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Rockville, Maryland

Rockville is a city and the county seat of Montgomery County, United States, part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. The 2010 census tabulated Rockville's population at 61,209, making it one of the largest communities in Maryland and the third largest location in Montgomery County, after Silver Spring and Germantown. Rockville, along with neighboring Gaithersburg and Bethesda, is at the core of the Interstate 270 Technology Corridor, home to numerous software and biotechnology companies as well as several federal government institutions; the city has several upscale regional shopping centers and is one of the major retail hubs in Montgomery County. Situated in the Piedmont region and crossed by three creeks, Rockville provided an excellent refuge for semi-nomadic Native Americans as early as 8000 BC. By the first millennium BC, a few of these groups had settled down into year-round agricultural communities that exploited the native flora, including sunflowers and marsh elder. By AD 1200, these early groups were drawn into conflict with the Senecas and Susquehannocks who had migrated south from Pennsylvania and New York.

Within the present-day boundaries of the city, six prehistoric sites have been uncovered and documented, along with numerous artifacts several thousand years old. By the year 1700, under pressure from European colonists, the majority of these original inhabitants had been driven away; the indigenous population carved a path on the high ground, known as Sinequa Trail, now downtown Rockville. The Maryland Assembly set the standard of 20 feet for main thoroughfares and designated the Rock Creek Main Road or Great Road to be built to this standard. In the mid-18th century, Lawrence Owen opened a small inn on the road; the place, known as Owen's Ordinary, took on greater prominence when, on April 14, 1755, Major General Edward Braddock stopped at Owen's Ordinary on a start of a mission from George Town to press British claims of the western frontier. The location of the road, near the present Rockville Pike, was strategically located on higher ground making it dry year-round; the first land patents in the Rockville area were obtained by Arthur Nelson between 1717 and 1735.

Within three decades, the first permanent buildings in what would become the center of Rockville were established on this land. Still a part of Prince George's County at this time, the growth of Daniel Dulaney's Frederick Town prompted the separation of the western portion of the county, including Rockville, into Frederick County in 1748. Being a small, unincorporated town, early Rockville was known by a variety of names, including Owen's Ordinary, Hungerford's Tavern, Daley's Tavern; the first recorded mention of the settlement which would become known as Rockville dates to the Braddock Expedition in 1755. On April 14, one of the two thousand men who were accompanying General Braddock through wrote the following: "we marched to larance Owings or Owings Oardianary, a Single House, it being 18 miles and dirty." Owen's Ordinary was a small rest stop on Rock Creek Main Road, which stretched from George Town to Frederick Town, was one of the largest thoroughfares in the colony of Maryland. On September 6, 1776, the Maryland Constitutional Convention agreed to a proposal introduced by Thomas Sprigg Wootton wherein Frederick County, the largest and most populous county in Maryland, would be divided into three smaller units.

The southern portion of the county, of which Rockville was a part, was named Montgomery County. The most populous and prosperous urban center in this new county was George Town, but its location at the far southern edge rendered it worthless as a seat of local government. Rockville, a small, but centrally located and well-traveled town, was chosen as the seat of the county's government. At the time, Rockville did not have a name. After being named the county seat, the village was referred to by all as Montgomery Court House; the tavern served as the county courthouse, it held its first such proceedings on May 20, 1777. In 1784, William Prather Williams, a local landowner, hired a surveyor to lay out much of the town. In his honor, many took to calling the town Williamsburg. In practice, however and Montgomery Court House were used interchangeably. Rockville came to greater prominence when Montgomery county was created and when George Town was ceded to the federal government to create the District of Columbia.

It was first considered to name the town Wattsville, after the nearby Watts Branch, but the stream was considered too small to give its name to the town. On July 16, 1803, when the area was entered into the county land records with the name "Rockville," derived from Rock Creek; the name Montgomery Court House continued to appear on maps and other documents through the 1820s. In November 1833, guests of the Old Hungerford Tavern were playing cards in the card room when they saw the Leonids meteor shower above; the guests threw their cards in the knelt in prayer to ask for God's forgiveness. By petition of Rockville's citizens, the Maryland General Assembly incorporated the village on March 10, 1860. During the American Civil War, General George B. McClellan stayed at the Beall Dawson house in 1862. In addition, General J. E. B. Stuart and an army of 8,000 Confederate cavalrymen marched through and occupied Rockville on June 28, 1863, while on their way to Gettysburg and stayed at the Prettyman house.

Jubal Anderson Early had crossed through Maryland on his way to and from his attack on Was


Year 1108 was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. Spring – King Sigurd I sails from England, on the Norwegian Crusade to Palestine, he repels a Muslim fleet near the Tagus River attacks Sintra and Alcácer do Sal, defeats a second Muslim fleet further south. May 29 -- Battle of Uclés: Almoravid forces defeat the armies of León; the advance of the Reconquista is halted, the Berbers re-capture the towns of Uclés, Cuenca and Ocaña. The Christians, many of nobility, are beheaded. July 29 – King Philip I dies at Melun, after a 48-year reign, he is succeeded by his son Louis VI, who faces at the start of his rule insurrections, from feudal brigands and rebellious robber barons. September – Siege of Dyrrhachium: Italo-Norman forces under Bohemond I lift the siege due to illness and lack of supplies. Bohemond becomes a vassal of the Byzantine Empire by signing the Treaty of Devol. Autumn – The Principality of Nitra ceases to exist, after King Coloman of Hungary, deposes its last ruler, Álmos, duke of Croatia.

The consuls of Bergamo are first mentioned, indicating that the city has become an independent commune in Lombardy. Summer – Jawali Saqawa, Turkish ruler of Mosul, accepts a ransom of 30,000 dinar by Count Joscelin I and releases his cousin Baldwin II, count of Edessa, held as prisoner. Baldwin II marches out against Sidon, with the support of a squadron of sailor-adventurers from various Italian cities. A Fatimid fleet from Egypt defeats the Italians in a sea-battle outside the harbour; the Taira and Minamoto clans join forces to rule Japan, after defeating the warrior monks of the Enryaku-ji temple near Kyoto. The Taira replaces many Fujiwara nobles in important offices – while the Minamoto gains more military experience by bringing parts of Northern Honshu under Japanese control. Chichester Cathedral is consecrated under bishop of Chichester, in England. Construction begins on the tower of Winchester Cathedral, building continues until 1120. Pistoia Cathedral in Italy is damaged by a severe fire.

Andronikos Komnenos, Byzantine prince Baldwin IV, count of Hainaut Bohemond II, Italo-Norman prince of Antioch Derbforgaill, Irish princess Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud, Seljuk sultan Henry X, duke of Bavaria Leopold IV, duke of Bavaria January 4 – Gertrude, Grand Princess of Kiev March 18 – Abe no Munetō, Japanese samurai May 21 – Gerard, Norman archbishop of York May 29 García Ordóñez, Castilian nobleman Sancho Alfónsez, Castilian nobleman July 5 – Guy of Hauteville, Italo-Norman diplomat July 29 – Philip I, king of France November 15 – Enrico Contarini, bishop of Castello García Álvarez, Castilian official and military leader Gonzalo, bishop of Mondoñedo Gregory III, count of Tusculum Gundulf, bishop of Rochester Guy II, French nobleman and crusader Mafalda of Pulla-Calabria, Norman noblewoman Urse d'Abetot, Norman sheriff of Worcestershire Veera Ballala I, Indian ruler of the Hoysala Empire Wang, Chinese empress of the Song Dynasty

Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari

"Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari" is a J-pop song by the Japanese band Supercell, written by Ryo. Supercell released it as their debut single in August 2009 by Sony Music; the title track was the ending theme song to the 2009 Bakemonogatari anime series, the B-side track "Love & Roll" was the theme song for the 2009 Cencoroll anime film. A music video was directed by Hirohisa Sasaki. Lyrically, the song deals with an unrequited love; this single was the first release by Supercell which did not use the Vocaloid singing synthesizer Hatsune Miku as the vocalist, as they had done for their debut album Supercell. Instead, Supercell employed the singer Nagi Yanagi, a vocalist who had submitted cover versions of songs to the Nico Nico Douga video sharing website under the name Gazelle; the single peaked at No. 5 on Japan's weekly Oricon singles chart, in February 2010 was awarded a Gold Disc by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for having exceeded 100,000 copies shipped in a single year. During the production of the 2009 anime series Bakemonogatari, Supercell was asked to compose what would become the ending theme song "Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari".

It was decided that Supercell would release their debut album Supercell in March 2009, which used the Vocaloid singing synthesizer Hatsune Miku as the vocalist. In place of Miku, Supercell employed the singer Nagi Yanagi, a vocalist who had submitted cover versions of songs to the Nico Nico Douga video sharing website under the name Gazelle. "Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari" was the first release by Supercell to not use Miku as the vocalist. Yanagi was chosen for "Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari" by Ryo, a fan of her voice before uploading his own songs to Nico Nico Douga in late 2007; the next day after Ryo uploaded Supercell's first song "Melt" onto Nico Nico Douga in December 2007, Yanagi uploaded a cover of her singing the song. Yanagi, herself a fan of Ryo's music, contacted him and the two talked about someday collaborating. After asking Yanagi to be the singer for "Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari", Supercell decided that Yanagi would be the singer for Supercell's second album Today Is A Beautiful Day, though Yanagi is not a member of Supercell.

In switching to a human singer, Ryo said "that although he loses absolute control over the tone of each and every phrase, working with a singer adds a human element that resonates better with listeners." After Ryo used Hatsune Miku for the demo of "Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari", he thought the vocal range would wear out any human singer, but was pleased to find Yanagi had just as wide a vocal range as Miku. After listening to Yanagi sing the song, Ryo realized just how difficult it was to sing, but he did not deliberately change the song during the creation process to make it easier on Yanagi's voice. "Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari" is a J-pop song with instrumentation from electric and bass guitars and piano. According to a book of sheet music published by Yamaha Corporation, it is set in common time, moves at a quick tempo of 165 beats per minute in the A major key throughout the song; the introduction starts with only piano accompanying Yanagi's vocals, uses a bridge with added guitars and drums to transition into the first verse.

Another bridge is used between the second verses. After the third verse, a break is employed, followed by the fourth verse. After a short outro, an instrumental coda is used to close the song; when writing the lyrics, Ryo did not want to copy the tone or style of the original Bakemonogatari novels, because he felt the author Nisio Isin would enjoy the song more if it was more original. Thus, Ryo wrote a different story after borrowing the general setting of the novels; the lyrics tell the story of a girl with an unrequited love, never able to convey her feelings to the person she loved. The cover artwork features an illustration by Shirow Miwa with the Summer Triangle depicted in the starry sky; the Summer Triangle is mentioned in the second verse of the song and stargazing in general is featured throughout the lyrics. The art direction and designs were handled by Yoshiki Usa. Before designing the cover, Ryo had Miwa and Usa listen to the song and told them the image of it in a word or two, but otherwise gave them full freedom to design the artwork.

"Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari" was released in limited and regular editions on August 12, 2009 as a CD by Sony Music in Japan. The limited edition came bundled with a DVD containing the music video and TV commercial advertisement for "Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari", as well as bundled with stickers featuring characters from Bakemonogatari illustrated by Redjuice of Supercell; the song peaked at No. 5 on Japan's weekly Oricon singles chart, selling over 30,000 copies in its first week of sales. It stayed in the top 10 for the following week. 6, charted for 66 weeks. "Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari" debuted and peaked on the Billboard Japan Hot 100 at No. 9. In January 2010, "Kimi no Shiranai Monogatari" was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for 100,000 full-track ringtone digital music downloads, was again awarded a Gold Disc by the RIAJ in February 2010 for having exceeded 100,000 copies shipped in a single year; the music video was shot in Chōshi, Japan. Tokawa Station on the Chōshi Electric Railway Line and Inubōsaki lighthouse can be seen in the video.

The video, directed by Hirohisa Sasaki, does not feature any members of Supercell nor the singer Nagi Yanagi. Instead, the video prominently follows the actors Marika Fukunaga, Shuto Tanabe and Naho Kitade, who play members of a high school


Colston was a British electrical appliance manufacturer, founded by ex-Hoover director Sir Charles Colston in 1955, that made compact dishwashers. In 1962 it merged with entrepreneur John Bloom's expanding Rolls Razor washing machine company, which concluded a deal to distribute Prestcold refrigerators; however the company hit difficulties due to conventional retailers slashing prices in response, a postal strike that dried up their supplies of coupons, their only source of obtaining customers, arguably, market saturation. As sales began to slow, Bloom cut prices and introduced ‘double offers’ such as washing machine and fridge packages, free weekend breaks and his own trading stamps; the company collapsed in 1964 with massive debts. Liquidators found thousands of unsold washing machines in warehouses. Manufacture continued with machines built by the engineering company Tallent. Tallent re-branded the machines under its own name, but by 1965 they were marketed as Colstons before the appliance division of Tallent was taken over by the Italian firm Ariston in 1979.

Production of the twin tub now branded Colston. The company decided to source a larger dishwasher and front loading washing machine from Italy. Colston was the first company to introduce a washer drier to the UK market place. With the help of Colston, these products were improved during the 1970s and the company was profitable. Michael Colston decided to sell the company to the Italian company Merloni who made all sorts of products including the Ariston brand; the company traded as Colston-Ariston, dropping the Colston name after a few years. The service division split from the sales division as Ariston Group Service under Don Campbell; the sales division now not only sold a huge range of domestic appliances, White Goods, but had a built in division as well as selling complete kitchens. There was a baths and water heating division selling a top range of baths, heating elements and gas boilers under Malcolm Blount; the first years trading of the new group made enough profit to pay for the take over but after that the sales side continually struggled.

The Service side continued to make good annual profits but after a few years heads began to roll and new appointments made. In the mid 80's Italy installed their own head of sales and though the service side was profitable, Italy wanted it run closer to the Italian model; the service workforce started to fragment after being run like a family over decades. Some managers left followed by Don Campbell on a matter of principle. By this time Ariston had taken over Indesit and it was decided to amalgamate the service divisions. Further take overs included Creda and Hotpoint to make Merloni one of the biggest domestic appliance companies operating in the UK. Charles Colston, Grace's Guide to British Industrial History. Accessed 1 November 2017

Akören, Aladağ

Akören is a village in the District of Aladağ, Adana Province, Turkey. It is a neighbourhood of the Municipality of Aladağ, with Halil Yılmaz as its muhtar as of 2016. In 2012, it had a population of 1,127; the village is known to have existed in the ancient Roman times. The ruins of this ancient settlement still exists and the village is an classified as an archaeological site; the site hosts avenues. The settlement consists of two separate neighbourhoods, one with around 30 houses called Akören 1 or Göveren, other with around 50 houses called Akören 2. Akören 1 encompasses a Byzantine church at the centre of the village, on which the date 572 is inscribed; this part hosts several historic stones. In the northwest of Akören 2 lies another church and a number of inscriptions and a Byzantine graveyard with burial chambers. On one inscription, the date of 170 AD is written. In 1928, the village was known as "Akevren". By 1946, the name of the village had changed to "Akören"; the village is located 20 km away from 81 km from the city of Adana.

It is located in the Taurus Mountains. The village was a municipality until the 2013 Turkish local government reorganisation with Ahmet Solaklıoğlu of AK Parti as mayor; the following is a list of mayors: 1989-1994: Ömer Tekin 1994–1999: İsmet Erkan 1999–2013: Ahmet SolaklıoğluIn the local elections of 1989, Ömer Tekin of the True Path Party won the mayoralty with a mandate of 53.37%, against the candidate of the Motherland Party, who received 44.83% of the votes. In local elections of 1994, ANAP took the mayoralty with İsmet Erkan gaining 56.86% of the votes, against the candidate of DYP who had a vote share of 39.33%. In 1999, Ahmet Solaklıoğlu retook the municipality for DYP with 29.69% of the votes. The Republican People's Party got the second place with 24.11%, the Nationalist Movement Party received 18.77% and came third, the Democratic Left Party came joint fourth with ANAP, both getting 12.61% of the votes. Media related to Akören, Aladağ at Wikimedia Commons

Barcelona Light

Barcelona Light known as Portland Harbor Light, is a lighthouse overlooking Barcelona Harbor on Lake Erie in the Town of Westfield, New York. Westfield was once part of the Town of Portland and the natural harbor there was known as Portland Harbor; when the Town of Westfield was established formally in 1823, the harbor area became known as Barcelona. The lighthouse was established in 1829 through the efforts of Thomas B. Campbell; the conical tower and attached keeper's cottage were constructed of fieldstone, with a natural, emplaced foundation. The light was emitted by eleven lamps with 14-inch reflectors, it was the first lighthouse in the world to be powered by natural gas, which Campbell transported from a "burning spring" about a mile distant by means of wooden pipes. Thirty years in 1859, the lighthouse was deactivated, but it still stands lit today after over 100 years in private ownership, it is now owned by the New York State Office of Parks and Historic Preservation; the lighthouse was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.

Congress appropriated $5,000 on May 23, 1828, "for building a lighthouse at a proper site, at or near Portland, on Lake Erie, in the State of New York." The site was purchased for $50 and contract was made to erect a lighthouse and dwelling which cost $3,456.78. The first keeper appointed May 27, 1829, was Joshua Lane, a "deaf, superannuated clergyman, having numerous female dependents" whose salary was $350 per annum; the first light apparatus was described in the contract as 11 patent lamps with 11 14 inch reflectors and 2 spare lamps. There were double tin oil butts for 500 US gallons of oil. No mention was made at that time of equipment for burning natural gas. On January 1, 1831, a contract was made to provide the light with natural gas "at all times and seasons" and to keep the apparatus and fixtures in repair at an annual cost of $213; this was described at the time as follows: "The Lighthouse at Portland Harbor in the County of Chautauqua and State of New York, is now illuminated, in the most splendid style, by natural carburetted hydrogen gas.

Since the first settlement of the country about Portland, it has been known that an inflammable gas issued from the fissures of a rock, which forms the bed of a little brook that empties into Lake Erie, near the harbor, in such quantity as to be set on fire by applying a flame to it. This fountain of gas was known to the early settlers of the country by the name of the'burning spring.’ No valuable use, was made of this gas until Mr. W. A. Hart, an ingenious gunsmith of the village of Fredonia, some other young mechanics, five or six years ago, collected a quantity of similar gas from the rocky bed of Canadaway creek in a reservoir, conveyed it from thence to all the principal stores and shops in the said village, where it is still used instead of lamps." In the fall of 1829, on completion of the lighthouse at Portland Harbor, several persons associated together for the purpose of conveying the gas from the "burning spring" to the lighthouse. They dug into the rock at the place where the largest quantity of gas was found, in the form of a common well, about 40 or 50 feet in diameter and 3 feet deep.

Over this well they erected a cone of solid mason work, so tight as to contain the gas which should collect within it, at the same time exclude the water around it. They inserted a pipe at the base of the cone. From that point it was conducted by pipes buried in the ground the distance of 230 rods to the lighthouse. A stand of lamps adapted to the reception and burning of the gas was next invented and constructed by Mr. Hart; these consisted of several horizontal arms extended like the radii of a semicircle, at the end of each of which a brass pipe was attached. The quantity of gas consumed by each burner was regulated by a stopcock; each burner had a suitable reflector. There were two tiers of these lamps, seven on the lower tier and six in the upper, interspaced so that, when viewed from the lake at night, the whole tower represented one complete and unwavering blaze. "Altogether" the account continues "this is one of the greatest natural and mechanical curiosities which the country can produce.

As a light for a lighthouse it exceeds, both in quantity and brilliancy, anything of the kind I saw." In November 1838 it was reported, that "Owing to a failure of gas, that may be attributed to the excessive draught, oil is now substituted. It is presumed, that the fall rains will replenish the stream from which the fountain is supplied, thus prevent the escape and loss of the gas." In 1851 the report read: "We have one lighthouse at Portland on Lake Erie, lighted with natural gas, carried a distance of 2 miles in pipes to the tower. We have a contract for supplying this gas at the annual cost of the oil which would be required, if lighted with that material." The Portland Harbor Light was discontinued in 1859 and in 1872 the buildings were sold to the highest bidder. Oleszewski, Wes. Great Lakes Lighthouses and Canadian: A Comprehensive Directory/Guide to Great Lakes Lighthouses, ISBN 0-932212-98-0. Scott T. Price. "U. S. Coast Guard Aids to Navigation: A Historical Bibliography". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office.

U. S. Coast Guard. Famo