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Rockland County, New York

Rockland County is the southernmost county on the west side of the Hudson River in the U. S. state of New York, part of the New York City Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county's population, as of the 2010 United States Census, was 311,687, increasing to a 2018 Census estimate of 325,695, making it the third-most densely populated county outside New York City within New York State; the county seat is New City. Rockland County is a suburb of New York City that borders the boroughs about 9 miles northwest of the city at their closest points, is accessible via the New York State Thruway, after 10 exits; the name derives from "rocky land". Rockland County is the smallest county by area in New York State outside New York City, it comprises five towns and nineteen incorporated villages, with numerous unincorporated villages and hamlets. Rockland County is designated as a Preserve America Community, nearly a third of the county's area is parkland; the county has the largest Jewish population per capita of any U.

S. county, with 90,000 residents, being Jewish. Rockland ranked 31st on the list of highest-income counties by median household income in the United States, with a median household income of $82,534 according to the 2010 census; the area that would become Rockland County was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Aboriginals, including Munsees, or Lenni Lenape. In 1609, Henry Hudson, thinking he had found the legendary "Northwest Passage", sailed on the Half Moon up the river that would one day bear his name and anchored near the area, now Haverstraw before continuing to disillusionment north of Albany; the Dutch were the first Europeans to settle in the area, around 1675. These settlers, eager to escape "city life", moved from Manhattan to Rockland. A number of unique Dutch-style red sandstone houses still stand, many place names in the county reveal their Dutch origin; when the Duke of York established the first twelve counties of New York in 1683, present-day Rockland County was part of Orange County, known as "Orange County South of the Mountains".

Orangetown was created at the same time under a royal grant encompassing all of modern Rockland County. Around this time, as the English began to colonize Nyack and Tappan, the Native Americans began to leave Rockland in search of undisturbed land further north; the natural barrier of the Ramapo Mountains and the size of the county made it difficult to carry out governmental activities. At one point there were one on each side of the Ramapo Mountains. For this reason, Rockland split off from Orange in 1798 to form its own county; that same year the county seat was transferred from Tappan to New City, where a new courthouse was built. Haverstraw was separated from Orangetown in 1719 and became a town in 1788. Clarkstown and Ramapo became towns in 1791, followed by Stony Point in 1865. During the American Revolution, when control of the Hudson River was viewed by the British as strategic to dominating the American territories, Rockland saw skirmishes at Haverstraw and Piermont, significant military engagements at the Battle of Stony Point, where General "Mad" Anthony Wayne earned his nickname.

George Washington had headquarters for a time at John Suffern's tavern, the site of the village of Suffern. British Major John André met with American traitor Benedict Arnold near Stony Point to buy the plans for the fortifications at West Point. André was captured with the plans in Tarrytown on his way back to the British lines. Still another important chapter in the story of the Revolution was written on May 5, 1783, when General Washington received Sir Guy Carleton at the DeWint House, where they discussed terms of a peace treaty. Two days Washington visited Sir Guy aboard a British war vessel. On this day the King's Navy fired its first salute to the flag of the United States of America. In the decades following the Revolution, Rockland became popular for its stone and bricks; these products, required quarrying in land that many believed should be set aside as a preserve. Many unsuccessful efforts were made to turn much of the Hudson Highlands on the northern tip of the county into a forest preserve.

However, Union Pacific Railroad president E. H. Harriman donated land as well as large sums of money for the purchase of properties in the area of Bear Mountain. Bear Mountain/Harriman State Park became a reality in 1910 when Harriman's widow donated his lands to the state, by 1914 it was estimated that more than a million people a year were coming to the park. After World War I, Rockland county became the most important sausage making hub in the state of New York. Rockland remained semi-rural until the 1950s when the Palisades Interstate Parkway, Tappan Zee Bridge, other major arteries were built; the idea of suburbia helped transform the county. The county's population flourished, from 89,276 in 1950 to 265,475 in 1990. Rockland County lies just north of the New Jersey-New York border, west of Westchester County, south of Orange County, its east border is formed by the Tappan Zee portion of the Hudson River. The county's terrain ranges from 1,283' ASL on Rockhouse Mountain to approaching sea level along the Hudson River.

According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 199.34 sqmi, of which 173.55 sqmi is land and 25.79 sqmi is water. It is the state's smallest county outside the five boroughs of New

Intrinsic termination

Rho-independent termination is a mechanism in prokaryotes that causes RNA transcription to stop and release the newly made RNA. In this mechanism, the mRNA contains a sequence that can base pair with itself to form a stem-loop structure 7–20 base pairs in length, rich in cytosine-guanine base pairs. C-G base pairs have significant base-stacking interactions and can form three hydrogen bonds between each other, resulting in a stable RNA duplex. Following the stem-loop structure is a chain of uracil residues; the bonds between uracil and adenine are weak. A protein bound to RNA polymerase binds to the stem-loop structure enough to cause the polymerase to temporarily stall; this pausing of the polymerase coincides with transcription of the poly-uracil sequence. The weak Adenine-Uracil bonds lower the energy of destabilization for the RNA-DNA duplex, allowing it to unwind and dissociate from the RNA polymerase. Stem-loop structures that are not followed by a poly-Uracil sequence cause the RNA polymerase to pause, but it will continue transcription after a brief time because the duplex is too stable to unwind far enough to cause termination.

Rho-independent transcription termination is a frequent mechanism underlying the activity of cis-acting RNA regulatory elements, such as riboswitches. Rho factor WebGeSTer Trp operon

Xolani Sotashe

Xolani Ronald Sotashe is a South African politician who serves as Leader of the Opposition in the Cape Town City Council, Leader of the African National Congress in the Cape Town City Council, Chairperson of the African National Congress Dullah Omar regional branch, Member of the Cape Town City Council and Chairperson of Subcouncil 9. He served as Chief Whip of the African National Congress in the Cape Town City Council and Chairperson of Subcouncil 24, he was the African National Congress mayoral candidate in 2016 and 2018, losing to Patricia de Lille and Dan Plato respectively. Born in Cape Town, Sotashe is one of seven children, his mother is from a township outside Kuils River. At an early age and his family moved to the Transkei, where he completed his primary and secondary education, he served on the student representative council of Ndema Senior Secondary School. He moved back to Cape Town and studied at Boland College and Helderberg College, he did courses at the University of Cape Town through the Development Action Group.

Sotashe worked for Agfa Photo Fast. While working there, he developed a passion for photojournalism. Sotashe was always involved in regional politics. While working at Agfa Photo Fast, Sotashe became involved in party politics, he was active in the former South East ANC region of Cape Town. The region included areas such as Somerset West and Khayelitsha, he was a member of the ANC Youth League in Lwandle, near Strand. The region merged with other regions to create the present Dullah Omar region, which represents the entire Cape Town metropolitan area, he became chairperson of the region and still holds the position. In 2000, Sotashe was elected councillor to the newly-created City of Cape Town Municipality. In his early years as councillor, he served as a ward councillor for ward 86, an area that included the township of Nomzamo in Strand, he now serves as a proportional representation councillor. He has served on many portfolio committees. After the 2011 municipal elections, he was appointed Chief Whip of the African National Congress caucus in the council and Chairperson of the Subcouncil 24.

He served in both positions until 2016. In June 2016, the African National Congress selected Sotashe to be the party's Cape Town mayoral candidate, he replaced Tony Ehrenreich, the party's previous mayoral candidate in 2011. In August 2016, he subsequently lost to incumbent Mayor, Patricia de Lille, by a wide margin as the African National Congress's support in the city decreased, he was appointed Chairperson of Subcouncil 9. In November 2018, Sotashe was the ANC's candidate for the post of Mayor of Cape Town after Patricia de Lille resigned, he was challenged for the position by Grant Haskin. He lost to Plato, his other challenger, received only 3 votes

SAT Subject Tests

SAT Subject Tests are 20 multiple-choice standardized tests given by the College Board on individual subjects. They are taken to improve a student's credentials for admission to colleges in the United States. Many colleges use the SAT Subject Tests for admission, course placement, to advise students about course selection; some colleges specify the SAT Subject Tests that they require for placement. Students choose which tests to take depending upon college entrance requirements for the schools to which they plan to apply. From their introduction in 1937 until 1994, the SAT Subject Tests were known as Achievement Tests, until January 2005, they were known as SAT II: Subject Tests, they are still known by these names. Every test is now a one-hour timed test; the exception to the one-hour time was the writing test, divided into a 20-minute essay question and a 40-minute multiple-choice section. The writing test was discontinued in January 2005. A student may take up to three SAT Subject Tests on any given date at a flat rate.

There is a per-administration registration fee of $26, plus a flat fee of $22 for each test the student plans to take. Students aren't required to take the same number of tests they signed up for, nor are they required to take the same tests they indicated when filling out the registration form. If one takes more tests than paid for, he/she will be billed for the additional test. Students eligible for an SAT fee waiver are allowed to take up to six subject tests in up to two administrations free of charge. With the exception of the March test administration, SAT Subject Tests are offered on the same days as the regular SAT Reasoning Test. In addition, not all Subject tests are offered on every test date. Most non-foreign language tests are offered in every administration, but World History and foreign-language tests are only available on certain dates. In particular, the language tests with listening are available only once a year, in November; the subject tests are administered in August, November, December and June.

A calendar of test dates and registration deadlines can be found on the College Board's official website. There are 20 different tests, 12 of which are foreign language. Examinees are required to bring an acceptable calculator to take the Mathematics tests, a CD player to take the language with listening tests. Writing Subject Test English Language Proficiency Test These were discontinued after January 2005 when the SAT II in Writing was incorporated into the SAT; each individual test is scored on a scale of 200 to 800. The one and only exception was the ELPT, scored on a scale of 901 to 999. Prior to the first administration of the new SAT Reasoning Test in March 2005, some selective colleges required applicants to take three SAT Subject Tests, including the writing test and two other tests of the applicant's choosing, in addition to the SAT. However, with writing now a standard component of the SAT Reasoning Test, most selective colleges recommend applicants to submit scores for any two SAT Subject Tests.

Engineering schools may recommend or require Chemistry or Physics and Math Level 2. No schools require three Subject Tests and Georgetown is the only remaining school to'strongly recommend' taking three Subject Tests; the California Institute of Technology, which required subject tests, no longer requires them and does not consider them if they are submitted. Schools vary with regard to their SAT Subject Test requirements of students submitting scores for the ACT in place of the SAT: some schools consider the ACT an alternative to both the SAT and some SAT Subject Tests, whereas others accept the ACT but require SAT Subject Tests as well. Information about a school's specific test requirements can be found on its official website. In October 2002, the College Board decided to drop the "Score Choice" option for exams, due to the fact that it disproportionally benefited wealthier students taking the exam who could afford to take it multiple times. Score Choice means that scores are not released to colleges until the student approves the score after seeing it.

However, the "Score Choice" option was reinstated as of the March 2009 test, meaning test takers again have the ability to choose whether or not to send scores. The answer sheet has room for 115 answers. 1–100 are standard multiple-choice bubbles and 101–115 are for'relationship analysis questions', which are only used for the chemistry exam. The biology test is the only test to use answers 96–100. College admissions in the United States ACT alternate test College Board's descriptions of the SAT Subject Tests. College Board Examination and Test Dates SAT Fees

Willis Richardson (American football)

Willis Richardson was an early professional football player-coach for the Homestead Library & Athletic Club and the Pittsburgh Stars of the first National Football League. He won the Western Pennsylvania State Championship with Homestead in 1900 and 1901. In 1902, he brought along many former Homestead players to the Stars team, formed by the former Latrobe Athletic Association manager, Dave Berry, funded by the Barney Dreyfuss and William Chase Temple of the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team. During the Stars "championship game" against the Philadelphia Athletics, Willis scored an extra point to help lead the Stars to an 11–0 victory and the 1902 championship. Prior to playing professionally, Richardson played at the college level for Brown University. While at Brown he was a two-time All-American on Walter Camps second team, he is best known as the player who kicked Brown’s first field goal in 1899. In 1898 he earned his first All-American status by running 103 yards for a touchdown against Princeton.

In 1971 Willis was inducted into the Brown University Football Hall of Fame. Carroll, Bob. "Dave Berry and the Philadelphia Story". Coffin Corner. Professional Football Researchers Association. 2: 1–9. Peterson, Robert W.. Pigskin: The Early Years of Pro Football. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511913-4. "Baseballists in Football". New Haven Evening Register. 1900-10-20. "No More Wednesday Games: Mid-West Football Given up by Practically All the Colleges". New Haven Evening Register. 1900-10-30. PFRA Research. "And Yet Again". Professional Football Researchers Association. P. 1

Gothaer Group

The Gothaer Group is a German insurance company with circa 4.1 million members. Its core businesses are all insurance services. Gothaer Allgemeine Versicherungs AG customers include private clients and small- and medium-sized businesses, they offer their products to corporate customers. The customers are secured in instances like: personal or group accidents, motor accidents, property damages, river shipping and burglary, fire and water damages. Gothaer insures industrial and private customers - with asset management and investment - forming another area of business; the head office is located in Germany. The Gothaer Group reported a net profit of €134 million in 2015; the rate of increase was about 14.5% in comparison to 2014. A part of the profit has been taken for strengthening the companys equity; the income level remained in 2015 nearly the same with a height of 4.5 billion euros. In 1820, Ernst Wilhelm Arnoldi established the ‘Feuerversicherungsbank des Deutschen Handelsstandes’ – a company run by merchants, for merchants – in the Thuringian town of Gotha.

Gothaer was one of Europe's first interregional mutual insurance companies. Soon, after the foundation of the ’Gothaer Feuerversicherungsbank’, other mutual fire insurance companies were founded – for example: ’Versicherungs-Gesellschaft gegen Feuersgefahr’ or ’Württembergische Privat-Feuerversicherungs-Gesellschaft’. In 1827 Arnoldi sets up a second company, the ‘Gothaer Lebensversicherungsbank für Deutschland’. In 1830 the Gothaer Feuerbank is renamed Gothaer Feuerversicherungsbank für Deutschland. In 1842 the company faces its first serious challenge – the Great Fire of Hamburg and its devastating consequences, it started in Eduard Cohen's cigar factory at Deichstraße 42 or 44 early in the morning of the 5th May. The huge fire destroyed more or less one third of the old inner city. A large muster of firefighters and several helpers were fighting this fire. Below the line, 1749 houses, 3 churches, 2 synagogues, 102 attics, the townhall and a cupple of other public buildings have been destroyed.

The Great Fire of Hamburg caused a damage with an amount of circa 90 million Mark. One of the biggest historical city museums is the “Museum für Hamburger Geschichte”, its exhibition contains the important occurrence of the “Hugh Hamburger Fire”. In 1902 the Gothaer Lebensversicherungsbank für Deutschland is renamed Gothaer Lebensversicherungsbank auf Gegenseitigkeit. In the recent decades, till 1918, the Gothaer Group achieved an insurance portfolio of 1.24 billion and an asset of 500 billion. – as a result of the World War I – the company was forced to struggle for its existence and independence. The war caused an inflation whereby asset have been devalued; the Gothaer Group managed to cope with this crisis and was able – in the period from 1924 to 1944 – to establish their insurance portfolio of 1.25 billion. In 1924 the Gothaer Allgemeine Versicherungs AG had been set up, its main task was to handle the emergent motor insurance business, which contains: accident insurance, liability insurance, transport insurance and automobile insurance.

The Gothaer Allgemeine Versicherungs AG was found by Karls August Friedrich Samwer, the great grandfather of the popular “Samwer-Brothers”. In Cooperation with David Schneider and Robert Gentz, the three Samwer-Brothers founded the European electronic commerce fashion company Zalando. From 1945 on, the Gothaer Feuer was no longer permitted to transact their business operations. At that critical juncture Gotha had been occupied by the ex-Soviet Union; the company moved to Cologne on 5 March 1946. After the World War II, a joint working group – between Gothaer and Dresdner Feuerversicherung – was established. In 1946 the portfolios of Dresdner Feuerversicherung were taken over by Gothaer Feuer until 1950. In 1970 the Gothaer Feuerversicherungsbank auf Gegenseitigkeit is renamed to Gothaer Versicherungsbank VVaG. In 1993 Dr. Bernd Meyer took over the management of Gothaer Risk Management GmbH in Cologne. In 1994 IBM took over the data processing centers of Porsche, Continental AG, Air Liquide and Gothaer Insurance.

In 1997 the co-ordination concern Parion has been formed – evolved by the Gothaer chief executive Wolfgang Peiner. The brand name Parion was composed of the terms “Parität” and “Union”. In 1998 the company Asstel is established as the Group's direct insurer. With bonus revenues of 3.9 billion euro in 2000, Parion ranks among to the top 10 biggest German insurers. From 2005, the Gothaer Kunden-Service-Center GmbH – with circa 100 employees – is trying to process the big hurry of applications. Apart from the Gothaer Group other insurances outsourced some of their services. Gothaer acquires MLP Versicherung AG and renames the company Janitos Versicherung AG in 2005, with its head office in Heidelberg. In 2006 Janitos is established well on the insurance market. In 2006 the Gothaer Lebensversicherung AG moves its head office from Göttingen to Cologne. In 2010, as part of its strategy of expanding into the growth regions of Central and Eastern Europe, the Gothaer Group acquires an interest in Polish non-life insurer Polskie Towarzystwo Ubezpieczeń S.

A, held by Polish chemicals company CIECH S. A. and its subsidiaries. In 2012 – Gothaer enters into the Romanian insurance market by acquiring a majority stake in Platinum Asigurari Reasigurari. In the samy year the Platinum Asigurari Reasigurari is renamed into Gothaer Asigurari Reasigurari. In 2013 - Change at the top o