The Rockwell B-1 Lancer is a supersonic variable-sweep wing, heavy bomber used by the United States Air Force. It is called the "Bone", it is one of three strategic bombers in the U. S. Air Force fleet as of 2020, the other two being the B-2 Spirit and the B-52 Stratofortress; the B-1 was first envisioned in the 1960s as a platform that would combine the Mach 2 speed of the B-58 Hustler with the range and payload of the B-52, was meant to replace both bombers. After a long series of studies, Rockwell International won the design contest for what emerged as the B-1A; this version had a top speed of Mach 2.2 at high altitude and the capability of flying for long distances at Mach 0.85 at low altitudes. The combination of the high cost of the aircraft, the introduction of the AGM-86 cruise missile that flew the same basic profile, early work on the stealth bomber all affected the need for the B-1; this led to the program being canceled in 1977. The program was restarted in 1981 as an interim measure due to delays in the B-2 stealth bomber program, with the B-2 reaching initial operational capability in 1997.
This led to a redesign as the B-1B, which differed from the B-1A by having a lower top speed at high altitude of Mach 1.25, but improved low-altitude performance of Mach 0.96. The electronics were extensively improved during the redesign, the airframe was improved to allow takeoff with the maximum possible fuel and weapons load; the B-1B began deliveries in 1986 and formally entered service with Strategic Air Command as a nuclear bomber in that same year. By 1988, all 100 aircraft had been delivered. In the early 1990s, following the Gulf War and concurrent with the disestablishment of SAC and its reassignment to the newly formed Air Combat Command, the B-1B was converted to conventional bombing use, it first served in combat during Operation Desert Fox in 1998 and again during the NATO action in Kosovo the following year. The B-1B has supported U. S. and NATO military forces in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Air Force had 66 B-1Bs in service as of September 2012; the B-1B is expected to continue to serve into the 2030s, with the Northrop Grumman B-21 Raider to begin replacing the B-1B after 2025.
The B-1s in inventory are planned to be retired by 2036. In 1955, the USAF issued requirements for a new bomber combining the payload and range of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress with the Mach 2 maximum speed of the Convair B-58 Hustler. In December 1957, the USAF selected North American Aviation's B-70 Valkyrie for this role; the Valkyrie was a six-engine bomber. Soviet interceptor aircraft, the only effective anti-bomber weapon in the 1950s, were unable to intercept the high-flying Lockheed U-2. By the late 1950s, antiaircraft surface-to-air missiles could threaten high-altitude aircraft, as demonstrated by the 1960 downing of Gary Powers' U-2; the USAF Strategic Air Command was aware of these developments and had begun moving its bombers to low-level penetration before the U-2 downing. This tactic reduces radar detection distances through the use of terrain masking. Additionally, radars of the era were subject to "clutter" from stray returns from the ground and other objects, which meant a minimum angle existed above the horizon where they could detect a target.
Bombers flying at low altitudes could remain under these angles by keeping their distance from the radar sites. This combination of effects made SAMs of the era ineffective against low-flying aircraft; the same effects meant that low-flying aircraft were difficult to detect by higher-flying interceptors, since their radar systems could not pick out opposing aircraft against the clutter from ground reflections. The switch from high-altitude to low-altitude flight profiles affected the B-70, whose design was tuned to provide the desired high-altitude performance. Planners outlined a series of low-level profiles for the B-70, but higher aerodynamic drag at low level limited the B-70 to subsonic speed while decreasing its range; the result would be an aircraft with somewhat higher subsonic speed than the less range. Unsuited for the new low-altitude role, because of a growing shift to the intercontinental ballistic missile force, the B-70 bomber program was cancelled in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy, the two XB-70 prototypes were used in a supersonic research program.
Although never intended for the low-level role, the B-52's flexibility allowed it to outlast its intended successor as the nature of the air war environment changed. The B-52's huge fuel load allowed it to operate at lower altitudes for longer times, the large airframe allowed the addition of improved radar jamming and deception suites to deal with radars. During the Vietnam War, the concept that all future wars would be nuclear was turned on its head, the "big belly" modifications increased the B-52's total bomb load to 60,000 pounds, turning it into a powerful tactical aircraft which could be used against ground troops along with strategic targets from high altitudes; the much smaller bomb bay of the B-70 would have made it much less useful in this role. Although effective, the B-52 was not ideal for the low-level role; this led to a number of aircraft designs known as penetrators
Dr. Robert D. Maurer is an American industrial physicist noted for his leadership in the invention of optical fiber. Maurer was born either by other accounts in Richmond Heights, Missouri. In 1943 he enlisted in the United States Army Reserve and began studies at the University of Arkansas, he was called up for active service, studied preengineering for about one year at the Huntsville, state college. In 1944 he shipped overseas with the 99th infantry division for combat in France and Belgium along the German border, he was wounded by a landmine, spending more than 20 months in the hospital before receiving a disability discharge with Purple Heart. Supported by the GI Bill, Maurer returned in 1946 to the University of Arkansas to study chemical engineering, but switched to physics, he graduated with a B. S. in physics in 1948 performed graduate work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he measured second sound velocity in liquid helium. He took his orals in summer 1951, graduated with a physics PhD in the winter class.
In 1952 Maurer joined the physics department of Corning Glass Works, becoming manager of its applied physics group in 1960, research fellow in 1978. He retired from Corning Incorporated in 1989. Around 1966 Maurer learned of Charles K. Kao's pioneering work in optical fibers at the Standard Telephones and Cables company in the United Kingdom, initiated a project to develop such fibers at Corning. In 1970 Maurer and his colleagues Donald Keck and Peter C. Schultz designed and produced the first fiber with optical losses low enough for use in telecommunications by a novel process of depositing titania-doped silica inside a quartz tube using a flame-hydrolysis process and sintering fusing it to draw into fiber, they demonstrated optical loss as low as 20 dB/km, which for the first time indicated a practical technology. Maurer is an elected member of the National Academy of Engineering and inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame, a fellow of the American Ceramic Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, American Physical Society, has received numerous honors including the American Institute of Physics' 1978 Prize for Industrial Physics, the 1978 IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award, the Swedish Academy of Engineering's 1979 L.
M. Ericsson International Prize for Telecommunications, an honorary LL. D. Degree from the University of Arkansas in 1980, the Industrial Research Institute's 1986 Achievement Award, the 1987 John Tyndall Award from IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society and Optical Society of America, the 1989 Naval Research Laboratory Citation, the American Physics Society's 1989 International Prize for New Materials, the 1999 Charles Stark Draper Prize, the 2000 National Medal of Technology, the 2007 NEC C&C Prize. Maurer holds 16 patents, including: US Patent 3,659,915: Fused Silica Optical Waveguide. ISBN 978-0-19-510818-7; the American Ceramic Society Bulletin, August 2000 National Medal of Technology Charles Stark Draper Prize NEC C&C Prize announcement University of Arkansas press release University of Arkansas Robert D. Maurer Lecture Series
Frank McManus is an Irish nationalist activist and former Member of the British House of Commons. Born in Kinawley, County Fermanagh, he is a brother of Father Seán McManus, the Irish-American lobbyist and Catholic priest, Pat McManus, a member of the Irish Republican Army killed in an explosion in 1958, he received his secondary education at Enniskillen. In the late 1960s, he became the chair of the Fermanagh Civil Rights Association. McManus was elected in the 1970 general election, as the Unity candidate for Fermanagh and South Tyrone. On 3 July 1970 he swore the Oath of Allegiance to Queen Elizabeth II. Following the introduction of internment, he chaired the meeting on 17 October 1971 where the Northern Resistance Movement was founded, he lost the seat in the February 1974 general election to Ulster Unionist Party candidate Harry West when the Social Democratic and Labour Party stood a candidate which resulted in a split nationalist vote. In 1977, he was a founder member of the short-lived Irish Independence Party.
CD38 known as cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase is a glycoprotein found on the surface of many immune cells, including CD4+, CD8+, B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. CD38 functions in cell adhesion, signal transduction and calcium signaling. In humans, the CD38 protein is encoded by the CD38 gene, located on chromosome 4. CD38 is a multifunctional ectoenzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and hydrolysis of cyclic ADP-ribose from NAD+ to ADP-ribose in addition to synthesis of NAADP from NADP+; these reaction products are essential for the regulation of intracellular Ca2+. The loss of CD38 function is associated with impaired immune responses, metabolic disturbances, behavioral modifications including social amnesia related to autism; the CD38 protein is a marker of cell activation. It has been connected to HIV infection, myelomas, solid tumors, type II diabetes mellitus and bone metabolism, as well as some genetically determined conditions. CD38 produces an enzyme. Daratumumab which targets CD38 has been used in treating multiple myeloma.
Increased expression of CD38 is an unfavourable diagnostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and is associated with increased disease progression. CD38 has been used as a prognostic marker in leukemia. CD38 is used as a target for daratumumab, a medicine, approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma; the use of Daratumumab can interfere with pre-Blood transfusion tests, as CD38 is weakly expressed on the surface of erythrocytes. Thus, a screening assay for irregular antibodies against red blood cell antigens or a direct immunoglobulin test can produce false-positive results; this can be sidelined by either pretreatment of the erythrocytes with dithiothreitol or by using an anti-CD38 antibody neutralizing agent, e.g. DaraEx. A gradual increase in CD38 has been implicated in the decline of NAD+ with age. Treatment of old mice with a specific CD38 inhibitor, 78c, prevents age-related NAD+ decline. CD38+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings Human CD38 genome location and CD38 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser.
GeneCard CD38 Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P28907 at the PDBe-KB
John Dabney Terrell Sr. surveyor and planter, was born in Bedford County, Va. and died in Marion County, Ala. He was the son of Revolutionary War veteran, Captain Harry Terrell, the grandson of Joel Terrell from Richmond, Virginia, a man of Quaker ancestry. John's father, Captain Harry of Hanover Court House, Va. served in the Continental army, worked the land as a planter and bought enslaved persons of African descent. He moved with his family from Virginia into North-Carolina, after a short stint in Lower Sauratown, an abandoned Indian village on the Dan River in northeastern Rockingham County, he moved to Pendleton District, South Carolina, where he settled and farmed a plot of ground along the Big Eastatoe Creek. Being a veteran of the Revolutionary War, he was entitled to land grants, but it wasn't until after Harry's death in 1798 that some of his children applied for a land bounty for his service in the Revolutionary Army. After the death of John's father, John D. Terrell uprooted thence and moved with his family into Franklin County and after failed business ventures there, he moved with his family in ca. 1814 into Marion County, Alabama, in what was the Alabama Territory, where he built a plantation near the Military Ford along the Buttahatchee River south of present-day Hamilton, Ala. and seven miles north of Pikeville.
In 1813, John Dabney Terrell Sr. had been given Power of Attorney to apply for a land warrant on behalf of himself and his siblings. In 1817, they were allotted 5,333 acres of land, twenty-three hundred of, in the State of Ohio, was sold by them for fifty cents per acre, it is said that after the War of 1812 Terrell accommodated the troops of General Andrew Jackson while he was constructing the military road from Natchez to Nashville and had camped at the Military Ford of the Buttahatchee River, a place along the route. This place afforded travelers with a sand bottom for easy crossing. In northern Alabama, Terrell soon became one of the principal persons of the State, being sent to the Alabama Constitutional Convention in Huntsville, on Monday the 5th day of July 1819 from Marion, he was a signatory to Alabama's first Constitution, was the first Senator from the County to the State Legislature in 1819. In 1822, John served as a State Representative from Marion County. In those formative years, he acted as the first Marion Territorial judge beneath an old oak tree, as such, he is said to have administered the sworn oath of office to all county officers at the Cotton Gin Port, a part of Marion County.
He worked as a surveyor of Chickasaw Indian lands in what are now the States of Alabama and Mississippi, as well as served as U. S. Government Chickasaw Indian Agent for that region of the State under Presidents John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. Levi Colbert, head chief of the Chickasaw nation, was one of his most respected friends and had supplied John D. Terrell with his first years supply of corn when he was new to the region, it is said that he was unsuccessful in trying to convince the Chickasaw Indians to resettle in lands west of the Mississippi, until they were forced by the US government to evacuate in 1837. John D. Terrell Sr. was a man of strong political convictions. By religion he was a Baptist to join the "Missionary Baptist," while in politics he belonged to the Whig party. In 1795, John married Lydia Briscoe Warren of North Carolina. To this union were born four sons and five daughters, their eldest son was Edward Garland Terrell, although the most illustrious of their children was John Dabney Terrell Jr. who served as Probate Judge of Marion County for more than forty years.
Both men were slaveholders until the end of the Civil War. Terrell is said to have disinherited one of his sons, William Henry Terrell, when his son became a Presbyterian and a Democrat. Although a slaveholder, some have suggested that Terrell may have put some of his slave property under the name of his son John Dabney Terrell Jr. in order to avoid a pending law suit against him in Tennessee, the subsequent loss of such property. Terrell died on the 10th day of May 1850, at the age of seventy-five, whereupon his slave property fell unto his wife, Lydia. At her death in 1853, most of his registered enslaved persons came under the possession of his son Edward Garland Terrell, while John D. Terrell Jr. retained his own property in persons. During John Sr.'s lifetime, however, he had bequeathed some of his slave property to his other children, as can be seen by legal deeds in the Alabama State Archives. At his own request, Terrell was buried in a sitting posture within a walnut coffin, made somewhat like unto a chair replete with a box-like covering, which coffin was let down into a grave dug deep within one of three Indian mounds located at Military Ford.
He was buried while draped in a panther vest, along with a blanket, spread over his shoulders, as well as other accessories, as was customary amongst some Native American Indians. The old Terrell homestead and plantation now lay in ruins, but is said to have been located just off Interstate Hwy. 22, where it crosses the Buttahatchie River on the way into Hamilton, where the build-up for the town begins, near the Indian Mounds and the new park, constructed there. Indian Mounds along the Buttahatchee River History of Hamilton, Alabama Historic Buttahatchee River | Chickasaw Indian Mounds History of Alabama and
Azalea State Natural Reserve is a state nature reserve of California, USA, located in McKinleyville, an unincorporated area of Humboldt County. This area is just north of the college town of Arcata and above the Mad River not far from where it enters the Pacific Ocean; the reserve is dedicated to the preservation of the western azalea, whose pink and white flowers bloom in profusion each April and May. It has a short self-guided nature trail with emphasis on plants of the north coast region. There is a picnic area available; the 30-acre property was acquired by the state in 1943. Other adjacent visitor attractions include Trinidad State Beach, Patrick's Point State Park, Fort Humboldt State Historic Park. List of California state parks Azalea State Natural Reserve