's featured a "sherbert-gushing volcano"; the decor of both the inside and the outside of the restaurants was painstakingly created with decorations from around the world. Joseph Stephen Crane, the owner of the The Luau restaurant began his menu with a list of where all of his building materials came from.
The list included decorations not just from Hawaii but from all areas of Oceania, including furniture from Hong Kong and "man eating clam shells" from the Indian Ocean. Early tiki restaurants, although not called as such at the time, attempted to walk a fine line between the reality and myth of what they were creating, acknowledging much of it was Hollywood hocus-pocus but trying to create an atmosphere of authenticity. Crane's restaurant menus stated: "You have just passed the gangplank into another world - into a segment of Paradise - or such is the illusion we of THE LUAU hope to create, and it is more than an illusion for their is authenticity in the adventure you are about to experience... Both food and drink are prepared under the matchless guidance of the one and only Dr. Foo Fong... Our drink specialties, Island Symphonies of rare and distinguished rums, irrestibly claim your fullest respect, best shown by drinking and reverently". During a time when overseas civilian air travel was still uncommon, the Hawaiian Steamship Company's Matson Line continued its aggressive advertising campaigns promoting a both leisurely but still exotic island lifestyle, led by famous photographers such as Edward Steichen and Anton Bruehl and featuring actresses such as Jinx Falkenburg (later in Sweetheart of the Fleet and Tahiti
John Emery (actor)
John Emery was an American stage, film and television actor. Born in New York City, Emery was the son of stage actors Edward Isabel Waldron, he was educated at Long Island's La Salle Military Academy. Through the late 1930s to the early 1960s he appeared in supporting roles in many Hollywood films, beginning with James Whale's The Road Back and ranging from Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbound to Rocketship X-M. Emery appeared on Broadway in John Brown and Juliet, The Barretts of Wimpole Street, Flowers of the Forest, Alice Takat, Sweet Aloes, Hamlet and Cleopatra, Save Me the Waltz, The Unconquered, Retreat to Pleasure, Angel Street, The Relapse, The Royal Family, The Constant Wife, Hotel Paradiso, Rape of the Belt. Peepshow was the first production in which Emery and his second wife, Tamara Geva, appeared together. Emery was known for his television work, appearing on programs like I Love Lucy and Have Gun Will Travel. In 1946 he starred in a radio program as detective Philo Vance; the only husband of Tallulah Bankhead, the two married on August 31, 1937 in Jasper and were divorced on June 13, 1941 in Reno, Nevada.
The two remained friendly after their marriage. Emery married dancer Tamara Geva. Due to their resemblance Emery was rumoured to be the illegitimate child of John Barrymore; as a child Emery roomed for his first wife, Katherine Corri. From 1961 to 1964 Emery was romantically involved with actress Joan Bennett, who cared for him during his final illness. Emery died on November 16, 1964 in New York City, aged 59. John Emery on IMDb John Emery at the Internet Broadway Database John Emery at the Internet Off-Broadway Database John Emery at Find a Grave
Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that comprises California's southernmost counties, is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Ventura; the more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, the Mojave Desert is located north on California's Nevada border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico–United States border. Southern California includes the built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego, inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley, it encompasses eight metropolitan areas, three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA.
These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire (, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area. In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, El Centro metropolitan areas. The Southern California Megaregion is larger still, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation; the counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside are the five most populous in the state, are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.
The motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros. and Sony run major record companies. Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, the U. S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California; the region is important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii.
The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California in 1974. Since southern California, San Diego in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing and culture. Southern California is home to many sports sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches; the inland desert city of Palm Springs is popular. Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose. When the state is divided into two areas, the term southern California refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state; this definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo and San Bernardino counties.
Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary. Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be a
Black and white
Black-and-white images combine black and white in a continuous spectrum, producing a range of shades of gray. The history of various visual media has begun with black and white, as technology improved, altered to color. However, there are exceptions to this rule, including black-and-white fine art photography and in motion pictures, many art films. Most early forms of motion pictures or film were white; some color film processes, including hand coloring were experimented with, in limited use, from the earliest days of motion pictures. The switch from most films being in black-and-white to most being in color was gradual, taking place from the 1930s to the 1960s; when most film studios had the capability to make color films, the technology's popularity was limited, as using the Technicolor process was expensive and cumbersome. For many years, it was not possible for films in color to render realistic hues, thus its use was restricted to historical films and cartoons until the 1950s, while many directors preferred to use black-and-white stock.
For the years 1940–1966, a separate Academy Award for Best Art Direction was given for black-and-white movies along with one for color. The earliest television broadcasts were transmitted in black-and-white, received and displayed by black-and-white only television sets. Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first color television transmission on July 3, 1928 using a mechanical process; some color broadcasts in the U. S. began in the 1950s, with color becoming common in western industrialized nations during the late 1960s. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission settled on a color NTSC standard in 1953, the NBC network began broadcasting a limited color television schedule in January 1954. Color television became more widespread in the U. S. between 1963 and 1967, when major networks like CBS and ABC joined NBC in broadcasting full color schedules. Some TV stations in the US were still broadcasting in B&W until the late 80s to early 90s, depending on network.
Canada began airing color television in 1966 while the United Kingdom began to use an different color system from July 1967 known as PAL. The Republic of Ireland followed in 1970. Australia experimented with color television in 1967 but continued to broadcast in black-and-white until 1975, New Zealand experimented with color broadcasting in 1973 but didn't convert until 1975. In China, black-and-white television sets were the norm until as late as the 1990s, color TVs not outselling them until about 1989. In 1969, Japanese electronics manufacturers standardized the first format for industrial/non-broadcast videotape recorders called EIAJ-1, which offered only black-and-white video recording and playback. While used professionally now, many consumer camcorders have the ability to record in black-and-white. Throughout the 19th century, most photography was monochrome photography: images were either black-and-white or shades of sepia. Personal and commercial photographs might be hand tinted. Colour photography was rare and expensive and again containing inaccurate hues.
Color photography became more common from the mid-20th century. However, black-and-white photography has continued to be a popular medium for art photography, as shown in the picture by the well-known photographer Ansel Adams; this can take the form of black-and-white film or digital conversion to grayscale, with optional digital image editing manipulation to enhance the results. For amateur use certain companies such as Kodak manufactured black-and-white disposable cameras until 2009. Certain films are produced today which give black-and-white images using the ubiquitous C41 color process. Printing is an ancient art, color printing has been possible in some ways from the time colored inks were produced. In the modern era, for financial and other practical reasons, black-and-white printing has been common through the 20th century. However, with the technology of the 21st century, home color printers, which can produce color photographs, are common and inexpensive, a technology unimaginable in the mid-20th century.
Most American newspapers were black-and-white until the early 1980s. Some claim. In the UK, color was only introduced from the mid-1980s. Today, many newspapers restrict color photographs to the front and other prominent pages since mass-producing photographs in black-and-white is less expensive than color. Daily comic strips in newspapers were traditionally black-and-white with color reserved for Sunday strips.:Color printing is more expensive. Sometimes color is reserved for the cover. Magazines such as Jet magazine were either all or black-and-white until the end of the 2000s when it became all-color. Manga are published in black-and-white although now it is part of its image. Many school yearbooks are still or in black-and-white; the Wizard of Oz is in color when Dorothy is in Oz, but in black-and-white when she is in Kansas, although the latter scenes were in sepia when the film was released. The British film A Matter of Life and Death depicts the other world in black-and-white, earthly events in color.
Wim Wenders's film Wings of Desire uses sepia-tone black-and-white f
The Atomic Age known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear bomb, Trinity, on July 16, 1945, during World War II. Although nuclear chain reactions had been hypothesized in 1933 and the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction had taken place in December 1942, the Trinity test and the ensuing bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that ended World War II represented the first large-scale use of nuclear technology and ushered in profound changes in sociopolitical thinking and the course of technology development. While atomic power was promoted for a time as the epitome of progress and modernity, entering into the nuclear power era entailed frightful implications of nuclear warfare, the Cold War, mutual assured destruction, nuclear proliferation, the risk of nuclear disaster, as well as beneficial civilian applications in nuclear medicine, it is no easy matter to segregate peaceful uses of nuclear technology from military or terrorist uses, which complicated the development of a global nuclear-power export industry right from the outset.
In 1973, concerning a flourishing nuclear power industry, the United States Atomic Energy Commission predicted that, by the turn of the 21st century, one thousand reactors would be producing electricity for homes and businesses across the U. S. However, the "nuclear dream" fell far short of what was promised because nuclear technology produced a range of social problems, from the nuclear arms race to nuclear meltdowns, the unresolved difficulties of bomb plant cleanup and civilian plant waste disposal and decommissioning. Since 1973, reactor orders declined as electricity demand fell and construction costs rose. Many orders and completed plants were cancelled. By the late 1970s, nuclear power had suffered a remarkable international destabilization, as it was faced with economic difficulties and widespread public opposition, coming to a head with the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, both of which adversely affected the nuclear power industry for many decades.
In 1901, Frederick Soddy and Ernest Rutherford discovered that radioactivity was part of the process by which atoms changed from one kind to another, involving the release of energy. Soddy wrote in popular magazines that radioactivity was a “inexhaustible” source of energy, offered a vision of an atomic future where it would be possible to “transform a desert continent, thaw the frozen poles, make the whole earth one smiling Garden of Eden.” The promise of an “atomic age,” with nuclear energy as the global, utopian technology for the satisfaction of human needs, has been a recurring theme since. But "Soddy saw that atomic energy could be used to create terrible new weapons"; the concept of a nuclear chain reaction was hypothesized in 1933, shortly after Chadwick's discovery of the neutron. Only a few years in December 1938 nuclear fission was discovered by Otto Hahn and his assistant Fritz Strassmann, proved with Hahn's radiochemical methods; the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction took place in December 1942 under the leadership of Enrico Fermi.
In 1945, the pocketbook The Atomic Age heralded the untapped atomic power in everyday objects and depicted a future where fossil fuels would go unused. One science writer, David Dietz, wrote that instead of filling the gas tank of your car two or three times a week, you will travel for a year on a pellet of atomic energy the size of a vitamin pill. Glenn T. Seaborg, who chaired the Atomic Energy Commission, wrote "there will be nuclear powered earth-to-moon shuttles, nuclear powered artificial hearts, plutonium heated swimming pools for SCUBA divers, much more"; the phrase "Atomic Age" was coined by William L. Laurence, a New York Times journalist who became the official journalist for the Manhattan Project which developed the first nuclear weapons, he witnessed both the Trinity test and the bombing of Nagasaki and went on to write a series of articles extolling the virtues of the new weapon. His reporting before and after the bombings helped to spur public awareness of the potential of nuclear technology and in part motivated development of the technology in the U.
S. and in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union would go on to test its first nuclear weapon in 1949. In 1949, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission chairman, David Lilienthal stated that "atomic energy is not a search for new energy, but more a beginning of human history in which faith in knowledge can vitalize man's whole life"; the phrase gained popularity as a feeling of nuclear optimism emerged in the 1950s in which it was believed that all power generators in the future would be atomic in nature. The atomic bomb would render all conventional explosives obsolete and nuclear power plants would do the same for power sources such as coal and oil. There was a general feeling that everything would use a nuclear power source of some sort, in a positive and productive way, from irradiating food to preserve it, to the development of nuclear medicine. There would be an age of peace and plenty in which atomic energy would "provide the power needed to desalinate water for the thirsty, irrigate the deserts for the hungry, fuel interstellar travel deep into outer space".
This use would render the Atomic Age as significant a step in technological progress as the first smelting of Bronze, of Iron, or the commencement of the Industrial Revolution. This included cars, leading Ford to display the Ford Nucleon concept car to the public in 1958. There was the promise of golf balls which could always be fo
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars and light—are brought toward one another. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, the Moon's gravity causes the ocean tides; the gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and for the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large-scale structures in the Universe. Gravity has an infinite range, although its effects become weaker on farther objects. Gravity is most described by the general theory of relativity which describes gravity not as a force, but as a consequence of the curvature of spacetime caused by the uneven distribution of mass; the most extreme example of this curvature of spacetime is a black hole, from which nothing—not light—can escape once past the black hole's event horizon. However, for most applications, gravity is well approximated by Newton's law of universal gravitation, which describes gravity as a force which causes any two bodies to be attracted to each other, with the force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Gravity is the weakest of the four fundamental forces of physics 1038 times weaker than the strong force, 1036 times weaker than the electromagnetic force and 1029 times weaker than the weak force. As a consequence, it has no significant influence at the level of subatomic particles. In contrast, it is the dominant force at the macroscopic scale, is the cause of the formation and trajectory of astronomical bodies. For example, gravity causes the Earth and the other planets to orbit the Sun, it causes the Moon to orbit the Earth, causes the formation of tides, the formation and evolution of the Solar System and galaxies; the earliest instance of gravity in the Universe in the form of quantum gravity, supergravity or a gravitational singularity, along with ordinary space and time, developed during the Planck epoch from a primeval state, such as a false vacuum, quantum vacuum or virtual particle, in a unknown manner. Attempts to develop a theory of gravity consistent with quantum mechanics, a quantum gravity theory, which would allow gravity to be united in a common mathematical framework with the other three forces of physics, are a current area of research.
Archimedes discovered the center of gravity of a triangle. He postulated that if the centers of gravity of two equal weights wasn't the same, it would be located in the middle of the line that joins them; the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius in De Architectura postulated that gravity of an object didn't depend on weight but its "nature". Aryabhata first identified the force to explain why objects are not thrown out when the earth rotates. Brahmagupta described gravity as an attractive force and used the term "gruhtvaakarshan" for gravity. Modern work on gravitational theory began with the work of Galileo Galilei in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. In his famous experiment dropping balls from the Tower of Pisa, with careful measurements of balls rolling down inclines, Galileo showed that gravitational acceleration is the same for all objects; this was a major departure from Aristotle's belief that heavier objects have a higher gravitational acceleration. Galileo postulated air resistance as the reason that objects with less mass fall more in an atmosphere.
Galileo's work set the stage for the formulation of Newton's theory of gravity. In 1687, English mathematician Sir Isaac Newton published Principia, which hypothesizes the inverse-square law of universal gravitation. In his own words, "I deduced that the forces which keep the planets in their orbs must reciprocally as the squares of their distances from the centers about which they revolve: and thereby compared the force requisite to keep the Moon in her Orb with the force of gravity at the surface of the Earth; the equation is the following: F = G m 1 m 2 r 2 Where F is the force, m1 and m2 are the masses of the objects interacting, r is the distance between the centers of the masses and G is the gravitational constant. Newton's theory enjoyed its greatest success when it was used to predict the existence of Neptune based on motions of Uranus that could not be accounted for by the actions of the other planets. Calculations by both John Couch Adams and Urbain Le Verrier predicted the general position of the planet, Le Verrier's calculations are what led Johann Gottfried Galle to the discovery of Neptune.
A discrepancy in Mercury's orbit pointed out flaws in Newton's theory. By the end of the 19th century, it was known that its orbit showed slight perturbations that could not be accounted for under Newton's theory, but all searches for another perturbing body had been fruitless; the issue was resolved in 1915 by Albert Einstein's new theory of general relativity, which accounted for the small discrepancy in Mercury's orbit. This discrepancy was the advance in the perihelion of Mercury of 42.98 arcseconds per century. Although Newton's theory has been superseded by Einstein's general relativity, most modern non-relativistic gravitational calculations are still made using Newton
A film poster is a poster used to promote and advertise a film. Studios print several posters that vary in size and content for various domestic and international markets, they contain an image with text. Today's posters feature photographs of the main actors. Prior to the 1980s, illustrations instead of photos were far more common; the text on film posters contains the film title in large lettering and the names of the main actors. It may include a tagline, the name of the director, names of characters, the release date, etc. Film posters are displayed inside and on the outside of movie theaters, elsewhere on the street or in shops; the same images appear in the film exhibitor's pressbook and may be used on websites, DVD packaging, advertisements in newspapers and magazines, etc. Film posters have been used since the earliest public exhibitions of film, they began as outside placards listing the programme of films to be shown inside the hall or movie theater. By the early 1900s, they began to feature illustrations of a film scene or an array of overlaid images from several scenes.
Other posters have used artistic interpretations of a scene or the theme of the film, represented in a wide variety of artistic styles. The first film poster was based on an illustration by Marcellin Auzolle to promote the showing of the Lumiere Brothers film L'Arroseur arrosé at the Grand Café in Paris on December 26, 1895. Film posters were produced for the exclusive use by the theaters exhibiting the film the poster was created for, were required to be returned to the distributor after the film left the theater. In the United States, film posters were returned to a nationwide operation called the National Screen Service which printed and distributed most of the film posters for the studios between 1940 and 1984; as an economy measure, the NSS recycled posters that were returned, sending them back out to be used again at another theater. During this time, a film could stay in circulation for several years, so many old film posters were badly worn before being retired into storage at an NSS warehouse.
Those posters which were not returned were thrown away by the theater owner or damaged by being outside. Beginning in the 1980s, the American film studios began taking over direct production and distribution of their posters from the National Screen Service and the process of making and distributing film posters became decentralized in that country. After the National Screen Service ceased most of its printing and distribution operations in 1985, some of the posters which they had stored in warehouses around the United States ended up in the hands of private collectors and dealers. Today there is a thriving collectibles market in film posters; the first auction by a major auction house of film posters occurred on December 11, 1990, when proceeds of a sale of 271 vintage posters run by Bruce Hershenson at Christie's totaled US$935,000. The record price for a single poster was set on November 15, 2005 when $690,000 was paid for a poster of Fritz Lang's 1927 film Metropolis from the Reel Poster Gallery in London.
Other early horror and science fiction posters are known to bring high prices as well, with an example from The Mummy realizing $452,000 in a 1997 Sotheby's auction, posters from both Bride of Frankenstein and The Black Cat selling for $334,600 in Heritage auctions, in 2007 and 2009, respectively. Rare film posters have been found being used as insulation in attics and walls. In 2011, 33 film posters, including a Dracula Style F one-sheet, from 1930-1931 were discovered in an attic in Berwick and auctioned for $502,000 in March 2012 by Heritage Auctions. Over the years, old Bollywood posters with hand-painted art, have become collectors items; as a result of market demand, some of the more popular older film posters have been reproduced either under license or illegally. Although the artwork on reproductions is the same as originals, reproductions can be distinguished by size, printing quality, paper type. Several websites on the Internet offer "authentication" tests to distinguish originals from reproductions.
Original film posters distributed to theaters and other poster venues by the movie studios are never sold directly to the public. However, most modern posters are produced in large quantities and become available for purchase by collectors indirectly through various secondary markets such as eBay. Accordingly, most modern posters are not as valuable; however some recent posters, such as the Pulp Fiction "Lucky Strike" U. S. one sheet poster, are quite rare. Lobby cards are similar to posters but smaller 11 in × 14 in 8 in × 10 in before 1930. Lobby cards are collectible and values depend on their age and popularity. Issued in sets of eight, each featuring a different scene from the film. In unusual circumstances, some releases were promoted with smaller sets; the set for The Running Man, for example, had only six cards, whereas the set for The Italian Job had twelve. Films released by major production companies experiencing financial difficulties lacked lobby sets, such as Manhunter. A Jumbo Lobby Card is larger, 14 in x 17 in and issued in sets.
Prior to 1940 studios promoted major releases with the larger card sets. In addition to the larger size, the paper quality was better; the title card disp