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Rockhampton is a city in the Rockhampton Region of Central Queensland, Australia. The population of Rockhampton in June 2018 was 78,592, making it the fourth-largest city in the state outside of the cities of South East Queensland, the 22nd-largest city in Australia. Rockhampton is one of the oldest cities in Northern Australia. In 1853, Charles and William Archer came across what is now known as the Fitzroy River, which they named in honour of Sir Charles FitzRoy; the Archer brothers took up a run near Gracemere in 1855, more settlers arrived soon after, enticed by the fertile valleys. The town of Rockhampton was proclaimed in 1858, surveyed by Arthur F Wood and Francis Clarke, the chosen street design resembled the Hoddle Grid in Melbourne and consisted of a grid of wide boulevards and laneways, uncommon in Queensland. Within the year, gold was found at Canoona, led to the first North Australian gold rush; this led to an influx of migrants who transformed Rockhampton into the second-largest port in the state.

Subsequent gold rushes at Mount Morgan Mine, at the time one of the most productive gold mines in the world, laid the foundations for much of the city's Victorian architecture. Today, Rockhampton is an industrial and agricultural centre of the north, is the regional centre of Central Queensland. Rockhampton is a large tourist destination known for its history and culture supporting such institutions as the Rockhampton Art Gallery, one of the most extensive regional galleries in Australia, the Central Queensland University with campuses across five states, the Rockhampton Heritage Village, Dreamtime Cultural Centre, it is famous as the hometown of Rod Laver – one of the best tennis players in history. The city is served by the Rockhampton Airport and acts as a gateway to local tourist locations such as the Capricorn Caves and Mount Archer National Park, as well as regional tourist areas such as Yeppoon and the Capricorn Coast alongside the island chains offshore that include Great Keppel Island.

The Capricorn district is the traditional home of the Darumbal Aboriginal people. The Darumbal language region includes the city of Rockhampton extending south towards Raglan Creek and north towards the Styx River and inland along the Broad Sound Ranges; the Gangulu language region includes the towns of Clermont and Springsure extending south towards the Dawson River, includes parts of Rockhampton and South Rockhampton. The British settlement of the area began in 1853, when the Archer brothers and William, who were seeking grazing lands arrived in the Rockhampton area, they were acting on information from earlier expeditions by Ludwig Leichhardt and Thomas Mitchell, who had explored the area in 1844 and 1846 and noted suitable land for grazing then. In January 1854, the New South Wales government proclaimed two new districts: Port Curtis and Leichhardt, the Archer brothers returned in August 1855 to set up their pastoral run at Gracemere; the Fitzroy River provided a convenient waterway for shipping of supplies and produce, the Archer brothers constructed a wool shed just downstream of a bar of rocks that prevented further upstream navigation from the coast.

These rocks were incorporated with the traditional English term for a village, the name "Rockhampton" was first coined by Charles Archer and the local Commissioner from Crown Lands, William Wiseman. In 1856, the Elliott brothers arrived at Gracemere and soon after, took up landholdings at Canoona, north of present-day Yaamba. There, Philip Elliott and his party came under attack from the Darumbals of the Taroomball tribe. Elliott was wounded by a spear and one of his men was killed. However, Elliott had brought with his party a contingent of Native Police, who turned near-certain loss into victory, it was the first of many battles. Permanent British settlement at the Rockhampton township began in July 1856, when Richard Palmer travelled from Gladstone with an escort of Native Police under sub-Lieutenant Walter Powell to set up a store. Powell constructed the Native Police barracks; this was the first habitable British building established at Rockhampton and it was located on the south bank of the Fitzroy River at the end of Albert Street.

With abundant grazing lands and waters from the Fitzroy River and its many tributaries and lagoons, the region continued to expand rapidly. In 1858, the town of Rockhampton was proclaimed; the town was surveyed at this time and the first sales of building allotments were held that year. In 1859, gold was discovered at Canoona. Miners rushed to the new field, using the site of Rockhampton on the Fitzroy River as the nearest navigable port; the Canoona field proved to be disappointing and thousands of would-be gold seekers were left stranded at Rockhampton. Although many returned south, others stayed. By 1861, the town boasted a regular newspaper, court house, school of arts. Direct shipments of imported goods and migrants from the United Kingdom began to be received during the 1860s. In 1862, land in the Kensington Estate, described as just three miles from "the most rising town and district in the whole of the colonies" was advertised for sale. During the 1860s and'70s, Rockhampton developed as the main port for the developing Central Queensland hinterland, the main export at that time being wool.

In 1893, Alfred Henry Lambton wrote what is recognised as the first crime novel set in Queensland, From Prison to Power. The novel takes place at the fictitious cat


LEAK is the brand name for high-fidelity audio equipment made by H. J. Leak & Co. Ltd, of London, England; the company was founded in 1934 by Harold Joseph Leak and was sold to the Rank Organisation in January 1969. During the 1950s and 1960s, the company produced high-quality amplifiers, radio tuners, pickups, arms and a turntable; the sale of the business to Rank saw an expanded range of models, considerable further development of loudspeakers, but Rank was not able to position the brand to counter competition from Japanese electronics manufacturers, so by the late 1970s electronics and speaker production ceased under the LEAK name. The company focussed on provision of amplifiers for public address systems and theatres, with only a few staff. Typical designs used were similar to those found in the Partridge Public Address Manuals of the time, which used Osram's DA30 power triodes in push-pull for 45 watts output. During the latter part of the Second World War, the company started developing amplifiers that made extensive use of negative feedback to achieve high performance.

This approach had been patented by Harold Black of Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1934, used before that by Alan Blumlein of EMI, but it was slow to emerge as popular method for controlling amplifier performance. In September 1945 the company released the first of the "Point One" series of amplifiers, so named because the total harmonic distortion was 0.1% at rated output. This represented a major leap forward in accepted standards for high-performance amplifiers; this first "Point One" amplifier was known as the Type 15, produced 15 watts output, at 0.1% distortion, using push-pull KT66 valves connected as triodes, with 26 dB feedback applied over four stages. The amplifier has a similar topology to the Williamson amplifier published in Wireless World in 1947. In 1948, the original four-stage circuit was replaced with a three-stage design, designated the TL/12; this amplifier had the same high performance at reduced cost, it was responsible for establishing and securing the future of the company as a dominant player in the "hi-fi" boom of the 1950s and 1960s.

Subsequent amplifiers from the company all used the same circuit topology as the TL/12, but took advantage of newer more efficient power valves and the so-called "ultra-linear" connection of the output stage to obtain higher power output with triode-like characteristics. These amplifiers included the TL/10, TL/25, TL/12-Plus, TL/25-Plus, TL/50-Plus, the Stereo 20, Stereo 50 and Stereo 60. Spicer, Stephen. Firsts in High Fidelity. Audio Amateur Press. ISBN 1-882580-31-1. Ferrari Pier Paolo “Leak Audio Hi-Fi” SANDIT Libri, Italy ISBN 978-88-97599-92-0 Unofficial LEAK web site "LEAK Historie". Hi-Fi Studio. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018

Léon Choubrac

Léon Choubrac, who sometimes signed his drawings with Hope, was a French poster designer and illustrator based in Paris. With his younger brother Alfred Choubrac, Léon was trained as a classical artist with the painters Charles Doërr and Isidore Pils at the École des Beaux Arts; the Choubrac brothers came soon to the poster, practicing since 1875 the modern treatment of colors and typography, associated with images thanks to chromolithography. In the early 1870s, the Choubrac brothers and Jules Chéret reduced the cost of colour lithography introducing technical advances. Additionally, in 1881 restrictions on bill-posting were lifted and eased state control of the media in France. In 1884, the Paris city council started to rent out surfaces belonging to the municipality, paving the way for a rapid increase in the production and distribution of advertising posters. Posters with clear colours and dashing images appeared all over town during the vibrant spirit of the Belle Époque. Léon and Alfred created the Ateliers Choubrac.

As an illustrator, he sometimes collaborated with his brother in Gil Blas or the satirical weekly Le Courrier français, among others. Choubrac illustrated several works by Emile Zola. Although Leon died young, his brother Alfred went on to produce an impressive number of posters for Parisian entertainers, theatres and various commercial products. Beraldi, Henri. Les graveurs du 19e siècle. Cinema and the Invention of Modern Life, Berkely: University of California Press, ISBN 9780520201125

Cordillera Sarmiento

The Cordillera Sarmiento is a mountain range located in the Chilean Patagonia to the west of Puerto Natales named after Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, a Spanish explorer who navigated the region's waterways between 1579 and 1580. It extends in north-south direction on the western shore of the Fjord of the Mountains and parallel to the Cordillera Riesco; the highest mountain in this range is La Dama Blanca, with an elevation of 1,941 m, located at 51°48′S 73°24′W. It has a number of small glaciers. A natural continuation of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, Cordillera de Sarmiento is a mountainous peninsula about 65 kilometres long and 15 kilometres wide; the range centers about the 52° South line of latitude, 60 kilometres west of Puerto Natales. The main summits of the range are La Dama Blanca, followed to the south by Cerro Trono and Alas de Ángel. Three more summits rise over 1,700 metres, many of the peaks are ice-covered towers or sharp rock spires, flanked by vertical walls. On the official maps of the Chilean IGM, not a single feature of the Cordillera de Sarmiento has been given a name, in part due to the total lack of human presence in the area.

Over the years and climbers have named the summits, lakes and rivers. With nearly 2,000 metres of jagged relief, the cordillera has a profile somewhat similar to the French Alps, but its glaciation is much more extensive, sending large glacier snouts into tidewater. In recent geological times the ice was thousands of feet thicker, bulldozing the long north-south fjords, rounding out basins in the main massif, shaving smooth the neighboring ranges. From the nearby sub-Antarctic waters, the persistent west winds pick up moist, cold air and plaster the peaks with thick frost; this forms the infamous "cauliflower ice", similar to the rime that forms on peaks bordering the Patagonian Ice Cap, farther north, but much denser and more persistent. Nearly all ascents, to date, have been on ice; the rock, part of the rare Rocas Verdes formation, originated at the end of the Gondwana super-continent, when Patagonia started to break up and an oceanic basin was formed between the volcanic arc and the continent.

The basin filled with large extrusions of basalts, sandstones and cherts. Still at depth, the rock was metamorphosed and uplifted to its present position. To all appearances the rock that underpins Sarmiento is solid; the rugged lands surrounding these fjords were home of the Kawésqar and Yaghan people for thousands of years. Sadly, their names and tales were erased by the deadly European colonization process; the range was first recorded in written history by Juan Ladrillero in 1558, but his tales were forgotten as 58 of his 60 men died during that expedition, the rest, including Ladrillero, died soon afterward. Twenty years Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa followed in Ladrillero's wake and claimed for himself the discovery. Sarmiento’s name now is given to the mountain range he generically called by him as "cordillera nevada". Little further exploration was done in these waters for 250 years. In the 1830s, however, as Robert Fitz Roy and his crew explored the southern end of South America in HMS Beagle, they discovered the fjord that gives access to the eastern flanks of Cordillera de Sarmiento.

This they called the Canal of the Mountains, describing it as "bordered on each side by a steep range of mountains, broken here and there by deep ravines, which were filled with frozen snow, surmounted by extensive glaciers, whence huge avalanches were continually falling." Alacalufes National Reserve Sarmiento Channel Recon: Towers of Wind and Ice, The Cordillera de Sarmiento of Southern Chile Map Instituto Geográfico Militar 1:50.000 "Cordillera Sarmiento de Gamboa"


BIOMASS is an Earth observing satellite satellite planned for launch by the European Space Agency in October 2022. The mission will provide the first comprehensive measurements of global forest biomass; the mission is meant to last for five years, monitoring at least eight growth cycles in the worlds’ forests. First announced in May 2013, when it was selected as ESA's seventh Earth Explorer, the BIOMASS satellite is part of ESA's Living Planet Programme, which consists of Earth observation missions, its initial launch date was set to 2020. The entire cost of the mission was placed at around 400 million euros; the main scientific instrument aboard BIOMASS will be a synthetic aperture radar operating at 435 MHz. The satellite will measure 10 x 12 x 20m, weight around 1.2 tonnes and it is set to orbit the Earth at an altitude of 600 km. The BIOMASS mission is planned to continue its observation of Earth for five years after launch, during which it will provide detailed information about at least eight growth cycles in the world's forests.

In 2016 it was announced that Airbus Defence and Space UK will build the satellite under a contract valued at 229 million euros. BIOMASS will be equipped with a large 12-m deployable antenna, which will be built in Friedrichshafen, Germany; the instruments of the antennas are being fabricated by Italy and France through Thales Alenia Space. All devices for assembly of the satellite structure, including vertical transport equipment and disassembly of satellite panels and disassembly of the Synthetic Aperture Radar will be done by the Spanish company SENER; the main objective of BIOMASS is to measure forest biomass in order to assess terrestrial carbon stocks and fluxes and better understand the planet's carbon cycle. The Biomass mission will explore Earth's surface at the P-band wavelength, the first time this technique is used from orbit; this will allow it to provide accurate maps of tropical and boreal forest biomass that are not obtainable by ground measurement techniques. The amount of biomass and forest height will be measured at a resolution of 200 m, forest disturbances such as clear-cutting at a resolution of 50 m.

Its stated objectives are: Reduce the large uncertainties in the carbon flux due to changes in land use Provide scientific support for international treaties and programs such as the UN’s REDD program Improve understanding and predictions of landscape-scale carbon dynamics Provide observations to initialize and test the land element of Earth system models Provide key information for forest resources management and ecosystem services. It is expected that the data sent back from the satellite will contribute new information to other areas of climate science, like measuring the biomass of desert regions to find fossil water and new water sources in arid regions as well as contributing to observations of ice sheet dynamics, subsurface geology and forest topography. ESA's Living Planet Programme GOCE SMOS CryoSat & CryoSat-2 Swarm ADM-Aeolus EarthCARE FLEX


Gemuendina stuertzi is a placoderm of the order Rhenanida, of the seas of Early Devonian Germany. In life, Gemuendina resembled a scaly ray with a large-finned stargazer. G. stuertzi is invoked as an example of convergent evolution- with its flat body and huge, wing-like pectoral fins it has a strong, albeit superficial similarity to rays. Unlike rays, both Gemuendina`s eyes and nostrils were placed atop the head, facing upward. Furthermore, G. stuertzi's upturned mouth would have enabled it to suction prey that swam overhead, rather than swallow sediment or suction prey out of the substrate like modern rays. Unlike most other placoderm orders, such as the Antiarchs, or the Arthrodires and its four other known relatives had armor made up of a mosaic of unfused bony plates and scales; because their armor was so fragile, few intact examples of rhenanids have survived in the fossil record. Because several regions of the Hunsruck lagerstätte were anoxic, thus free of scavenging organisms, nearly pristine specimens of G. stuertzi have been found as a result.

Unlike other placoderms, it did not have the characteristic tooth plates of placoderms. Instead, it had star-shaped tubercle scales that allowed it to seize swallow fish and other animals that swam too close with its mouth. Specimens of G. stuertzi ranged in size from 30 to 100 centimeters in length. In 1971, Erik Stensiö described a metre long specimen as a new species, "Broilina heroldi,", synonymized with Gemuendina. Paleos Rhenanida Janvier, Philippe. Early Vertebrates Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-854047-7 Long, John A; the Rise of Fishes: 500 Million Years of Evolution Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8018-5438-5