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Rocky IV

Rocky IV is a 1985 American sports drama film written, directed by, starring Sylvester Stallone. The film co-stars Dolph Lundgren, Burt Young, Talia Shire, Carl Weathers, Tony Burton, Brigitte Nielsen and Michael Pataki. Rocky IV was the highest grossing sports movie for 24 years, before it was overtaken by The Blind Side, it is the most financially successful entry in the Rocky film series. In the film, the Soviet Union and its top boxer make an entrance into professional boxing with their best athlete Ivan Drago, who wants to take on World champion Rocky Balboa. Rocky's best friend Apollo Creed is fatally beaten in the ring. Enraged, Rocky decides to fight Drago in the Soviet Union to avenge the death of his friend and defend the honor of his country. Critical reception was mixed, but the film was a huge success at the box office, earning $300 million; this film marked Carl Weathers' final appearance in the series. Its success led to a fifth entry released on November 16, 1990; the events of this film serve as the backstory to the plot of Creed II, where Apollo Creed's son, Donnie, is challenged to fight Drago's son, Viktor.

In 1985, Ivan Drago, a Soviet boxer, arrives in the United States with his wife, Ludmilla, a Soviet swimmer and a team of trainers from the Soviet Union and Cuba. His manager, Nicolai Koloff, takes every opportunity to promote Drago's athleticism as a hallmark of Soviet superiority. Motivated by patriotism and an innate desire to prove himself, Apollo Creed challenges Drago to an exhibition bout. Rocky agrees to train Apollo despite his misgivings about the match. During a press conference regarding the match, hostility sparks between Apollo's and Drago's respective camps; the boxing exhibition takes place at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Apollo enters the ring in an over-the-top patriotic entrance with James Brown performing "Living in America" complete with showgirls; the bout starts tamely with Apollo landing several punches that are ineffective against Drago, but Drago retaliates with devastating effects. By the end of the first round and Apollo's trainer, plead with him to give up, but a battered Apollo refuses to do so and tells Rocky to not stop the match "no matter what."

Drago continues to pummel him in Duke begs Rocky to throw in the towel. Rocky honors Apollo’s wishes, which allows Drago to land one final punch on Apollo, knocking him out and killing him. In the aftermath, Drago displays no sense of contrition, commenting to the assembled media: "If he dies, he dies." Enraged by guilt and the Soviets' cold indifference, Rocky decides to challenge Drago himself, vacating the boxing World Heavyweight Championship in order to do so. Drago's camp agrees to an unsanctioned 15-round fight in the Soviet Union on Christmas Day, an arrangement meant to protect Drago from the threats of violence he has been receiving in the U. S. Rocky travels to the Soviet Union without Adrian, setting up his training base in a remote cabin in Krasnogourbinsk with only Duke and brother-in-law Paulie to accompany him. Duke opens up to Rocky, stating that he raised Apollo and that his death felt like a father losing his son, expresses his faith in Rocky that he will emerge victorious in the end.

To prepare for the match, Drago uses high-tech equipment, a team of trainers and doctors monitoring his every movement, regular doses of anabolic steroids. Rocky, on the other hand, does roadwork in hip-deep snow over mountainous terrain and workouts utilizing antiquated farm equipment. Adrian arrives unexpectedly to give Rocky her support after her initial disapproval. Before the match, Drago is introduced with an elaborate patriotic ceremony, with the Soviet general secretary and the Politburo in attendance; the home crowd is squarely on Drago's hostile to Rocky. In contrast to his match with Apollo, Drago goes on the offensive. Rocky takes a fierce pounding and is thrown and shoved across the ring in the first round, but comes back toward the end of the second round and lands a brutal right hook that cuts Drago's left eye, stunning both him and the crowd, Rocky goes on the offensive. Duke encourages Rocky by reminding him that he just proved that Drago is a man and not a machine as he’s been made out to be.

Drago comments to his trainers that Rocky "is not human, he is like a piece of iron," after his trainers reprimand him for his performance against the "weak" American. The two boxers spend the next dozen rounds trading blows, with Rocky managing to continually hold his ground despite Drago's best efforts, his resilience and determination rallies the hostile Soviet crowd to his side. After being berated by Koloff, Drago rebels, throwing him from the ring and directly addressing Gorbachev, stating he fights for himself, rather than Mother Russia. In the final round, with both fighters exhausted, Rocky waits for an opening and unleashes a series of vicious blows to the midsection and the head to defeat Drago by knockout. Rocky gives a victory speech, acknowledging that the local crowd's disdain of him had turned to mutual respect during the fight. Rocky declares, "If I can change and you can change, everybody can change!" The Soviet premier stands up and reluctantly applauds Rocky, his aides follow suit.

Rocky ends his speech by wishing his son watching the match on TV a Merry Christmas, raises his arms into the air in victory as the crowd applauds. Sylvester Stallone as Robert "Rocky" Balboa, Sr. "The Italian Stallion": Beloved Heavyweight Champion of the World Talia Shire as Adrian Balboa: Rocky's wife and support through his boxing career. Burt Young as Paulie Pennino: Rocky's friend and brother-in-law. Carl Weathers as Apollo Creed: Former Heavyweight Champion of the World, cl

Lynnwood, Edmonton

Lynnwood is a residential neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Canada. Its location gives residents good access to downtown, the University of Alberta, MacEwan College, West Edmonton Mall, it became a part of Edmonton when the Town of Jasper Place amalgamated with Edmonton in 1964. The neighbourhood is bounded on the east by 149 Street, on the south by Whitemud Drive, on the west by 159 Street, on the north by 87 Avenue; the community is represented by the Lynnwood Community League, established in 1960, which maintains a community hall and outdoor rink located at 155 Street and 84 Avenue. In the City of Edmonton's 2012 municipal census, Lynnwood had a population of 3,302 living in 1,431 dwellings, a 3.3% change from its 2009 population of 3,197. With a land area of 0.89 km2, it had a population density of 3,710.1 people/km2 in 2012. Over half of the homes in the neighbourhood are single-family houses on tree lined streets. On the north side of the neighbourhood diagonally across from the Meadowlark Park Centre is an apartment building complex called Whitehall Square.

Situated on the site of the old Starlite Drive-in Theatre, Whitehall Square consists of three towers of 17 stories, as well as eight "walk-ups" with three stories. There is a "walk-up" apartment block located at the north east corner of the neighbourhood consisting of a basement and two upper floors. All the units in the apartment buildings are rented, as are one out of ten single-family dwellings; the remaining single-family dwellings are owner-occupied. 20 percent of Lynnwood residents are under the age of 20. All age groups are well represented in the overall population. Good Edmonton Transit System bus service provides university students living in the neighbourhood with access to the University of Alberta; the same routes provide access to Old Strathcona. There is good bus service to both the Centre for the Arts Campus and the Downtown Campus of MacEwan College; the fastest access to the south side from Lynnwood is by way of the Whitemud Drive, with access to the Whitemud by interchanges at 149 Street and at 159 Street.

In addition to the university campus and old Strathcona, the Whitemud provides access to Fort Edmonton Park. Parents with school age children can send their children to either Lynnwood Elementary School in the Edmonton Public School System or the Our Lady of Victories Catholic Elementary School in Edmonton's separate school system. Junior high schools are located in the neighbourhoods of Laurier Heights to the east and parkview to the north east. Nearby high schools are Jasper Place High School and St. Francis Xavier High School, both located in the neighbourhood of West Meadowlark Park to the north west. Residents have excellent access to shopping; the best known shopping destination, located just ten blocks west of the western edge of the neighbourhood along 87 Avenue, is West Edmonton Mall. Additional retail shopping and medical services are available at the Meadowlark Park Centre just to the north of the neighbourhood. By way of the Whitemud, residents have good access to the Southgate Shopping Centre.

If that isn't enough, there is a small strip shopping centre located at the north west corner of the neighbourhood, two other strip shopping centres located just across 87 Avenue in the neighbourhood of Jasper Park. The best known store in this complex is referred to as "Lynnwood Drugs" though it has undergone several official name changes; the neighbourhood has park and recreation facilities, Lynnwood Park and the Lynnwood Athletic Field. Another popular recreational area is a ravine that extends from Lynnwood Elementary School to the 149 Street / Whitemud Drive interchange, it is popular among dog owners who will walk their dogs along the length of it. It is lined on both sides with trees and bushes of various species including evergreens, pin cherries, choke cherries, saskatoon berry trees, mountain ashes, red elderberries, gooseberries and wild roses, it is home to the American Red Squirrel and numerous bird species. Edmonton Federation of Community Leagues City of Edmonton Neighbourhood Fact Sheet


Totiviridae is a family of viruses. Giardia lamblia, trichomonas vaginalis, fungi serve as natural hosts. There are 28 species in this family, divided among 5 genera. Group: dsRNA Viruses in Totiviridae are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses with icosahedral geometries, T=2 symmetry; the virion is about 40 nanometers in diameter. The genome is composed of a linear double-stranded RNA molecule of 4.6–6.7 kilobases. It contains 2 overlapping open reading frames —gag and pol—which encode the capsid protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; some totiviruses contain a third small potential ORF. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by -1 ribosomal frameshifting, +1 ribosomal frameshifting, viral initiation, RNA termination-reinitiation; the virus exits the host cell by cell-to-cell movement. Giardia lamblia protozoa, leishmania protozoa, protozoan trichomonas vaginalis, fungi serve as the natural host.

An example of fungal totivirus is the L-A helper virus, a cytoplasmic virus found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Viralzone: Totiviridae ICTV

Saint Amaro

According to Catholic tradition, Saint Amaro or Amarus the Pilgrim was an abbot and sailor who it was claimed sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to an earthly paradise. There are two historical figures; the first was a French penitent of the same name who went on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in the thirteenth century. On his return journey, he established himself at Burgos. Saint Amaro has been identified with Saint Maurus, disciple of Saint Benedict, who founded the first Benedictine monastery in France. Around the historical character of Saint Amaro converged many pagan traditions present in Asturias and Galicia related with Gaelic immrama and echtrai, like the voyages of Mael Dúin, the Úi Chorra and Mac Riagla or Bran mac Febal. Many features of the Celtic Otherworld are present in the Periplus of Saint Amaro. Like Saint Brendan, Amaro is said to have travelled on a journey that echoes that of the Irish immram – the voyages to the paradisiacal islands of the West. An edition of the Life of Saint Amaro was published at Burgos in 1552.

His legend holds that Amaro was a noble Catholic from Asia, obsessed with the idea of visiting the earthly paradise. With this goal in mind, he would inquire for more information from his guests. Amaro was not successful in receiving information from them and was quite desperate and anguished about this until one night, God appeared to him and revealed how to reach his objective. Amaro would have to follow the path of the sun across the Atlantic Ocean. Amaro took to the sea with some companions and sailed for six days and seven nights until he reached an island; this was an fertile land, blessed with five cities inhabited by uncouth men – though the women were quite beautiful. Amaro spent six months there. Amaro sailed through the "Red Sea" until he reached the land of a beautiful fountain, where the people were beautiful and lived peaceful lives that lasted three hundred years. Amaro remained there for three weeks until an old woman advised that he leave the island before he became accustomed to the good life.

They sailed for a long time into the vast unknown until they saw several vessels that they thought could assist them. They found that these vessels had been invaded by monsters, which had killed the sailors and taken their bodies down to the depths of the ocean. Amaro was rescued by an apparition of a group of women, who advised him to empty his bottles of wine and oil into the sea, fill the bottles with air. Amaro did this and was rescued from this "Mar Cuajado". Three days they arrived at another desert island, inhabited by savage beasts hostile to man. There they found a hermit who informed them that the beasts there annihilated themselves by fighting one another on the day of Saint John; the hermit provided them with supplies and recommended that they sail East, where there was a beautiful land that would satisfy all of their needs. They arrived in the afternoon, finding a monastery named Valdeflores. A monk from this monastery, greeted them and told Amaro that he was waiting for him: he was informed of their arrival by means of a vision.

Leonites provided Amaro with instructions on. With Leonites and his companions arrived at a natural harbor where they remained for a month, after which they traveled to an extensive and rugged valley, where Amaro will find what he was looking for: the Earthly Paradise. First, Amaro stumbled upon a nunnery situated high upon a mountaintop called Flor de Dueñas, he remained there, receiving further instructions on how to reach Paradise from a holy woman named Baralides. He is presented with a white habit; this is given to him by the niece of Baralides who lives in Paradise. Leonites began to cry: he is losing a dear friend, but Baralides appears, comforts Leonites with a gift. She presents him with a branch of one of the two magical trees of the Earthly Paradise. In Paradise, Amaro found an enormous castle built from gems and precious metals, with battlements of gold and towers of rubies, walls made with multicolored bricks; the castle’s gatekeeper informed Amaro that the castle was the Earthly Paradise, thus no living being can enter it.

The saint begged the gatekeeper to allow him to look at Paradise through the keyhole. Amaro was allowed to do this, saw many things, including the tree of life from which Adam ate. Saint Amaro begged to be allowed in. Amaro returned to the coast to find a city named after him built there. Amaro told the city’s inhabitants his story and they built him a house alongside the monastery of Valdeflores, where he lived for a number of years until he died, he was buried alongside Brígida. There are a number of hermitages dedicated to Amaro in Spain. There is a hermitage dedicated to Amaro in Puerto de la Tenerife; the town of San Amaro in Ourense province is named after him. His cult was diffused in Portugal, where he is called

Jie Zhitui

Jie Zhitui known as Jie Zitui, was a Han aristocrat who served the Jin prince Chong'er during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. Chinese legend holds that when Chong'er ascended to power as the duke of Jin, Jie either refused or was passed over for any reward, despite his great loyalty during the prince's times of hardship. Jie retired to the forests of Jin in what is now central Shanxi with his mother; the duke so desired to repay Jie's years of loyalty that, when Jie declined to present himself at court, he ordered a forest fire to compel the recluse out of hiding. Instead and his mother were killed by the fire on Mt Mian. By the Han, Jie was being revered in central Shanxi as a Taoist immortal, he was annually commemorated with a ritual avoidance of fire that, despite many official bans became China's Cold Food and Qingming Festivals. Jie Zhitui or Jiezhi Tui is the name given to him in the oldest surviving records, with Jie Zitui or Jiezi Tui coming later. Sima Qian treats his name as though it were Jie Tui, with "Jiezi" serving as an honorific equivalent to "Master" or "Viscount Jie".

A single 2nd-century source has "Jiezi Sui". Others state that the entire name Jiezi Tui was a posthumous title and that his real name had been Wang Guang. Jie was a Jin aristocrat and composer for the Chinese zither during the Spring and Autumn Period of China's Zhou dynasty, he served at the court of the Jin prince Chong'er in Pu during the reign of Chong'er's father Duke Guizhu. A passage of the Huainanzi relates that, when Master Jie sang "The Dragon and the Snake", Prince Chong'er "broke down in tears". Giles considered Jie to be the same person as the "Jiezi Tui", mentioned as having been a minister in Chu at the age of 15. In 655 BC, Jie followed Chong'er into exile among the Di tribes north of the Chinese when the Rong beauty Li Ji plotted against the sons of the other wives of the Duke of Jin, her son Xiqi and his successor Zhuozi were killed by the minister Li Ke, who offered the throne to Chong'er in 651 BC. The prince declined. Hearing about them, he and his court fled from the Di, arriving at the state of Qi in Shandong in 644 BC.

Soon after, Qi fell into a civil war over its own succession. Prince Chong'er and his growing entourage travelled to the courts of Cao, Zheng and Qin. In 636 BC, Duke Renhao lent Qin's army for an invasion against Duke Yiwu's son Yu, defeating him at Gaoliang. Jie was passed over for reward; the 4th-century-BC commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals credited to Zuo Qiuming contains the earliest surviving record of Jie's story, in a section now placed beside Confucius's entry on Duke Yiwu's death in 637 BC. In it, a Thucydidean dialogue between Jie and his mother explains how he finds the duke's other retainers to be thieves for taking credit and receiving rewards when Heaven itself was responsible for Chong'er's restoration, his lord showed himself to be unworthy by failing to reward him despite his failure to appear at court. His mother asks him to at least go before the duke, but he explains he has criticized the other nobles so harshly that he could not return and is resolved to withdraw into the wilderness.

She leaves with him. When the duke realized his mistake, he sought out Jie but failed, he set aside the produce of the fields of Mianshang to endow sacrifices in Jie's honor, "a memento... of my neglect and a mark of distinction for the good man". The annals compiled c. 239 BC under Qin's chancellor Lü Buwei opine that Duke Chong'er never became a king because he proved less capable in success than he had been in adversity. Its account of Jie's fate—which omits mention of his mother—begins with the moral that "it is easy to hold onto others if you offer them honor and wealthut it is difficult... if you offer them poverty and debasement". Lü's scholars do not suggest that the duke overlooked Jie, but that he was "far from the vulgar crowd" and embarrassed by the behavior the duke's other close retainers, he posts a poem upon the palace gates. Chong'er hears of it, recognizes its author, goes into mourning for his old friend, changing his clothes and sleeping away from the palace, he offers a million "fields" of land and a position as senior minister to anyone—noble or common—who is able to find Jie for him.

The only person who does discover Jie, finds him carrying a pot and a large umbrella in the remote mountains. Asked if he knows where Jie Zhitui might live, the hermit replies that Jie "does not wish to be discovered" and "wants to remain hidden". Complaining "How is it that I alone know this?" he wandered away beneath his umbrella, never to be seen again. The account in Sima Qian's 1st-century BC Records repeats the Zuozhuan account with greater detail. Sima specifies that Jie hid himself out of disgust at what he took as Hu Yan's insincere and overdramatic retirement on the journey from Qin to Jin, which Chong'er declined with similar overstatement. Sima interrupts Jie's story, though, to make excuses for the duke's tardiness in remembering and rewarding Jie; the beginning of Chong'er's reign was distracte

U.S. Commission on Evidence-Based Policymaking

The U. S. Commission on Evidence-Based Policymaking was a 15-member agency in the federal government charged by the US Congress and the President with examining how government could better use its existing data to provide evidence for future government decisions; the Commission was created in March 2016 by the Evidence-Based Policymaking Commission Act, legislation jointly filed by Speaker of the House Paul Ryan and Senator Patty Murray. Over the subsequent 18 months after the law's enactment, the Commission engaged in fact-finding and deliberations that involved consideration of evidence from a survey of more than 200 federal agencies, testimony from more than 50 individuals, additional written comments from 350 individuals; the commission received feedback from President Barack Obama's administration. On September 7, 2017, the Commission issued its final report, "The Promise of Evidence-Based Policymaking" which outlined a vision for "a future in which rigorous evidence is created efficiently, as a routine part of government operations, used to construct effective public policy."

The final report includes findings and 22 recommendations for the President and Congress that were unanimously agreed to by the members of the Commission. The Commission outlined three overarching themes about improving access to data, strengthening privacy protections, ensuring the capacity to generate and use evidence is present in government. In line with each of the three themes, the commission's recommendations include strategies for modifying federal laws affecting data use, establishing a National Secure Data Service to engage in data linkage activities, instituting processes to improve data access and transparency, designating leadership positions to support evidence generation and use in government. On September 28, 2017, the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform in the U. S. House of Representatives heard testimony from four commissioners: Chair Katharine G. Abraham, Co-Chair Ron Haskins, Commissioner Robert Shea, Commissioner Latanya Sweeney. In October 2017, Speaker Ryan and Senator Murray jointly filed the Foundations for Evidence-Based Policymaking Act, intended to implement half of the Commission's recommendations.

The House bill was marked up by the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform on November 2, 2017, voted out of the House under suspension on November 15, 2017. While waiting for Senate action on the legislation, in 2018, the administration of President Donald Trump indicated its support for the commission's vision and indicated steps that were being taken to implement some of the Commission recommendations. In September 2018, the Bipartisan Policy Center hosted a one-year anniversary event called "Evidence: A Time to Act" that featured keynote remarks from Margaret Weichert, the deputy director for management at the U. S. Office of Management and Budget. In conjunction with the event, the co-chairs of the commission called on Congress to advance legislation implementing their recommendations. In December 2018, the Senate passed a modified version of the legislation and the House of Representatives subsequently concurred in the amendments. On January 14, 2019, President Donald Trump signed the Foundations for Evidence-Based Policymaking Act into law as Public Law 115-435.

The new law was described as the most comprehensive data reforms in a generation and an "enormous step" for evidence-based policymaking. The Evidence Act takes steps to promote data accessibility and enable responsible data use, including by creating chief data officers, evaluation officers, statistics officials at agencies across the federal government. On June 4, 2019, the White House Office of Management and Budget issued the Federal Data Strategy, outlining a set of principles and practices federal agencies are expected to adhere to over the next decade; the Federal Data Strategy is considered one of the implementation vehicles for the Evidence Act and the Evidence Commission's recommendations. An earlier draft version of the strategy received extensive public comments from federal agencies and non-governmental organizations like the Data Coalition and the Bipartisan Policy Center. In June 2019, the Trump Administration released a draft action plan, describing a set of 16 actions agencies are expected to undertake in 2019-2020.

The plan was referred to by one expert as "a promising start to recognizing government data as a strategic asset." A public forum was held on July 8, 2019, co-hosted by the White House's Office of Management and Budget and the Data Coalition, to solicit additional feedback on the draft action plan from more than 50 commenters. A final action plan is expected in fall 2019. On September 7, 2019, the Data Coalition issued a two-year update summarizing the achievements made in law and policy for addressing the Commission's recommendations, indicating "substantial progress" had been made on the recommendations. Former House Speaker Paul Ryan is anticipated to describe next steps in addressing the Commission's recommendations during keynote remarks at the Data Coalition's GovDATAx Summit on October 30, 2019. Full Text of the Evidence Commission Final Report via Full Archive of Commission Documents via the Bipartisan Policy Center Summary of Key Provisions of the Evidence Act via the Data Coalition